School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

1 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 All course materials, including lecture notes and other additional materials related to your course and provided to you, whether electronically or in hard copy, as part of your study, are the property of (or licensed to) UCLan and MUST not be distributed, sold, published, made available to others or copied other than for your personal study use unless you have gained written permission to do so from the Head of School. This applies to the materials in their entirety and to any part of the materials. School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 - 2015 Based on The American Psychological Association 6 th Edition (APA) referencing style

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

2 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 How to navigate the contents pages The contents information is set out into three pages to make it easier for you to navigate through. The first page is based on the technology which can facilitate you with referencing and general guidance on the theories of referencing. The in-text and reference list contents page has been separated into two simple questions. The first question you should ask when referencing within text is: How many authors are you trying to reference? When you have identified this, click on the relevant number/type source and it will navigate you to that section; there is also a link in that section which will take you back to the contents page.

The final section is based on your reference list. You just need to answer the question: What type source are you referencing? When you have identified this, then click on the relevant link. At the end of each section you will also find a link which will take you back to the contents page to ask the next set of questions for your sources you are referencing. Contents How to navigate the contents pages . . 2 Contents . . 2 Introduction . . 5 Why document your sources of information . . 5 Plagiarism . . 6 Interactive training videos . . 10 RefWorks . . 11 Microsoft Office Word . . 12 Ebscohost auto citation .

. 14 EASYBIB . . 15

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

3 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 In-text referencing . . 16 Single author . . 17 Two authors . . 18 Three, four or five authors . . 19 Six or more authors . . 20 Group authors with no readily identifiable abbreviation e.g. University of Pittsburgh .21 Group authors with a readily identifiable abbreviation/acronym e.g. Department of Health (DH) National Health Service (NHS) National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE . . 22 Basic citation styles table . . 23 Short quotations (less than 40 words . . 24 Long quotations (More than 40 words . . 25 Websites . . 26 Direct quotation from a website with no page numbers .

. 27 No clear author . . 28 No clear date . . 29 Secondary sources . . 30 Edited books . . 31 Multiple publications by the same author in the same year . . 32 Multiple publications by the same author . . 33 Single statement with multiple authors . . 34 Acts of Parliament . . 35 Law report (case law . . 36 Direct quotes from Acts of Parliament . . 37

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

4 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Reference List . . 39 Ordering of your reference list . . 39 Books . . 40 Edited book/chapters . . 42 E-books . . 44 Edited E-book/chapter . . 46 Secondary referencing . . 48 Journal articles . . 49 Electronic Journals . . 51 Websites . . 53 No clear author . . 54 Acts of Parliament . . 55 Law report (case law . . 57 Report/Policies/Green/White/Bill Paper found on the Internet . . 61 Image . . 63 Tables . . 64 Figure . . 66 Appendix . . 68 Checklist . . 70 Printable checking tool . . 72 Checklist for Data Fields for Reference List . . 74 You said, We did .

. 75

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

5 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Introduction This referencing guide to APA referencing explains and provides working examples of how to use and list material for your assessments. As an initial resource it will be reviewed annually and revised to incorporate student feedback and further examples that may beef use. For further guidance on this referencing standard please refer to the 6th Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The document is split into two parts –in-text referencing and reference list. You can navigate these two sections using the contents page on the previous page.

This is hyperlinked; this means that you just need to click on the required section and it will take you automatically to that section. At the end of that section you can click on ‘return to the contents page’ which will then navigate you back.

Why document your sources of information Full documentation enables the reader to follow up the sources and makes it clear how you are drawing your conclusions from the evidence presented. It is also an acknowledgement of the other writer's work or the work of a group of people, such as a committee or conference report. Documentation should be used not only to provide the source of a direct quotation but also to give the source for any information, ideas or interpretation that you have used. To state other people‘s ideas as your own in the absence of proper citation is considered to be plagiarism, theft of intellectual property.

The University imposes penalties for plagiarism which occurs not only when you directly copy but when you reword text without giving a reference. See student handbook for further details regards to possible penalties for plagiarism.

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

6 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Plagiarism What is plagiarism? Simply put, plagiarism is using somebody’s work without correct acknowledgement/referencing of the original work. This means that all quotes, ideas, opinions, music and images should be acknowledged and referenced within your assignments. There are multiple types of plagiarism and here are the most common types - each plagiarism type will be supplemented with an example of how this would look within Turnitin (a tool which will help you identify issues of plagiarism). Straight plagiarism: This is where the source is copied with minimal or no changes and without any reference to identify the original source.

As you can see within the red box is an exact match to a non-identified source with no attempt to acknowledge the original source or where the information came from.

