School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

 
School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015
School of Health
               Referencing Guide 2014 - 2015
                                           Based on
                                                    th
            The American Psychological Association 6 Edition (APA) referencing style

All course materials, including lecture notes and other additional materials related to
your course and provided to you, whether electronically or in hard copy, as part of your
study, are the property of (or licensed to) UCLan and MUST not be distributed, sold,
published, made available to others or copied other than for your personal study use
unless you have gained written permission to do so from the Head of School. This
applies to the materials in their entirety and to any part of the materials.

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                                                                                            James Hill(Ed.).
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School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015
How to navigate the contents pages

The contents information is set out into three pages to make it easier for you to navigate
through. The first page is based on the technology which can facilitate you with
referencing and general guidance on the theories of referencing. The in-text and
reference list contents page has been separated into two simple questions. The first
question you should ask when referencing within text is:

How many authors are you trying to reference?

When you have identified this, click on the relevant number/type source and it will
navigate you to that section; there is also a link in that section which will take you back
to the contents page.

The final section is based on your reference list. You just need to answer the question:

What type source are you referencing?

When you have identified this, then click on the relevant link. At the end of each section
you will also find a link which will take you back to the contents page to ask the next set
of questions for your sources you are referencing.

Contents

How to navigate the contents pages ......................................................................................... 2

Contents......................................................................................................................................... 2

Introduction.................................................................................................................................... 5

Why document your sources of information............................................................................. 5

   Plagiarism .................................................................................................................................. 6

   Interactive training videos ..................................................................................................... 10

   RefWorks ................................................................................................................................. 11

   Microsoft Office Word ............................................................................................................ 12

   Ebscohost auto citation ......................................................................................................... 14

   EASYBIB ................................................................................................................................... 15

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                                                                                                                                         James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                                                                    jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015
In-text referencing ...................................................................................................................... 16

   Single author ........................................................................................................................... 17

   Two authors............................................................................................................................. 18

   Three, four or five authors..................................................................................................... 19

   Six or more authors................................................................................................................ 20

   Group authors with no readily identifiable abbreviation e.g. University of Pittsburgh . 21

   Group authors with a readily identifiable abbreviation/acronym e.g. Department of
   Health (DH) National Health Service (NHS) National Institute for Health and Clinical
   Excellence (NICE). ................................................................................................................. 22

   Basic citation styles table ...................................................................................................... 23

   Short quotations (less than 40 words) ................................................................................ 24

   Long quotations (More than 40 words) ............................................................................... 25

   Websites .................................................................................................................................. 26

   Direct quotation from a website with no page numbers ................................................... 27

   No clear author ....................................................................................................................... 28

   No clear date ........................................................................................................................... 29

   Secondary sources ................................................................................................................ 30

   Edited books ........................................................................................................................... 31

   Multiple publications by the same author in the same year............................................. 32

   Multiple publications by the same author ........................................................................... 33

   Single statement with multiple authors ............................................................................... 34

   Acts of Parliament .................................................................................................................. 35

   Law report (case law) ............................................................................................................ 36

   Direct quotes from Acts of Parliament ................................................................................ 37

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                                                                                                                                       James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                                                                  jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015
Reference List ............................................................................................................................. 39

   Ordering of your reference list.............................................................................................. 39

   Books........................................................................................................................................ 40

   Edited book/chapters ............................................................................................................. 42

   E-books .................................................................................................................................... 44

   Edited E-book/chapter ........................................................................................................... 46

   Secondary referencing .......................................................................................................... 48

   Journal articles........................................................................................................................ 49

   Electronic Journals ................................................................................................................. 51

   Websites .................................................................................................................................. 53

   No clear author ....................................................................................................................... 54

   Acts of Parliament .................................................................................................................. 55

   Law report (case law) ............................................................................................................ 57

   Report/Policies/Green/White/Bill Paper found on the Internet ........................................ 61

   Image........................................................................................................................................ 63

   Tables....................................................................................................................................... 64

   Figure ....................................................................................................................................... 66

   Appendix .................................................................................................................................. 68

   Checklist .................................................................................................................................. 70

Printable checking tool .............................................................................................................. 72

Checklist for Data Fields for Reference List........................................................................... 74

You said, We did ... .................................................................................................................... 75

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                                                                                                                                          James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                                                                     jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015
Introduction

This referencing guide to APA referencing explains and provides working examples of
how to use and list material for your assessments. As an initial resource it will be
reviewed annually and revised to incorporate student feedback and further examples
that may beef use. For further guidance on this referencing standard please refer to the
6th Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The
document is split into two parts –in-text referencing and reference list. You can
navigate these two sections using the contents page on the previous page. This is
hyperlinked; this means that you just need to click on the required section and it will
take you automatically to that section. At the end of that section you can click on ‘return
to the contents page’ which will then navigate you back.

Why document your sources of information

Full documentation enables the reader to follow up the sources and makes it clear how
you are drawing your conclusions from the evidence presented. It is also an
acknowledgement of the other writer's work or the work of a group of people, such as a
committee or conference report. Documentation should be used not only to provide the
source of a direct quotation but also to give the source for any information, ideas or
interpretation that you have used. To state other people‘s ideas as your own in the
absence of proper citation is considered to be plagiarism, theft of intellectual property.
The University imposes penalties for plagiarism which occurs not only when you directly
copy but when you reword text without giving a reference. See student handbook for
further details regards to possible penalties for plagiarism.

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                                                                                       James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                  jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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Plagiarism

What is plagiarism?

