Strategic airports and aviation facilities - July 2014 State Planning Policy-state interest guideline

 
Strategic airports and aviation facilities - July 2014 State Planning Policy-state interest guideline
Department of State Development, Infrastructure and Planning

   State Planning Policy—state interest guideline

   Strategic airports
   and aviation facilities
   July 2014

Great state. Great opportunity.
Strategic airports and aviation facilities - July 2014 State Planning Policy-state interest guideline
Preface

Using this state interest guideline
The Queensland Government established the State Planning        Where interim development assessment requirements apply
Policy (SPP) to define the specific matters of state interest   for a state interest (because the relevant planning scheme
in land use planning and development. To support the            has not yet integrated the state interest or an amendment
implementation of the SPP, each state interest in the SPP       to the SPP has occurred subsequent to the scheme), the
is supported by a state interest guideline such as this one.    SPP quoted text defines requirements that must be applied
                                                                in the assessment of applicable development applications.
This state interest guideline must be read in conjunction
with the SPP.                                                   Content within this state interest guideline that is not an
                                                                excerpt from the SPP provides further context and explains
Where text in this guideline is in a coloured text box, it is   how the SPP policies can be applied. It does not introduce or
an excerpt from the SPP and is the state’s policy about a       define any new policies which do not exist in the SPP itself.
matter of state interest.                                       The use of such guidance material is optional—it does not
                                                                form a statutory component of the SPP and hence is not a
In relation to making or amending a planning scheme, the
                                                                mandatory requirement of the state.
SPP quoted text defines what a local government should do
in preparing or amending a planning scheme (ie. the state
prefers this policy but will consider alternative approaches
based on specific local context or issues).

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Contents

PART A Background and core concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

PART B Integrating the state interest into planning schemes. . . . . . . . . . . . 5

PART C Application of interim development assessment requirements. . . . 12

PART D Model codes and provisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Appendix 1: Core concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Appendix 2: Aviation facilities—location and type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Appendix 3: B
             uilding restricted areas for aviation facilities
            (communication). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Appendix 4: Guidance on the National Airports Safeguarding Framework. . . 57

Appendix 5: Guidance on development assessment processes. . . . . . . . . . 59

Appendix 6: Guidance on agency roles and contact information . . . . . . . . . 66

                                                                                                              3
PART A
PART A: Background and core concepts

    State interest—strategic airports and aviation
    facilities
    Planning protects the operation of strategic airports and aviation facilities, and enables the growth and
    development of Queensland’s aviation industry.

Background                                                        Core concepts
Strategic airports and aviation facilities play a key economic,   Appendix 1 provides advice around those core concepts
tourism, social and defence role in Queensland. The               which must be considered in the integration of the
Queensland Government recognises the need to protect              state interest—strategic airports and aviation facilities,
aviation assets to support growth of the state’s economy          specifically:
and tourism industry, regional communities and national
defence. Protection of strategic airports and aviation            • What is a strategic airport?
facilities also supports Commonwealth, state and local
                                                                  • What is an aviation facility?
government investment in aviation infrastructure assets
and public passenger transport flights.                           • What is operational airspace?
The Australian Government also has a direct role in               • What is a public safety area (PSA)?
protecting strategic airports and aviation facilities in
Queensland. The role of the Australian Government is              • What are the impacts of aircraft noise?
highlighted in blue boxes throughout this guideline.
                                                                  • What is a building restricted area?
State Planning Policy (SPP) code:
Strategic airports and aviation facilities
The SPP (part H) includes a development assessment
code for strategic airports and aviation facilities. Local
governments and development proponents are encouraged
to use this code to assist in the integration of this state
interest in both plan making and development assessment.

                                                                                                                               4
PART B
PART B: Integrating the state interest
        into planning schemes

      Policy 1
      Identifying strategic airports and aviation facilities, and associated operational airspace, public safety areas,
      lighting area buffer zones, wildlife hazard buffer zones, Australian Noise Exposure Forecast (ANEF) contours, and
      building restricted areas.