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

7 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Self-plagiarism: This is where you use a previously submitted piece of work for a new assessment without changing the information. In the majority of cases your assignments are stored, allowing identification of self-plagiarism from previously submitted work. As you can see, the highlighted text has been identified to have a similarity match - in this case this has been matched to a previous assessment. Plagiarism using a citation: Within this type of plagiarism, the original source is acknowledged but only minor changes have been made to the original work.

As you can see by the example above, the text in green has been acknowledged, but only minimal changes have been made from the original source.

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

8 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Mosaic Plagiarism: This is gathering a range of sources and placing them together with no clear identification of the individual sources used, creating a mosaic of other people’s work. As you can see by the example above, there are multiple matches with no identification of any of the original sources. How to avoid plagiarism Here some tips which will help you avoid plagiarism:  Read the source you want to use fully, making sure you fully understand the source you are using. Without fully understanding the information you will struggle to adequately capture the source’s key points.

 Read the source fully and then hide it! - Then put this into your own words. If the source is visible, there will be a tendency to adopt the same words used within the source.

 After using a reference within the main body of text immediately add the reference to your reference list, as it can become very confusing which reference came from which source if this task is carried out at a later date.  Use Turnitin throughout the development of your work to check for plagiarism issues. Do not leave it to the last minute to check this, as you can be doing this as an on-going process as you write. o To see how to upload your files to Turnitin Click here o How to interpret a TurnItIn report Click here Click here to go back to the contents page

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

9 James Hill(Ed.).

jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Available referencing software There is a range of software which can make referencing easier to manage and produce. It is strongly recommended, even though some of the systems can automatically generate you a reference for the source you are using, you should always double check the accuracy of the reference, as in some cases information can be stored incorrectly within the database from where the data was retrieved and can result in your references being incorrect. We recommend that you select the software solution/solutions which you feel more comfortable with. The software solutions are: RefWorks Microsoft office Word Ebscohost auto citation EasyBib Click here to go back to the contents page

School of Health Referencing Guide 2014 2015

10 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Interactive training videos For each of these software solutions there are a set of interactive training videos which will walk you through the process of using the software. These videos will play in stages and stop to allow you to undertake the process at the same time. The video will stop and a blue arrow will appear at the bottom right of the screen, to continue the video playing click on the blue arrow. Example of video Click here to go back to the contents page Click on the blue arrow to continue playing the video

11 James Hill(Ed.).

jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 RefWorks Is an online research management, writing and collaboration tool -- is designed to help researchers easily gather, manage, store and share all types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies.  Organize and create a personal database online – no more index cards to write out and organise. Everything is done automatically as you import the reference into RefWorks.  Format bibliographies and manuscripts in seconds – this saves hours of typing time and decreases the number of errors in creating tedious bibliographies. Easily make changes to your paper and reformat in seconds.

 Import references from a variety of databases using the already created Import Filters.

 Manage Alerts – RefWorks has incorporated a RSS feed reader to allow you to establish links to your favourite RSS feeds and import data from those feeds directly into RefWorks.  Searching your RefWorks database is fast and easy – RefWorks automatically creates author, descriptor and periodical indexes when importing so you just click on the word to perform the retrieval. Use Quick Search to search all fields for the most comprehensive results or Advanced Search to narrow your search to specific terms and fields.

Click here to go RefWorks Click here to watch a video on how to use RefWorks Click here to go back to the contents page

12 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Microsoft Office Word In Microsoft Office Word you can automatically generate a bibliography based on the source information that you provide for the document. It is a simple process of entering the relevant data fields and publishing the reference list on completion. You will see below, a link to a video indicating how to manage your references within text and also some basic functions of the management system. At the end of each referencing type within the reference list section, you will see a video demonstrating how to add this particular source to the Word’s reference management tool.

Furthermore, these videos are interactive, meaning that at the end of each required data fields, the video will pause, allowing you to carry out that particular process. After completing the process you just need to press the arrow at the bottom right of the video to continue. Click here to see video on how to install APA 6th edition style to the University PC In text referencing Click here to see the interactive training video on how to use in-text citations using Word auto citation tool and basic fundamental management function (watch this video first before using this tool) Reference list Books Edited book/chapters E-books Edited E-book/chapter Secondary referencing Journal articles Electronic Journals Websites No clear author

13 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Acts of Parliament Report/Policies/Green/White/Bill Paper Report/Policies/Green/White/Bill Paper found on the Internet Image

14 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Ebscohost auto citation All Ebscohost databases (Discovery, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTD) have integrated auto referencing capabilities. The system is very simple to use and easy to manage all your references. Click here to go to Ebscohost databases Click here to watch a video on how to use the auto referencing tool within Ebscohost databases Quick citation with Ebscohost databases

15 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 EASYBIB This is a free application for any mobile device running android or OS (iPhone/iPad/iPod touch). You simply scan the bar code or the title of the book. It will then automatically generate an APA reference for that book and add it to a reference list. It is then a simple case of emailing this list to your University email address. Click here to see video on how to use EasyBib. Click here for OS (iPhone/iPad/iPod touch) version. Click here for android version.