Simply put, plagiarism is using somebody’s work without correct
acknowledgement/referencing of the original work. This means that all quotes,
ideas, opinions, music and images should be acknowledged and referenced within your
assignments. There are multiple types of plagiarism and here are the most common
types - each plagiarism type will be supplemented with an example of how this would
look within Turnitin (a tool which will help you identify issues of plagiarism).

Straight plagiarism: This is where the source is copied with minimal or no changes
and without any reference to identify the original source.

 As you can see within the red box is an exact match to a non-identified source with no
    attempt to acknowledge the original source or where the information came from.

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                                                                                    James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                               jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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Self-plagiarism: This is where you use a previously submitted piece of work for a new
assessment without changing the information. In the majority of cases your assignments
are stored, allowing identification of self-plagiarism from previously submitted work.

 As you can see, the highlighted text has been identified to have a similarity match - in
             this case this has been matched to a previous assessment.

Plagiarism using a citation: Within this type of plagiarism, the original source is
acknowledged but only minor changes have been made to the original work.

 As you can see by the example above, the text in green has been acknowledged, but
           only minimal changes have been made from the original source.

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                                                                                      James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                 jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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Mosaic Plagiarism: This is gathering a range of sources and placing them together
with no clear identification of the individual sources used, creating a mosaic of other
people’s work.

As you can see by the example above, there are multiple matches with no identification
                          of any of the original sources.

How to avoid plagiarism

Here some tips which will help you avoid plagiarism:

      Read the source you want to use fully, making sure you fully understand the
       source you are using. Without fully understanding the information you will
       struggle to adequately capture the source’s key points.
      Read the source fully and then hide it! - Then put this into your own words. If the
       source is visible, there will be a tendency to adopt the same words used within
       the source.
      After using a reference within the main body of text immediately add the
       reference to your reference list, as it can become very confusing which reference
       came from which source if this task is carried out at a later date.
      Use Turnitin throughout the development of your work to check for
       plagiarism issues. Do not leave it to the last minute to check this, as you
       can be doing this as an on-going process as you write.
           o To see how to upload your files to Turnitin Click here
           o How to interpret a TurnItIn report Click here

Click here to go back to the contents page

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                                                                                       James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                  jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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Available referencing software

There is a range of software which can make referencing easier to manage and
produce. It is strongly recommended, even though some of the systems can
automatically generate you a reference for the source you are using, you should
always double check the accuracy of the reference, as in some cases information can
be stored incorrectly within the database from where the data was retrieved and can
result in your references being incorrect. We recommend that you select the software
solution/solutions which you feel more comfortable with. The software solutions are:

RefWorks

Microsoft office Word

Ebscohost auto citation

EasyBib

Click here to go back to the contents page

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                                                                                 James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                            jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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Interactive training videos

For each of these software solutions there are a set of interactive training videos which
will walk you through the process of using the software. These videos will play in
stages and stop to allow you to undertake the process at the same time. The video will
stop and a blue arrow will appear at the bottom right of the screen, to continue the video
playing click on the blue arrow.

Example of video

                          Click on the blue
                          arrow to continue
                          playing the video

Click here to go back to the contents page

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                                                                                      James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                 jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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RefWorks

Is an online research management, writing and collaboration tool -- is designed to help
researchers easily gather, manage, store and share all types of information, as well as
generate citations and bibliographies.

      Organize and create a personal database online – no more index cards to write
       out and organise. Everything is done automatically as you import the reference
       into RefWorks.
      Format bibliographies and manuscripts in seconds – this saves hours of typing
       time and decreases the number of errors in creating tedious bibliographies.
       Easily make changes to your paper and reformat in seconds.
      Import references from a variety of databases using the already created Import
       Filters.
      Manage Alerts – RefWorks has incorporated a RSS feed reader to allow you to
       establish links to your favourite RSS feeds and import data from those feeds
       directly into RefWorks.
      Searching your RefWorks database is fast and easy – RefWorks automatically
       creates author, descriptor and periodical indexes when importing so you just click
       on the word to perform the retrieval. Use Quick Search to search all fields for the
       most comprehensive results or Advanced Search to narrow your search to
       specific terms and fields.

Click here to go RefWorks

Click here to watch a video on how to use RefWorks

Click here to go back to the contents page

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                                                                                      James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                 jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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Microsoft Office Word

In Microsoft Office Word you can automatically generate a bibliography based on the
source information that you provide for the document. It is a simple process of entering
the relevant data fields and publishing the reference list on completion. You will see
below, a link to a video indicating how to manage your references within text and also
some basic functions of the management system. At the end of each referencing type
within the reference list section, you will see a video demonstrating how to add this
particular source to the Word’s reference management tool. Furthermore, these videos
are interactive, meaning that at the end of each required data fields, the video will
pause, allowing you to carry out that particular process. After completing the process
you just need to press the arrow at the bottom right of the video to continue.

Click here to see video on how to install APA 6 th edition style to the University PC

In text referencing

Click here to see the interactive training video on how to use in-text citations using Word
auto citation tool and basic fundamental management function (watch this video first
before using this tool)

Reference list

       Books

       Edited book/chapters

       E-books

       Edited E-book/chapter

       Secondary referencing

       Journal articles

       Electronic Journals

       Websites

       No clear author

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                                                                                       James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                  jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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Acts of Parliament

Report/Policies/Green/White/Bill Paper

Report/Policies/Green/White/Bill Paper found on the Internet

Image

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                                                                    James Hill(Ed.).
                                                               jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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Ebscohost auto citation

All Ebscohost databases (Discovery, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTD) have integrated
auto referencing capabilities. The system is very simple to use and easy to manage all
your references.