How to appropriately integrate                                      1.2   The SPP Interactive Mapping System includes mapping
                                                                          layers depicting the location of strategic airports,
the policy                                                                aviation facilities, operational airspace (with the
                                                                          exception of Height Restriction Zones), PSAs, ANEF
1.1    A local planning scheme should ensure that the                     contours and building restricted areas (with the
       location of strategic airports and aviation facilities             exception of satellite ground station [SGS], glide path
       are identified in their local planning instrument                  and localiser facilities).
       and include airport environs overlay mapping. This
       mapping should include the below information in              1.3   Height Restriction Zones for a defence airfield or
       order to appropriately protect strategic airports and              joint-user airport can be sourced directly from the
       aviation facilities. While available information will vary         Department of Defence (DoD). In future, mapping of
       depending on the airport/aviation facility, this could             Height Restriction Zones, lighting area buffer zones
       be done with overlays that show:                                   and wildlife hazard buffer zones will also be available
                                                                          from the SPP Interactive Mapping System. It is highly
       • operational airspace—Obstacle Limitation Surface                 recommended local government request assistance
         (OLS) surface (for Leased Federal and other strategic            from Airservices Australia to determine the building
         airports) or Height Restriction Zone (for defence                restricted area for an aviation facility given the highly
         airfields and joint-user airfields)                              technical nature of the process.
       • lighting area buffer zone—areas within six kilometre       1.4   The SPP Interactive Mapping System will include the
         radius of a strategic airport’s runway measured from             most recent airport environs overlay data required
         the aerodrome reference point and lighting intensity             for each local government area. It is the role of the
         zones A–D                                                        Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR)
                                                                          to liaise with all airport managers and Airservices
       • wildlife hazard buffer zone—areas within three,
                                                                          Australia to source the most up-to-date data for each
         eight and 13 kilometre radius of a strategic
                                                                          strategic airport and aviation facility.
         airport’s runway measured from the aerodrome
         reference point                                            1.5   In some instances, ANEF data may be limited or may
                                                                          not exist. In those cases, the airport has not developed
       • building restricted areas for aviation facilities
                                                                          an ANEF contour, and for that reason the local
       • PSAs                                                             government cannot include the ANEF constraints.

       • ANEF contours.

                                                                                                                                      5
PART B
      Policy 2
      Facilitating development surrounding strategic airports that is compatible with, depends upon or gains
      economic advantage from being in proximity to a strategic airport, or supports the role of the strategic airport
      as a critical freight and logistics hub.

How to appropriately integrate                                   2.2 Land surrounding strategic airports should also
the policy                                                           be promoted for use by development that gains
                                                                     economic advantage from being in proximity
2.1    The strategic framework and land use strategies in            to a strategic airport, or supports the role of
       a local planning instrument should ensure that the            the strategic airport as a critical freight and
       aviation industry is supported by promoting the use           logistics hub. These land uses include air charter
       of the land surrounding strategic airports for aviation       businesses, air freight depots, logistic and
       industry activities. These land uses include industry         distribution centres, flight training and skydiving
       involving the design, manufacture, maintenance and            businesses, warehouses and service industries.
       repair of aircraft and aircraft components, aviation
       and aerospace research and technology facilities
       and facilities for aviation and aerospace education
       and training.

                                                                                                                           6
PART B
    Policy 3
    Protecting strategic airports by ensuring:

       (a)	development and associated activities do not create incompatible intrusions or compromise aircraft
            safety, in operational airspace.