16 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 In-text referencing All statements, opinions and conclusions taken from another writer's work should be acknowledged.

You may be summarising, paraphrasing or directly quoting from a work, but in each case, the work must be cited in the text. The American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style uses an author-date citation system. This means any time you state any factual or theoretical information, you need to give the author from where you gained this information and the date of publication when it is available. This will then allow the reader of your work to find the reference within your reference list, at the end of your work and find where you sourced this information from. In the following section you will find examples of the most common types of in-text referencing categorised by author types.

For each example the specific order and layout will be demonstrated for both references with the author appearing as part of the sentence (In sentences) and parenthetical referencing (End of sentences).

17 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Single author Cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author's surname and the year of publication. Just give the surname, not the initials. Click here to go back to the contents page Single Author In sentences Evans (2008) found that the law recognises a distinction between civil and criminal proceedings and the courts in which the proceedings take place. End of sentences In-depth interviewing requires highly skilled interviewers (Bowling, 2002).

18 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Two authors When there are two authors, cite both authors’ surnames every time the reference occurs in the text.

Remember, when referencing multiple authors, if the reference is in the sentence then use ‘and’ and if the reference is at the end of the sentence use ‘&’. Three or more authors Click here to go back to the contents page Two authors In sentences In a recent review by Tomczyk and Latté (2009) it was identified that there was considerable shortage of affordable and appropriate day care for disabled children. End of sentences Those whose opportunities are already more restricted because of poverty, stressful life events or ethnic minority status are likely to experience greater barriers to accessing information (Russell & Kagan, 2009).

19 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Three, four or five authors When there are three, four or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference appears and then the year. In subsequent citations include only the first author’s surname and then et al. and then the year. Remember when referencing multiple authors if the reference is in the sentence then use ’and’ and if the reference is at the end of the sentence use '&’. Click here to go back to the contents page Three, four or five authors In sentences Used in the first citation in text: Smith, Woods, Tang, and Kessler (2012) argues that if healthcare provision is going to meet increasing demand, there is a need to examine creative mechanisms to enable individuals to make the most efficient use of the available services.

Used as subsequent citations: Smith et al. (2012) goes on to indicate that practice nursing is fundamental to the success of this policy.

End of sentences Used in the first citation in text: The changing context of health care finds district nurses and other community nurses in a leading position within primary care (Smith, Woods, Tang, & Kessler, 2012). Used as subsequent citations: Primary Care Groups and Trusts, Local Health Groups and Scottish Primary Care Trusts have opened the way for the direct involvement of nurses on the executive and board of these organisations (Smith et al., 2012).

20 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Six or more authors When citing six or more authors, site only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

and the year for the first citing and subsequent citations. Click here to go back to the contents page Six or more authors In sentences Used in the first citation in text: However Jones et al. (2011) argues that for many practitioners the political agenda is far removed from the day-to-day issues surrounding care delivery. Used as subsequent citations: Jones et al. (2011) suggest that a clinical ethical dilemma appears in the desire of nurses and physicians to shield patients from bad news.

End of sentences Used in the first citation in text: Although the rhetoric found in recent government policies supports the health visitor's role in making a contribution to the nation's health, the conflict in paradigms between individual practice and community and population work needs to be addressed (Clarke et al., 2010). Used as subsequent citations: All models would encompass a social and medical model of health, working towards promoting health in a number of different ways, all of which work towards meeting the public health agenda in the United Kingdom (Clarke et al., 2010).

21 James Hill(Ed.).

jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Group authors with no readily identifiable abbreviation e.g. University of Pittsburgh The name of the group serves as the author's name (e.g. Corporations, associations, government agencies and study groups) and it is spelt out each time they appear in the text in full followed by the publication date. Click here to go back to the contents page Group authors with no readily identifiable abbreviations e.g. University of Edinburgh In sentences Used in the first citation in text: Edinburgh Ethnicity and Health Research Group (2009) highlight that many, especially fixed term contract researchers are undoubtedly watching the current economic crisis with some trepidation.