Click here to go to Ebscohost databases

Click here to watch a video on how to use the auto referencing tool within Ebscohost
databases

Quick citation with Ebscohost databases

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                                                                                    James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                               jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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EASYBIB

This is a free application for any mobile device running android or OS
(iPhone/iPad/iPod touch). You simply scan the bar code or the title of the book. It will
then automatically generate an APA reference for that book and add it to a reference
list. It is then a simple case of emailing this list to your University email address.

Click here to see video on how to use EasyBib.

Click here for OS (iPhone/iPad/iPod touch) version.

Click here for android version.

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                                                                                       James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                  jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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In-text referencing

All statements, opinions and conclusions taken from another writer's work should be
acknowledged. You may be summarising, paraphrasing or directly quoting from a work,
but in each case, the work must be cited in the text. The American Psychological
Association (APA) referencing style uses an author-date citation system. This means
any time you state any factual or theoretical information, you need to give the author
from where you gained this information and the date of publication when it is available.
This will then allow the reader of your work to find the reference within your reference
list, at the end of your work and find where you sourced this information from. In the
following section you will find examples of the most common types of in-text referencing
categorised by author types. For each example the specific order and layout will be
demonstrated for both references with the author appearing as part of the sentence (In
sentences) and parenthetical referencing (End of sentences).

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                                                                                    James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                               jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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Single author

Cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author's surname and the year
of publication. Just give the surname, not the initials.

 Single Author

 In sentences

 Evans (2008) found that the law recognises a distinction between civil and criminal
 proceedings and the courts in which the proceedings take place.

 End of sentences

 In-depth interviewing requires highly skilled interviewers (Bowling, 2002).

Click here to go back to the contents page

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                                                                                      James Hill(Ed.).
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Two authors

When there are two authors, cite both authors’ surnames every time the reference
occurs in the text. Remember, when referencing multiple authors, if the reference is in
the sentence then use ‘and’ and if the reference is at the end of the sentence use ‘&’.

 Two authors

 In sentences
Three or more authors
 In a recent review by Tomczyk and Latté (2009) it was identified that there was
 considerable shortage of affordable and appropriate day care for disabled children.

 End of sentences

 Those whose opportunities are already more restricted because of poverty, stressful
 life events or ethnic minority status are likely to experience greater barriers to
 accessing information (Russell & Kagan, 2009).

Click here to go back to the contents page

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                                                                                     James Hill(Ed.).
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Three, four or five authors

When there are three, four or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference
appears and then the year. In subsequent citations include only the first author’s
surname and then et al. and then the year. Remember when referencing multiple
authors if the reference is in the sentence then use ’and’ and if the reference is at the
end of the sentence use '&’.

Three, four or five authors

In sentences

Used in the first citation in text:

Smith, Woods, Tang, and Kessler (2012) argues that if healthcare provision is going
to meet increasing demand, there is a need to examine creative mechanisms to
enable individuals to make the most efficient use of the available services.

Used as subsequent citations:

Smith et al. (2012) goes on to indicate that practice nursing is fundamental to the
success of this policy.

End of sentences

Used in the first citation in text:

The changing context of health care finds district nurses and other community nurses
in a leading position within primary care (Smith, Woods, Tang, & Kessler, 2012).

Used as subsequent citations:

Primary Care Groups and Trusts, Local Health Groups and Scottish Primary Care
Trusts have opened the way for the direct involvement of nurses on the executive and
board of these organisations (Smith et al., 2012).

Click here to go back to the contents page

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                                                                                        James Hill(Ed.).
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Six or more authors

When citing six or more authors, site only the surname of the first author followed by et
al. and the year for the first citing and subsequent citations.

Six or more authors

In sentences

Used in the first citation in text:

However Jones et al. (2011) argues that for many practitioners the political agenda is
far removed from the day-to-day issues surrounding care delivery.

Used as subsequent citations:

Jones et al. (2011) suggest that a clinical ethical dilemma appears in the desire of
nurses and physicians to shield patients from bad news.

End of sentences

Used in the first citation in text:

Although the rhetoric found in recent government policies supports the health visitor's
role in making a contribution to the nation's health, the conflict in paradigms between
individual practice and community and population work needs to be addressed
(Clarke et al., 2010).

Used as subsequent citations:

All models would encompass a social and medical model of health, working towards
promoting health in a number of different ways, all of which work towards meeting the
public health agenda in the United Kingdom (Clarke et al., 2010).

Click here to go back to the contents page

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                                                                                      James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                 jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                 V2.1
Group authors with no readily identifiable abbreviation e.g. University of
Pittsburgh

The name of the group serves as the author's name (e.g. Corporations, associations,
government agencies and study groups) and it is spelt out each time they appear in the
text in full followed by the publication date.

  Group authors with no readily identifiable abbreviations e.g. University of
  Edinburgh

  In sentences

  Used in the first citation in text:

  Edinburgh Ethnicity and Health Research Group (2009) highlight that many, especially
  fixed term contract researchers are undoubtedly watching the current economic
  crisis with some trepidation.

  Used as subsequent citations:

  Edinburgh Ethnicity and Health Research Group (2009) suggests as research
  departments look for ways to bring in more funding, perhaps cross collaborations with
  both statutory and voluntary service providers, are appropriate steps in this direction.