How to appropriately integrate                                   3(a)3 The development and activities that may create
                                                                       obstacles should also be avoided in operational
the policy                                                             airspace for defence airfields, joint-user and other
                                                                       airports. In addition, development and activities with
3(a)1 Land use strategies in a local planning scheme should            a propensity to attract wildlife (e.g. birds or bats) are
      ensure development and associated activities do not              also considered to have the potential to adversely
      adversely impact the safety and viability of strategic           impact on operational airspace and aircraft safety.
      airports by creating obstacles in operational airspace
      or compromising aircraft safety.                           3(a)4 Land uses and associated activities which may
                                                                       adversely impact operational airspace and aircraft
3(a)2 Development and activities which may create an                   safety are listed in Table 1 below. When making
      obstacle in prescribed airspace for Leased Federal               or amending a local planning instrument, local
      airports or compromise aircraft safety are defined as            government should carefully consider allocation of
      ‘controlled activities’ under the Airports Act and the           land in the vicinity of a strategic airport for the land
      Airport (Protection of Airspace) Regulations.                    uses listed in Table 1. Land in the vicinity of a strategic
                                                                       airport can be allocated for a use listed in Table 1
                                                                       where the local government can demonstrate that the
                                                                       use will not result in adverse impacts on operational
                                                                       airspace or aircraft safety.

Table 1—Land uses with the potential to adversely impact operational airspace and aircraft safety

 Activity                            Land uses
 Physical obstructions:              • all land uses where building/structure height exceeds OLS or height restriction zone
 • temporary or permanent            • renewable energy facility (wind farm)
 • natural or man-made.
 Transient obstructions              Outdoor sport and recreational aviation activities (e.g. parachuting, hot air ballooning,
                                     hang gliding, shooting ranges).
 Lighting hazards:                   • industry
 • including reflected sunlight      • port services
 • distracts or interferes with      • warehouse
   pilot visibility
                                     • major sport, recreation and entertainment facility
 • creates pilot confusion
                                     • outdoor sport and recreation
   regarding approach or runway
   lighting.                         • outdoor lighting
                                     • roads (500–1000 m-long straights)
                                     • advertising device

                                                                                                                                     7
PART B
 Activity                            Land uses
 Wildlife hazards                    • cropping
                                     • intensive animal industry
                                     • animal husbandry
                                     • aquaculture
                                     • industry involving food processing
                                     • major sport, recreation and entertainment facility
                                     • outdoor sport and recreation
                                     • utility installation (e.g. sewage/wastewater treatment facilities and waste
                                       management facilities [landfill and transfer stations])
                                     • environmental facility (park/conservation estate) (e.g. wetlands)
 Gaseous plumes with high            • medium and high impact industry
 velocity (exceeds 4.3 m
                                     • special industry (noxious and hazardous industry)
 per second)
                                     • extractive industry
 Airborne particulates that
 impair visibility                   • utility installation
                                     • crematorium

    Policy 3
    Protecting strategic airports by ensuring:

       (b) development avoids increasing risk to public safety in defined public safety areas.

How to appropriately integrate
the policy
3(b)1 The policy outcome can be achieved by ensuring that the         • uses that attract large numbers of people (e.g.
      local planning instrument does not allow the following            sports stadia, shopping centres, industrial and
      types of development in a PSA:                                    commercial uses involving large numbers of workers
                                                                        or customers)
     • accommodation activities
                                                                      • institutional uses (e.g. education establishments,
     • the manufacture or bulk storage of flammable,                    hospitals).
       explosive or noxious materials

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PART B
    Policy 3
    Protecting strategic airports by ensuring:

       (c)	development mitigates adverse impacts of aircraft noise and is compatible with forecast levels of aircraft
            noise within the 20 ANEF contour or greater of strategic airports.