Used as subsequent citations: Edinburgh Ethnicity and Health Research Group (2009) suggests as research departments look for ways to bring in more funding, perhaps cross collaborations with both statutory and voluntary service providers, are appropriate steps in this direction. End of sentences Used in the first citation in text: The issues of devolution, reform of the House of Lords and reform of the voting system for European, national and local elections were put forward as part of the current Labour Government’s election manifesto (The European Observatory on Health Care Systems, 1999).

Used as subsequent citations: Public health medicine has a long history in the United Kingdom.

Its origins can be traced back to the middle of the nineteenth century when the main Acts of Parliament concerning public health issues were passed (The European Observatory on Health Care Systems, 1999).

22 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Group authors with a readily identifiable abbreviation/acronym e.g. Department of Health (DH) National Health Service (NHS) National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). The first time of using the source the full author/group name should be given and the readily identified abbreviation, then the date of publication. In subsequent citations only the abbreviation is used within the first citation and the date of publication is required. Click here to go back to the contents page Group authors with a readily identifiable abbreviation e.g.

Department of Health (DH), National Health Service (NHS), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE).

In sentences Used in the first citation in text: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2009) suggest older people who present for medical attention because of a fall, or report recurrent falls in the past year, or demonstrate abnormalities of gait and/or balance should be offered a multifactorial falls risk assessment. Used as subsequent citations: NICE (2009) go on to indicate that this assessment should be performed by a healthcare professional with appropriate skills and experience, normally in the setting of a specialist falls service.

End of sentences Used in the first citation in text: It is not intended, however, that all Band 9 Agenda for Change posts should come within the very senior managers pay arrangements (Department of Health [DH], 2012).

Used as subsequent citations: The percentages assigned to these roles range from 55% to 75% depending on role and organisation (DH, 2012).

23 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Basic citation styles table This table shows how basic citation styles are used in the first instance and subsequent instances. Type of citation First citation in sentences Subsequent citations in sentences First citation at the end of a sentence Subsequent citations at end of sentences Single Author Author1 (Date) Author1 (Date) (Author1 , Date) (Author1 , Date) Two authors Author1 and Author2 (Date) Author1 and Author2 (Date) (Author1 & Author2 , Date) (Author1 & Author2 , Date) Three authors Author1 , Author2 , and Author3 , (Date) Author1 et al.

(Date) (Author1 , Author2 , & Author3 , Date) (Author1 et al., Date) Four authors Author1 , Author2 , Author3 , and Author4 , (Date) Author1 et al. (Date) (Author1 , Author2 , Author3 , & Author4 , Date) (Author1 et al., Date) Five authors Author1 , Author2 , Author3 , Author4 , and Author5 , (Date) Author1 et al. (Date) (Author1 , Author2 , Author3 , Author4 , & Author5 , Date) (Author1 et al., Date) Six or more authors Author1 et al. (Date) Author1 et al. (Date) (Author1 et al., Date) (Author1 et al., Date) Group authors (No abbreviation) Groups Name (Date) Groups Name (Date) (Groups Name, Date) (Groups Name, Date) Group authors (Readily identified the abbreviation) Groups Name (Abbreviation, Date) Abbreviation (Date) (Groups Name [Abbreviation], Date) (Abbreviation, Date) Key: 1 First author surname 2 Second author surname 3 Third author surname 4 Fourth author surname 5 Fifth author surname Click here to go back to the contents page

24 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Short quotations (less than 40 words) Quotations, if short, that is less than 40 words, can be set in quotation marks and included in the body of the text. If you wish to omit part of the quotation because it is not relevant in the context of your essay, this can be indicated using three dots... You will need to indicate the standard information for the reference and additionally page number of the quotation. Click here to go back to the contents page Short quotations (less than 40 words) In sentences Standard short quote: Roberts (2006) argues that “outline plans for delivery of this strategy should meet all gateway procedures including risk analysis and return on investment” (p.72).

Separated short quote: Thompson (2012) highlights that “These efforts were supported by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, the IOM, and the Congressional Research Service... without any additional support or funding” (p.72).

End of sentences Standard short quote: It has been argued that “Older people need to be cared for holistically and to achieve this psychological social and physical needs must be addressed’’ (Hindle, 2012, p. 112). Separated short quote: “Understanding the relationship between the elements makes the body of knowledge nurses use for nursing care more transparent... and the differences between nursing specialties more explicit’’ (Jones, 2010, p.12).

25 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Long quotations (More than 40 words) Unless you want to discuss the implications of the wording of a statement, it is better to avoid long quotes.