  End of sentences

  Used in the first citation in text:

  The issues of devolution, reform of the House of Lords and reform of the voting
  system for European, national and local elections were put forward as part of the
  current Labour Government’s election manifesto (The European Observatory on
  Health Care Systems, 1999).

  Used as subsequent citations:

  Public health medicine has a long history in the United Kingdom. Its origins can be
  traced back to the middle of the nineteenth century when the main Acts of Parliament
  concerning public health issues were passed (The European Observatory on Health
  Care Systems, 1999).

Click here to go back to the contents page
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                                                                                      James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                 jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
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Group authors with a readily identifiable abbreviation/acronym e.g. Department of
Health (DH) National Health Service (NHS) National Institute for Health and
Clinical Excellence (NICE).

The first time of using the source the full author/group name should be given and the
readily identified abbreviation, then the date of publication. In subsequent citations only
the abbreviation is used within the first citation and the date of publication is required.

Group authors with a readily identifiable abbreviation e.g. Department of Health
(DH), National Health Service (NHS), National Institute for Health and Clinical
Excellence (NICE).

In sentences

Used in the first citation in text:

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2009) suggest older
people who present for medical attention because of a fall, or report recurrent falls in
the past year, or demonstrate abnormalities of gait and/or balance should be offered a
multifactorial falls risk assessment.

Used as subsequent citations:

NICE (2009) go on to indicate that this assessment should be performed by a
healthcare professional with appropriate skills and experience, normally in the setting
of a specialist falls service.

End of sentences

Used in the first citation in text:

It is not intended, however, that all Band 9 Agenda for Change posts should come
within the very senior managers pay arrangements (Department of Health [DH],
2012).

Used as subsequent citations:

The percentages assigned to these roles range from 55% to 75% depending on role
and organisation (DH, 2012).

Click here to go back to the contents page

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                                                                                        James Hill(Ed.).
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Basic citation styles table

This table shows how basic citation styles are used in the first instance and subsequent
instances.

Type of           First citation in   Subsequent         First citation at   Subsequent
citation          sentences           citations in       the end of a        citations at
                                      sentences          sentence            end of
                                                                             sentences
Single Author     Author1 (Date)      Author1 (Date)     (Author1, Date)     (Author1,
                                                                             Date)
Two authors    Author1 and            Author1and         (Author1 &          (Author1 &
               Author2 (Date)         Author2 (Date)     Author2, Date)      Author2, Date)
Three authors Author1,                Author1et al.      (Author1,           (Author1 et al.,
               Author2, and           (Date)             Author2, &          Date)
               Author3, (Date)                           Author3, Date)
Four authors   Author1,               Author1 et al.     (Author1,           (Author1 et al.,
               Author2,               (Date)             Author2,            Date)
               Author3, and                              Author3, &
               Author4, (Date)                           Author4, Date)
Five authors   Author1,               Author1 et al.     (Author1,           (Author1 et al.,
               Author2,               (Date)             Author2,            Date)
               Author3,                                  Author3,
               Author4, and                              Author4, &
               Author5 , (Date)                          Author5, Date)
Six or more    Author1 et al.         Author1 et al.     (Author1et al.,     (Author1 et al.,
authors        (Date)                 (Date)             Date)               Date)
Group authors Groups Name             Groups Name        (Groups Name,       (Groups
(No            (Date)                 (Date)             Date)               Name, Date)
abbreviation)
Group authors Groups Name             Abbreviation       (Groups Name        (Abbreviation,
(Readily       (Abbreviation,         (Date)             [Abbreviation],     Date)
identified the Date)                                     Date)
abbreviation)

Key:
1
  First author surname
2
  Second author surname
3
  Third author surname
4
  Fourth author surname
5
  Fifth author surname

Click here to go back to the contents page

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                                                                                     James Hill(Ed.).
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Short quotations (less than 40 words)

Quotations, if short, that is less than 40 words, can be set in quotation marks and
included in the body of the text. If you wish to omit part of the quotation because it is not
relevant in the context of your essay, this can be indicated using three dots... You will
need to indicate the standard information for the reference and additionally page
number of the quotation.

 Short quotations (less than 40 words)

 In sentences

 Standard short quote:

 Roberts (2006) argues that “outline plans for delivery of this strategy should meet all
 gateway procedures including risk analysis and return on investment” (p.72).

 Separated short quote:

 Thompson (2012) highlights that “These efforts were supported by the Centers for
 Medicare and Medicaid, the IOM, and the Congressional Research Service... without
 any additional support or funding” (p.72).

 End of sentences

 Standard short quote:

 It has been argued that “Older people need to be cared for holistically and to achieve
 this psychological social and physical needs must be addressed’’ (Hindle, 2012, p.
 112).
 Separated short quote:

 “Understanding the relationship between the elements makes the body of knowledge
 nurses use for nursing care more transparent... and the differences between nursing
 specialties more explicit’’ (Jones, 2010, p.12).

Click here to go back to the contents page

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Long quotations (More than 40 words)

Unless you want to discuss the implications of the wording of a statement, it is better to
avoid long quotes. Long quotations should be entered as a separate paragraph and
indented from left-hand margin to make the quotation distinct from the main text {Tab
key}. You will need to indicate the standard information for the reference and
additionally the page number of the quotation.

 Long quotations (More than 40 words)

 In sentences

 Frankland (2012) indicates that:
        licensing of the health occupations was advocated in the early nineteenth
 century, but it was not until the early 1900s that a significant number of licensing laws
 were enacted. They were generally initiated by the associations of practitioners that
 were interested in raising standards and establishing codes for ethical behaviour
 (p.313).