Long quotations should be entered as a separate paragraph and indented from left-hand margin to make the quotation distinct from the main text {Tab key}. You will need to indicate the standard information for the reference and additionally the page number of the quotation. Click here to go back to the contents page Long quotations (More than 40 words) In sentences Frankland (2012) indicates that: licensing of the health occupations was advocated in the early nineteenth century, but it was not until the early 1900s that a significant number of licensing laws were enacted. They were generally initiated by the associations of practitioners that were interested in raising standards and establishing codes for ethical behaviour (p.313).

End of sentences As highlighted above this is an on-going process but there has been some dispute in regards to the effectiveness of these statutory frameworks. No statutory framework for risk taking exists as such. For vulnerable adults, there is a body of community care law in the United Kingdom, which does not yet amount to a coherent legislative package. There are instead a number of relevant provisions in different Acts passed at different times for different purposes. (Marshall, 2012, p.111)

26 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Websites The in-text citation includes the author and date (Author, date) as with any other APA style citation.

This information can be found usually at the bottom of the website; if this information is not there please see 'No clear author' referencing method. Click here to go back to the contents page Website In sentences Roosevelt (2006) states that licensure is a credential awarded to an individual through the police power of the state. End of sentences In the 1970s, health manpower credentialing was the object of considerable attention, especially by the government (Hindle & Kagan, 2012).

27 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Direct quotation from a website with no page numbers Wherever possible if the website has page numbers as part of it you should use the page number. As previously indicated within Short and Long Quotations, if this is not available you should count the number of paragraphs to the point where you begin to quote the information Click here to see original source used in these examples below. Direct quotation from a website In sentences Department of Health 2014 states that ‘last week the respected Commonwealth Fund ranked the UK as the best healthcare system in the world’ (Para.

1). End of sentences “Most importantly it will make a positive difference to the people we care for - and potentially save 6,000 lives over the next three years” (Department of Health, 2014, Para. 6).

28 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 No clear author When there is no author, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry. Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a webpage and italicise the title of a book, a brochure, or a report. Click here to go back to the contents page No clear author In sentences Article, chapter, or a webpage: "What do we believe" (2010) argued that the way we reason depends upon the particular context we are in and on what we already know.

Book, brochure, or a report: Your care (2012) highlights that it is important to be prompt for the visit, but be ready to accept the fact that the legislator may be late or not able to keep the appointment. End of sentences Article, chapter, or a webpage: Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title ("New Child Vaccine", 2009). Book, brochure, or a report: Legislators are particularly sensitive to communications from constituents (You're right, 2011).

29 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 No clear date When there is no clear date of publication the date is replaced with n.d.

for all types of resources and citation types. Click here to go back to the contents page No clear date In sentences Bradsher (n.d.) suggests Vitamin B12 deficiency is usually observed in developing countries and poor dietary intake is the most frequent cause. End of sentences Most children with vitamin B12 deficiency present with non-specific manifestations, such as pallor, failure to thrive, developmental delay, weakness, and irritability (Shaw, n.d.).

30 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Secondary sources A secondary source is where you cite an author who has been cited in a publication which you have read. You may have to do this when you have been unable to obtain the original publication. Please note that this should only be done occasionally. Within the reference list you should cite only the secondary source (within the next example Smith, 2012 would be the secondary source). For example if you want to refer in the text to a 2010 study by Brown and Boutin, which you read about in a 2012 book by Smith. Use one of the following citation formats.

Click here to go back to the contents page Secondary sources In sentence Brown and Boutin (as cited in Smith, 2012) found strangers would not receive the same level of caring as those for whom we experience a personal responsibility. End of sentence However, a care orientation is fundamental to the nurse-patient relationship and the nursing profession itself (Brown & Boutin, as cited in Smith, 2012).

31 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Edited books Some books are a collection of chapters by different authors under the editorship of one or more people.

When citing these in your text you should remember to cite the author of the appropriate chapter rather than the editors of the book. Click here to go back to the contents page Edited book In sentences [Tuckett is the author of the chapter] Tuckett (2010) suggested the caring responses of nurses in practice should be in a manner that is fitting. End of sentences [Pask is the author of the chapter] Nurses see the value of their work when they make a positive impact for patients, leaving them feeling better (Pask, 2011).

32 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Multiple publications by the same author in the same year When an author or group of authors have had more than one publication in one year, they are distinguished by the addition of a, b, c, etc. after the year, and the same letters are used in the Reference List. They are numbered according to their sequence in the essay. Click here to go back to the contents page Multiple publications by the same author in the same year In sentence First citation from the same author in the same year: Kelly (2008a) indicates that if drug abuse is suspected, the collection and delivery of the urine sample should be witnessed by a legally responsible person and labelled with a code instead of a name and other personal information.