 End of sentences

 As highlighted above this is an on-going process but there has been some dispute in
 regards to the effectiveness of these statutory frameworks.
        No statutory framework for risk taking exists as such. For vulnerable
 adults, there is a body of community care law in the United Kingdom,
 which does not yet amount to a coherent legislative package. There are
 instead a number of relevant provisions in different Acts passed at different
 times for different purposes. (Marshall, 2012, p.111)

Click here to go back to the contents page

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Websites

The in-text citation includes the author and date (Author, date) as with any other APA
style citation. This information can be found usually at the bottom of the website; if this
information is not there please see 'No clear author' referencing method.

 Website

 In sentences

 Roosevelt (2006) states that licensure is a credential awarded to an individual through
 the police power of the state.

 End of sentences

 In the 1970s, health manpower credentialing was the object of considerable attention,
 especially by the government (Hindle & Kagan, 2012).

Click here to go back to the contents page

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Direct quotation from a website with no page numbers

Wherever possible if the website has page numbers as part of it you should use the
page number. As previously indicated within Short and Long Quotations, if this is not
available you should count the number of paragraphs to the point where you begin to
quote the information Click here to see original source used in these examples below.

 Direct quotation from a website

 In sentences

 Department of Health 2014 states that ‘last week the respected Commonwealth Fund
 ranked the UK as the best healthcare system in the world’ (Para. 1).

 End of sentences

 “Most importantly it will make a positive difference to the people we care for - and
 potentially save 6,000 lives over the next three years” (Department of Health, 2014,
 Para. 6).

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                                                                                    James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                               jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                               V2.1
No clear author

When there is no author, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry. Cite
in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use
double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a webpage and
italicise the title of a book, a brochure, or a report.

  No clear author

  In sentences

  Article, chapter, or a webpage:

  "What do we believe" (2010) argued that the way we reason depends upon the
  particular context we are in and on what we already know.

  Book, brochure, or a report:

  Your care (2012) highlights that it is important to be prompt for the visit, but be ready
  to accept the fact that the legislator may be late or not able to keep the appointment.

  End of sentences

  Article, chapter, or a webpage:

  Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title ("New Child Vaccine",
  2009).

  Book, brochure, or a report:

  Legislators are particularly sensitive to communications from constituents (You're
  right, 2011).

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                                                                                          James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                     jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                     V2.1
No clear date

When there is no clear date of publication the date is replaced with n.d. for all types of
resources and citation types.

No clear date

In sentences

Bradsher (n.d.) suggests Vitamin B12 deficiency is usually observed in developing
countries and poor dietary intake is the most frequent cause.

End of sentences

Most children with vitamin B12 deficiency present with non-specific manifestations, such
as pallor, failure to thrive, developmental delay, weakness, and irritability (Shaw, n.d.).

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                                                                                        James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                   jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                   V2.1
Secondary sources

A secondary source is where you cite an author who has been cited in a publication
which you have read. You may have to do this when you have been unable to obtain
the original publication. Please note that this should only be done occasionally.

Within the reference list you should cite only the secondary source (within the next
example Smith, 2012 would be the secondary source). For example if you want to refer
in the text to a 2010 study by Brown and Boutin, which you read about in a 2012 book
by Smith. Use one of the following citation formats.

Secondary sources

In sentence

Brown and Boutin (as cited in Smith, 2012) found strangers would not receive the
same level of caring as those for whom we experience a personal responsibility.

End of sentence

However, a care orientation is fundamental to the nurse-patient relationship and the
nursing profession itself (Brown & Boutin, as cited in Smith, 2012).

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                                                                                    James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                               jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                               V2.1
Edited books

Some books are a collection of chapters by different authors under the editorship of one
or more people. When citing these in your text you should remember to cite the author
of the appropriate chapter rather than the editors of the book.

 Edited book

 In sentences [Tuckett is the author of the chapter]

 Tuckett (2010) suggested the caring responses of nurses in practice should be in a
 manner that is fitting.

 End of sentences [Pask is the author of the chapter]

 Nurses see the value of their work when they make a positive impact for patients,
 leaving them feeling better (Pask, 2011).

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                                                                                    James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                               jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                               V2.1
Multiple publications by the same author in the same year

When an author or group of authors have had more than one publication in one year,
they are distinguished by the addition of a, b, c, etc. after the year, and the same letters
are used in the Reference List. They are numbered according to their sequence in the
essay.

Multiple publications by the same author in the same year

In sentence

First citation from the same author in the same year:

Kelly (2008a) indicates that if drug abuse is suspected, the collection and delivery of
the urine sample should be witnessed by a legally responsible person and labelled
with a code instead of a name and other personal information.

Second citation from the same author in the same year:

Kelly (2008b) suggests that the client should be informed of the procedure to collect
and test the specimen, the reporting protocol, and possible implications of the results.

End of sentence

First citation from the same author in the same year:

The rate of uptake of radioactive thymidine indicates the extent of lymphocyte
proliferation (Gilmour, 2008a).

Second citation from the same author in the same year:

Aspirin ingestion also prevents platelet aggregation and may prolong bleeding time for
as long as 5 days after a single 300-mg dose (Gilmour, 2008b).

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                                                                                                   32
                                                                                        James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                   jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                   V2.1
Multiple publications by the same author

When citing multiple pieces of work from the same author in a single statement you
place the surname of the author of the work and then the subsequent publication dates
ordered by year, with the oldest being placed first.

Multiple publications by the same author

In sentence

Studies by Sanderson and Green (1999, 2002, 2005) have shown interdisciplinary
conflicts in primary care teams.

End of sentence

This attitude may arise because there is little empirical research evidence to support
the benefits of exercise and mental health (Pickles & Kennedy, 2008, 2011, 2012).

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                                                                                                33
                                                                                     James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                V2.1
Single statement with multiple authors

When citing multiple authors for a single statement in a sentence give standard
information separated by ’and’ and if there is more than two references insert a comma
to separate each reference. Within End of sentence referencing separate each
reference with a semicolon. This information should be given alphabetically using
the first author’s surname.

Single statement with multiple authors

In sentence

Stevenson (2009) and Thompson (2005) suggest such names are needed to
communicate and collaborate within the disciplines and with others, that is, patients,
families, and system-wide stakeholders.

End of sentence

Programs described in the literature range in length from twelve to eighteen months
and have been predominantly offered at bachelor degree level (Jones, 2012; Kelly &
Smith, 2010; Stanfield, 2007).

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                                                                                       James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                  jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                  V2.1
Acts of Parliament

When citing an Act of Parliament you need to give the name of the act followed by the
date. Main words should start with capital letters and if you are referring to a specific
part of the act, include the chapter or section number in the citation.

Acts of Parliament

In sentence

The Health Act (2006) highlights the importance of visibility of no smoking signs.

End of sentence

Appointment regulations may make provision about the formalities of appointing a
person as a representative (Mental Health Act, 2007).

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                                                                                       James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                  jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                  V2.1
Law report (case law)

When citing case law you place the Names of Parties in italics followed by the date.
This is the date of judgement.

   Law report (case law)

   In sentence

   Fox v Chief Constable of Gwent (1985) highlights the importance of always making
   sure you follow the correct process.

   End sentence

   Healthcare professionals should be free to exercise their professional functions (D v. Bury
   Metropolitan Borough Council, 2006).

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                                                                                                   36
                                                                                        James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                   jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                   V2.1
Direct quotes from Acts of Parliament

When citing an Act of Parliament you need to give the name of the act followed by the
date and include the number of the section followed by a full stop. Then number of the
subsection in brackets followed by a full stop. Then letter paragraphs within brackets
followed by a full stop. Then the roman initial subparagraphs within brackets followed by
a full stop at the end of the quote. The quotes should be set in quotation marks and
included in the body of the text.

Direct quotes from Acts of Parliament

In sentence

The Health Act (2006) indicates that "any report required by that section may relate to
more than one such failure" 16. (5). (b). (ii).

End of sentence

The appropriate national authority shall make such arrangements as it considers
reasonable to enable persons to be available to help qualifying patients (Mental Health
Act, 2007 12. (2). (a).).

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                                                                                                 37
                                                                                      James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                 jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                 V2.1
Image

When citing an image you should place the authors surname and the publication date of
the resource from where the image was retrieved underneath the image itself and align
to the right [Ctrl + R].

   Image

   As can be seen by the diagram within study that there is a significant increase in
   cardiovascular output.

                                                              (McCarthy & Gibbons, 2011)

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                                                                                                38
                                                                                     James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                V2.1
Reference List

In the APA style, you should include a reference list rather than a bibliography within
your work. What’s the difference? A reference list consists of all sources cited in the text
of a paper, listed alphabetically by author’s surname. A bibliography, however, may
include resources that were consulted, but not cited in the text, as well as an annotated
description of each one. If you have been given an assignment that asks for a
bibliography, consult your lecture or assignment brief for more specifics about the
required format.

Ordering of your reference list

ALL citations (including electronic and other sources) must be listed alphabetically by
surname of the first author at the end of your work. Do not separate journals, books
and/or web sites. When your piece of work includes publications by the same author or
group of authors, they should be listed in chronological/date order with the oldest first.
The reference list should be written using single line spacing with a blank line
separating each new listing to aid clarity. The second line of each reference should be
indented by selecting the reference/references and pressing Ctrl and T.
It is important to check your reference list carefully before you submit your work as you
can lose marks for not referencing correctly. Please do not hesitate to ask your module
tutor for help if you are unsure of how to reference properly.

In the next section each example will first describe the form of the layout, then, it will
illustrate the relevant order of the information and finally give an example of the
particular referencing source.

Click here to go back to the contents page

                                                                                                     39
                                                                                          James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                     jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                     V2.1
Books

Books are referenced within the reference list as follows:

1. Author Surname followed by a comma, then initials of first followed by a full stop
   and, if available, the initial of the middle name, followed by a full stop e.g.
      a. Author with only a first name: Heffernan, T.
      b. Author with first name and middle name: Stevenson, N. J.

2. If there is more than one author, information is repeated as above with the last
   author separated with a comma and then ampersand. If there are more than two,
   then prior authors are separated with a comma e.g.
        a. 2 authors: Smith, H., & Stevenson, A.
        b. 3 authors: McQuillan, K. A., Makic, M., & Whalen, E.
        c. 4 authors: Smith, H., Stevenson, A., Hill, J., & Edwards, K.
        d. 8+ authors : Green, A., Smith, B., Woods E., Hill, C., Baldwin A. D., Rankin
           I.,…Bowden J.

3. Date: in brackets, year, and a full stop after the closing bracket e.g.
      a. (2009).

4. Title in italics and the use of colon to differentiate between title and subtitle followed
   by a full stop and capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle e.g.
       a. Trauma nursing: From resuscitation through rehabilitation.