Second citation from the same author in the same year: Kelly (2008b) suggests that the client should be informed of the procedure to collect and test the specimen, the reporting protocol, and possible implications of the results. End of sentence First citation from the same author in the same year: The rate of uptake of radioactive thymidine indicates the extent of lymphocyte proliferation (Gilmour, 2008a).

Second citation from the same author in the same year: Aspirin ingestion also prevents platelet aggregation and may prolong bleeding time for as long as 5 days after a single 300-mg dose (Gilmour, 2008b).

33 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Multiple publications by the same author When citing multiple pieces of work from the same author in a single statement you place the surname of the author of the work and then the subsequent publication dates ordered by year, with the oldest being placed first. Click here to go back to the contents page Multiple publications by the same author In sentence Studies by Sanderson and Green (1999, 2002, 2005) have shown interdisciplinary conflicts in primary care teams.

End of sentence This attitude may arise because there is little empirical research evidence to support the benefits of exercise and mental health (Pickles & Kennedy, 2008, 2011, 2012).

34 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Single statement with multiple authors When citing multiple authors for a single statement in a sentence give standard information separated by ’and’ and if there is more than two references insert a comma to separate each reference. Within End of sentence referencing separate each reference with a semicolon. This information should be given alphabetically using the first author’s surname.

Click here to go back to the contents page Single statement with multiple authors In sentence Stevenson (2009) and Thompson (2005) suggest such names are needed to communicate and collaborate within the disciplines and with others, that is, patients, families, and system-wide stakeholders.

End of sentence Programs described in the literature range in length from twelve to eighteen months and have been predominantly offered at bachelor degree level (Jones, 2012; Kelly & Smith, 2010; Stanfield, 2007).

35 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Acts of Parliament When citing an Act of Parliament you need to give the name of the act followed by the date. Main words should start with capital letters and if you are referring to a specific part of the act, include the chapter or section number in the citation. Click here to go back to the contents page Acts of Parliament In sentence The Health Act (2006) highlights the importance of visibility of no smoking signs.

End of sentence Appointment regulations may make provision about the formalities of appointing a person as a representative (Mental Health Act, 2007).

36 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Law report (case law) When citing case law you place the Names of Parties in italics followed by the date. This is the date of judgement. Click here to go back to the contents page Law report (case law) In sentence Fox v Chief Constable of Gwent (1985) highlights the importance of always making sure you follow the correct process. End sentence Healthcare professionals should be free to exercise their professional functions (D v. Bury Metropolitan Borough Council, 2006).

37 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Direct quotes from Acts of Parliament When citing an Act of Parliament you need to give the name of the act followed by the date and include the number of the section followed by a full stop.

Then number of the subsection in brackets followed by a full stop. Then letter paragraphs within brackets followed by a full stop. Then the roman initial subparagraphs within brackets followed by a full stop at the end of the quote. The quotes should be set in quotation marks and included in the body of the text.

Click here to go back to the contents page Direct quotes from Acts of Parliament In sentence The Health Act (2006) indicates that "any report required by that section may relate to more than one such failure" 16. (5). (b). (ii). End of sentence The appropriate national authority shall make such arrangements as it considers reasonable to enable persons to be available to help qualifying patients (Mental Health Act, 2007 12. (2). (a).).

38 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Image When citing an image you should place the authors surname and the publication date of the resource from where the image was retrieved underneath the image itself and align to the right [Ctrl + R].

Click here to go back to the contents page Image As can be seen by the diagram within study that there is a significant increase in cardiovascular output. (McCarthy & Gibbons, 2011)

39 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Reference List In the APA style, you should include a reference list rather than a bibliography within your work. What’s the difference? A reference list consists of all sources cited in the text of a paper, listed alphabetically by author’s surname. A bibliography, however, may include resources that were consulted, but not cited in the text, as well as an annotated description of each one. If you have been given an assignment that asks for a bibliography, consult your lecture or assignment brief for more specifics about the required format.

Ordering of your reference list ALL citations (including electronic and other sources) must be listed alphabetically by surname of the first author at the end of your work.

Do not separate journals, books and/or web sites. When your piece of work includes publications by the same author or group of authors, they should be listed in chronological/date order with the oldest first. The reference list should be written using single line spacing with a blank line separating each new listing to aid clarity. The second line of each reference should be indented by selecting the reference/references and pressing Ctrl and T. It is important to check your reference list carefully before you submit your work as you can lose marks for not referencing correctly. Please do not hesitate to ask your module tutor for help if you are unsure of how to reference properly.

In the next section each example will first describe the form of the layout, then, it will illustrate the relevant order of the information and finally give an example of the particular referencing source.