5. Edition (if it has an edition after the first one) within brackets followed by ed. within
   the brackets then close bracket then a full stop e.g
       a. (3rd ed.).

6. Publication Location and Publication company are separated by a colon:. If two or
   more publication locations are stated, use the first location stated. If the reference
   location is within the United States (US) use town/region and then official letter
   abbreviation (US Postal service address). If the location is not within the US use the
   town and [region or country] with a comma, in between e.g.
      a. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.
      b. New York, NY: McGraw-hill.
      c. London, United Kingdom: Sage.
      d. Pretoria, South Africa: Unisa.

See next page for examples

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                                                                                          James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                     jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                     V2.1
Books

    1 or 2          3                  4                 5                      6
Author, A. A.   (Date).      Title of the book: (ed.).               Publication Location:
                             Subtitle if                             Publisher.
                             required

Author, A. A. (Date).Title of the book: Subtitle if required (ed.). Publication Location: Publisher

McQuillan, K. A., Makic, M., & Whalen, E. (2009). Trauma nursing: From resuscitation through
      rehabilitation (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.

     Click here to go back to the contents page

                                                                                                         41
                                                                                              James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                         jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                         V2.1
Edited book/chapters

   1. Author of the chapter surname followed by a comma then initials of first name
      followed by a full stop and if available initial of middle name then followed by a
      full stop e.g.
           a. Author of the chapter with only a first name: Jones, A.
           b. Author of the chapter with first name and middle name: Banks, C. J.

   2. If there is more than one author of the chapter then information is repeated as
      above with the last author separated with comma and then ampersand. If there
      are more than two, then prior authors are separated with a comma, e.g.
           a. 2 authors: Smith, H., & Stevenson, A.
           b. 3 authors: McQuillan, K. A., Makic, M., & Whalen, E.
           c. 4 authors: Smith, H., Stevenson, A., Hill, J. & Edwards, K.
           d. 8+ authors : Green, A., Smith, B., Woods E., Hill, C., Baldwin A. D.,
              Rankin I.,…Bowden J.

   3. Date: in brackets, year, and a full stop after the closing bracket e.g.
         a. (2009).

   4. Title of the chapter, followed by a full stop and capitalise only the first word of the
      title of the chapter e.g.
           a. How we apply evidence.

   5. The word "In" followed by the initials/initial of the editor of the book, separated by
      a full stop. Then the surname followed by (Ed.). for a single author e.g.
          a. In K. T. Jones (Ed.).

   6. The word "In" followed by the initials/initial of the editor of the book, separated by
      a full stop. If there is more than one editor of the book then editors is separated
      with comma and then ampersand. If there are more than two, then prior authors
      are separated with a comma e.g.
          a. In J. S. Lymn, & P. M. Stevenson (Eds.),
          b. In S. F. Wadsworth, P. Arkell, & J. Corbett (Eds.),

   7. Title in italics and the use of colon to differentiate between title and subtitle and
      capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle e.g.
          a. Trauma nursing: From resuscitation through rehabilitation

   8. pp followed by full stop, followed by the range of pages of the chapter all in
      brackets followed by full stop e.g
          a. (pp. 205-250).
          b. (pp. 14-50).

See next page for further details

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                                                                                         James Hill(Ed.).
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                                                                                                    V2.1
9. Publication Location and Publication company are separated by a colon :. If two
        or more publication locations are stated, use the first location stated. If the
        reference location is within the US, use official letter abbreviation (US Postal
        service address). If the location is not within the US use the town and [region or
        country] with a comma, in between e.g.
            a. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.
            b. New York, NY: McGraw-hill.
            c. London, United Kingdom: Sage.
            d. Pretoria, South Africa: Unisa.

  .
Edited book/chapter

    1 or 2          3             4       5 or 6        7             8           9
Author of the    (Date).     Title of    In A.   Title of the      (pp.00-   Publication
chapter                      the         Editor book: Subtitle     00).      Location:
Surname, A.                  chapter     (Eds.), if required                 Publisher.
A.

Author of the chapter Surname, A. A. (Date). Title the chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of
      the book: Subtitle if required (pp.00-00). Publication Location: Publisher

Allock, N. (2010). How we apply evidence. In F. Bath-Hextall, J. S. Lymn, R Knaggs, &
       D. Bowskill (Eds.), The newprescriber: An integrated approach to medical and
       non-medical prescribing (pp. 156-165). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-
       Blackwell.

  Click here to go back to the contents page

                                                                                                     43
                                                                                          James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                     jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                     V2.1
E-books

When referencing either a chapter of an E-book, or an E-book, the only piece of
information which changes compared to referencing a standard book is the location for
publication and publisher. This is replaced either by the doi if available for the http
address (http://www.xxxxxx). Within Microsoft Word when you write a web address it will
highlighted blue and underlined in the text. This will not be penalised as this change in
formatting is standardised and is acceptable within the APA.

   1. Author surname followed by a comma, then initials of first name followed by a full
      stop and if available initial of middle name then followed by a full stop e.g.
         a. Author with only a first name: Heffernan, T.
         b. Author with first name and middle name: Stevenson, N. J.

   2. If there is more than one author, information is repeated as above, with the last
      author separated with a comma and then ampersand. If there is more than two,
      then prior authors are separated with a comma e.g.
           a. 2 authors: Smith, H., & Stevenson, A.
           b. 3 authors: McQuillan, K. A., Makic, M., & Whalen, E.
           c. 4 authors: Smith, H., Stevenson, A., Hill, J., & Edwards, K.
           d. 8+ authors : Green, A., Smith, B., Woods E., Hill, C., Baldwin A. D.,
              Rankin I.,…Bowden J.

   3. Date: in brackets, year, and a full stop after the closing bracket e.g.
         a. (2009).

   4. Title in italics and the use of colon to differentiate between title and subtitle
      followed by a full stop and capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle
      e.g.
           a. Trauma nursing: From resuscitation through rehabilitation.

   5. Edition (if it is only the first edition just a full stop) e.g
         a. (2ed ed.).
         b. (3rd ed.).

   6. doi if available, followed by colon e.g
          a. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511610431

   7. If doi is not available then use Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx e.g [The HTML
      link can be either underlined or not-underlined]
          a. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/ebookviewer/ebook/nlebk

See next page for examples

                                                                                                     44
                                                                                          James Hill(Ed.).
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                                                                                                     V2.1
E-book

Using doi

    1 or 2          3                  4                  5                     6
Author, A. A.   (Date).      Title of the book: (ed.).                doi:xxxxxxx
                             Subtitle if
                             required

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of the Book: subtitle if required (ed.). doi:xxxxxxx

Winters, J. M., & Story, M. (2007). Medical Instrumentation: Accessibility and Usability
      Considerations. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511610431

Using website http address

    1 or 2          3                  4                  5                     7
Author, A. A.   (Date).      Title of the book: (ed.).                Retrieved from
                             Subtitle if                              http://www.xxxxxx
                             required

Author, A. A. (Date).Title of the book: Subtitle if required (ed.). Retrieved from
       http://www.xxxxxx

Winters, J. M., & Story, M. (2007). Medical instrumentation : Accessibility and usability
      considerations. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/ebookviewer

 Click here to go back to the contents page

                                                                                                     45
                                                                                          James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                     jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                     V2.1
Edited E-book/chapter

   1. Author of the chapter surname followed by a comma then initials of first followed
      by a full stop and if available initial of middle name then followed by a full stop
      e.g.
         a. Author of the chapter with only a first name: Jones, A.
         b. Author of the chapter with first name and middle name: Banks, C. J.

   2. If there is more than one author of the chapter then information is repeated as
      above with the last author separated with a comma and then an ampersand. If
      there are more than two, then prior authors are separated with a comma, e.g.
           a. 2 authors: Smith, H., & Stevenson, A.
           b. 3 authors: McQuillan, K. A., Makic, M., & Whalen, E.
           c. 4 authors: Smith, H., Stevenson, A., Hill, J., & Edwards, K.
           d. 8+ authors : Green, A., Smith, B., Woods E., Hill, C., Baldwin A. D.,
              Rankin I.,…Bowden J.

   3. Date: in brackets, year, and a full stop after the closing bracket. e.g.
         a. (2009).

   4. Title of the chapter you are referring to, followed by a full stop and capitalise only
      the first word of the title of the chapter e.g.
          a. How we apply evidence.

   5. The word "In" followed by the initials/initial of the editor of the book, separated by
      a full stop. Then the surname followed by (Ed.). for a single author e.g.
          a. In K. T. Jones (Ed.).

   6. The word "In" followed by the initials/initial of the editor of the book, separated by
      a full stop. If there is more than one editor of the book then editors is separated
      with comma and then ampersand. If there are more than two, then prior authors
      are separated with a comma e.g.
          a. In J. S. Lymn, & P. M. Stevenson (Eds.),
          b. In S. F. Wadsworth, P. Arkell, & J. Corbett (Eds.),

   7. Title in italics and the use of colon to differentiate between title and subtitle and
      capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle e.g.
          a. Trauma nursing: From resuscitation through rehabilitation

   8. pp followed by full stop, followed by the range of pages of the chapter all in
      brackets followed, by full stop e.g.
          a. (pp. 205-250).
          b. (pp. 14-50).

See next page for further details

                                                                                                    46
                                                                                         James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                    jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                    V2.1
9. doi if available followed by colon
             a. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511610431

      10. If doi is not available then use Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx [The HTML link
          can be either underlined or not-underlined]
              a. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/ebookviewer/ebook/nlebk
Chapter of a E-book

Using doi:

    1 or 2              3          4         5 or 6         7               8               10

Author of the     (Date).     Title the      In A.   Title of the        (pp.00-    doi;xxxxxxx
chapter                       chapter        Editor book: Subtitle       00).
Surname, A.                                  (Eds.), if required
A.

Author, A. A. (Date). Title the chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book: Subtitle if
       required (pp.00-00). doi;xxxxxxx

Allock, N. (2010). How we apply evidence. In J. S. Lymn (EDs.), The new prescriber:
       An integrated approach to medical and non-medical prescribing (pp. 156-165).
       doi:13.2317/FGO54380534516781

Using website http address:

    1 or 2          3          4            5           6            7                  9

Author of the    (Date). Title the        In A.   Title of the   (pp.00-        Retrieved from
chapter                  chapter          Editor book:           00).           http://www.xxxxxx
Surname, A.                               (Eds.), Subtitle if
A.                                                required

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of the chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book: Subtitle
       if required (pp.00-00). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Banks, J, T. (2004). Practice and research. In D. Freshwater & G. Rolfe (Eds.),
       Deconstructing evidence based practice. Routledge (pp. 101-125).Retrieved
      from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/ebookviewer/ebook/nlebk

  Click here to go back to the contents page
                                                                                                                 47
                                                                                                      James Hill(Ed.).
                                                                                                 jehill1@uclan.ac.uk
                                                                                                                 V2.1
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