Click here to go back to the contents page

40 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Books Books are referenced within the reference list as follows: 1. Author Surname followed by a comma, then initials of first followed by a full stop and, if available, the initial of the middle name, followed by a full stop e.g. a. Author with only a first name: Heffernan, T. b. Author with first name and middle name: Stevenson, N. J. 2. If there is more than one author, information is repeated as above with the last author separated with a comma and then ampersand.

If there are more than two, then prior authors are separated with a comma e.g.

a. 2 authors: Smith, H., & Stevenson, A. b. 3 authors: McQuillan, K. A., Makic, M., & Whalen, E. c. 4 authors: Smith, H., Stevenson, A., Hill, J., & Edwards, K. d. 8+ authors : Green, A., Smith, B., Woods E., Hill, C., Baldwin A. D., Rankin I.,…Bowden J. 3. Date: in brackets, year, and a full stop after the closing bracket e.g. a. (2009). 4. Title in italics and the use of colon to differentiate between title and subtitle followed by a full stop and capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle e.g. a. Trauma nursing: From resuscitation through rehabilitation. 5. Edition (if it has an edition after the first one) within brackets followed by ed.

within the brackets then close bracket then a full stop e.g a. (3rd ed.).

6. Publication Location and Publication company are separated by a colon:. If two or more publication locations are stated, use the first location stated. If the reference location is within the United States (US) use town/region and then official letter abbreviation (US Postal service address). If the location is not within the US use the town and [region or country] with a comma, in between e.g. a. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier. b. New York, NY: McGraw-hill. c. London, United Kingdom: Sage. d. Pretoria, South Africa: Unisa. See next page for examples

41 James Hill(Ed.).

jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Click here to go back to the contents page Books 1 or 2 3 4 5 6 Author, A. A. (Date). Title of the book: Subtitle if required (ed.). Publication Location: Publisher. Author, A. A. (Date).Title of the book: Subtitle if required (ed.). Publication Location: Publisher McQuillan, K. A., Makic, M., & Whalen, E. (2009). Trauma nursing: From resuscitation through rehabilitation (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.

42 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Edited book/chapters 1. Author of the chapter surname followed by a comma then initials of first name followed by a full stop and if available initial of middle name then followed by a full stop e.g. a. Author of the chapter with only a first name: Jones, A. b. Author of the chapter with first name and middle name: Banks, C. J. 2. If there is more than one author of the chapter then information is repeated as above with the last author separated with comma and then ampersand. If there are more than two, then prior authors are separated with a comma, e.g.

a. 2 authors: Smith, H., & Stevenson, A.

b. 3 authors: McQuillan, K. A., Makic, M., & Whalen, E. c. 4 authors: Smith, H., Stevenson, A., Hill, J. & Edwards, K. d. 8+ authors : Green, A., Smith, B., Woods E., Hill, C., Baldwin A. D., Rankin I.,…Bowden J. 3. Date: in brackets, year, and a full stop after the closing bracket e.g. a. (2009). 4. Title of the chapter, followed by a full stop and capitalise only the first word of the title of the chapter e.g. a. How we apply evidence. 5. The word "In" followed by the initials/initial of the editor of the book, separated by a full stop. Then the surname followed by (Ed.). for a single author e.g.

a. In K. T. Jones (Ed.).

6. The word "In" followed by the initials/initial of the editor of the book, separated by a full stop. If there is more than one editor of the book then editors is separated with comma and then ampersand. If there are more than two, then prior authors are separated with a comma e.g. a. In J. S. Lymn, & P. M. Stevenson (Eds.), b. In S. F. Wadsworth, P. Arkell, & J. Corbett (Eds.), 7. Title in italics and the use of colon to differentiate between title and subtitle and capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle e.g. a. Trauma nursing: From resuscitation through rehabilitation 8.

pp followed by full stop, followed by the range of pages of the chapter all in brackets followed by full stop e.g a. (pp. 205-250).

b. (pp. 14-50). See next page for further details

43 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 9. Publication Location and Publication company are separated by a colon :. If two or more publication locations are stated, use the first location stated. If the reference location is within the US, use official letter abbreviation (US Postal service address). If the location is not within the US use the town and [region or country] with a comma, in between e.g. a. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier. b. New York, NY: McGraw-hill. c. London, United Kingdom: Sage.

d. Pretoria, South Africa: Unisa. .

Click here to go back to the contents page Edited book/chapter 1 or 2 3 4 5 or 6 7 8 9 Author of the chapter Surname, A. A. (Date). Title of the chapter In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book: Subtitle if required (pp.00- 00). Publication Location: Publisher. Author of the chapter Surname, A. A. (Date). Title the chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book: Subtitle if required (pp.00-00). Publication Location: Publisher Allock, N. (2010). How we apply evidence. In F. Bath-Hextall, J. S. Lymn, R Knaggs, & D. Bowskill (Eds.), The newprescriber: An integrated approach to medical and non-medical prescribing (pp.

156-165). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley- Blackwell.

44 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 E-books When referencing either a chapter of an E-book, or an E-book, the only piece of information which changes compared to referencing a standard book is the location for publication and publisher. This is replaced either by the doi if available for the http address (http://www.xxxxxx). Within Microsoft Word when you write a web address it will highlighted blue and underlined in the text. This will not be penalised as this change in formatting is standardised and is acceptable within the APA.

1. Author surname followed by a comma, then initials of first name followed by a full stop and if available initial of middle name then followed by a full stop e.g.

a. Author with only a first name: Heffernan, T. b. Author with first name and middle name: Stevenson, N. J. 2. If there is more than one author, information is repeated as above, with the last author separated with a comma and then ampersand. If there is more than two, then prior authors are separated with a comma e.g. a. 2 authors: Smith, H., & Stevenson, A. b. 3 authors: McQuillan, K. A., Makic, M., & Whalen, E. c. 4 authors: Smith, H., Stevenson, A., Hill, J., & Edwards, K. d. 8+ authors : Green, A., Smith, B., Woods E., Hill, C., Baldwin A. D., Rankin I.,…Bowden J.

3. Date: in brackets, year, and a full stop after the closing bracket e.g. a. (2009). 4. Title in italics and the use of colon to differentiate between title and subtitle followed by a full stop and capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle e.g. a. Trauma nursing: From resuscitation through rehabilitation. 5. Edition (if it is only the first edition just a full stop) e.g a. (2ed ed.). b. (3rd ed.). 6. doi if available, followed by colon e.g a. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511610431 7. If doi is not available then use Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx e.g [The HTML link can be either underlined or not-underlined] a.

Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/ebookviewer/ebook/nlebk See next page for examples

45 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Click here to go back to the contents page E-book Using doi 1 or 2 3 4 5 6 Author, A. A. (Date). Title of the book: Subtitle if required (ed.). doi:xxxxxxx Author, A. A. (Date). Title of the Book: subtitle if required (ed.). doi:xxxxxxx Winters, J. M., & Story, M. (2007). Medical Instrumentation: Accessibility and Usability Considerations. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511610431 Using website http address 1 or 2 3 4 5 7 Author, A. A. (Date). Title of the book: Subtitle if required (ed.). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx Author, A. A. (Date).Title of the book: Subtitle if required (ed.).

Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx Winters, J. M., & Story, M. (2007). Medical instrumentation : Accessibility and usability considerations. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/ebookviewer

46 James Hill(Ed.). jehill1@uclan.ac.uk V2.1 Edited E-book/chapter 1. Author of the chapter surname followed by a comma then initials of first followed by a full stop and if available initial of middle name then followed by a full stop e.g. a. Author of the chapter with only a first name: Jones, A. b. Author of the chapter with first name and middle name: Banks, C. J. 2. If there is more than one author of the chapter then information is repeated as above with the last author separated with a comma and then an ampersand. If there are more than two, then prior authors are separated with a comma, e.g.

a. 2 authors: Smith, H., & Stevenson, A.

b. 3 authors: McQuillan, K. A., Makic, M., & Whalen, E. c. 4 authors: Smith, H., Stevenson, A., Hill, J., & Edwards, K. d. 8+ authors : Green, A., Smith, B., Woods E., Hill, C., Baldwin A. D., Rankin I.,…Bowden J. 3. Date: in brackets, year, and a full stop after the closing bracket. e.g. a. (2009). 4. Title of the chapter you are referring to, followed by a full stop and capitalise only the first word of the title of the chapter e.g. a. How we apply evidence. 5. The word "In" followed by the initials/initial of the editor of the book, separated by a full stop. Then the surname followed by (Ed.).

for a single author e.g. a. In K. T. Jones (Ed.).

6. The word "In" followed by the initials/initial of the editor of the book, separated by a full stop. If there is more than one editor of the book then editors is separated with comma and then ampersand. If there are more than two, then prior authors are separated with a comma e.g. a. In J. S. Lymn, & P. M. Stevenson (Eds.), b. In S. F. Wadsworth, P. Arkell, & J. Corbett (Eds.), 7. Title in italics and the use of colon to differentiate between title and subtitle and capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle e.g. a. Trauma nursing: From resuscitation through rehabilitation 8.

pp followed by full stop, followed by the range of pages of the chapter all in brackets followed, by full stop e.g.

a. (pp. 205-250). b. (pp. 14-50). See next page for further details