How to appropriately integrate                                    3(c)3 Australian Noise Exposure Concept (ANEC) contour
                                                                        mapping cannot be included in a local planning
the policy                                                              instrument airport environs overlay mapping because
                                                                        it is a hypothetical map and may not have been
3(c)1 Local government is encouraged to use both ANEF                   subject to review by relevant authorities such as
      system and alternative aircraft noise metrics such as             Airservices Australia. ANEC maps are produced during
      single event contours (e.g. N70) to inform strategic land         consideration of options for airport development and
      use planning decisions about use of land affected by              are based on assumptions about runways, aircraft
      aircraft noise. Alternative aircraft noise metrics should         types and so on and future operating conditions which
      not be used as a substitute for ANEF system information;          may never occur. Alternative aircraft noise metrics
      rather they are a complementary tool that can assist              (e.g. N70s) also cannot be included in a local planning
      local government in communicating the nature of aircraft          instruments airport environs overlay mapping. Neither
      noise exposure at a specific location.                            ANEC mapping nor alternative noise metrics are
                                                                        considered to be a development assessment tool and
  REFER TO: Appendix 4: Guidance on the National                        therefore should not be used to assess aircraft noise
  Airports Safeguarding Framework guideline,                            impacts on individual development proposals during
  which provides information for local government                       development assessment processes.
  with further information about alternative aircraft
  noise metrics through direction to Attachment 1 of
  the National Aviation Safeguarding Framework,
  Alternative aircraft noise.

3(c)2 A local planning instrument should make development
      assessable as described in Table 2 and 3 to ensure
      incompatible development on land affected by
      aircraft noise reduces adverse noise impacts on the
      community to acceptable levels.

  REFER TO: PART C: Application of interim development
  assessment requirements for Table 2 and 3.

                                                                                                                                  9
PART B
      Policy 4
      Protecting aviation facilities by ensuring development and associated activities within building restricted areas
      do not adversely affect their functioning.

How to appropriately integrate
the policy
4.1    When allocating land uses in areas where development
       has the potential to impact on the functioning of             REFER TO: Appendix 3: Building restricted areas for
       aviation facilities, preference should be given to            aviation facilities (communication) for information
       those uses that are unlikely to penetrate or impact           on how to define the building restricted area for an
       on a facility’s building restricted area. Adverse effects     aviation facility.
       on functioning of aviation facilities can arise from
       development that causes:

       • permanent or temporary physical obstructions

       • electrical or electro-magnetic interference

       • deflection or interference of signals.

      Policy 5
      Identifying and protecting key transport infrastructure and corridors (passenger and freight) linking strategic
      airports to the broader transport network.

How to appropriately integrate
the policy
5.1    Strategic airports need to be linked to the broader         5.2   Key transport infrastructure and corridors (including
       transport network in order for their operations to be             key freight routes) linking a strategic airport to the
       viable. Without roads and railways the airport would              broader transport network are identified and protected
       not be able to be supplied with the passengers,                   from development which would compromise the
       freight, goods and services required to operate.                  function of the transport route.

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PART B
      Policy 6
      Including the SPP code: Strategic airports and aviation facilities or similar development assessment requirements.

How to appropriately integrate
the policy
6.1    The SPP code: Strategic airports and aviation facilities   6.2 In those instances, and when drafting new local
       provides the foundation for local government when              planning instrument codes that vary from the SPP
       drafting their local planning instrument assessment            code, the local government must be able to adequately
       codes. In some instances, a local government may               demonstrate that the intent of the current policy has
       have already developed an airport environs code, to            been addressed.
       reflect the former state interest, which may not align
       with the intent of the code.

                                                                   REFER TO: SPP Code: strategic airports and aviation
                                                                   facilities located in Part H of the SPP.

                                                                                                                              11
PART C
PART C: Application of interim development
        assessment requirements

                                                                    • emissions from a development do not significantly
                                                                      increase air turbulence, reduce visibility or compromise
    Development assessment                                            the operation of aircraft engines in a strategic airport’s
    requirement 1                                                     operational airspace

                                                                    • development does not significantly increase the risk of
    Complies with the SPP code: Strategic airports and                wildlife hazards in a strategic airport’s operational airspace.
    aviation facilities
                                                                    Intrusions into operational airspace
                                                                    Permanent or temporary physical (natural or man-made) or
How to appropriately address the assessment                         transient obstacles in operational airspace may adversely
requirement                                                         impact safety and efficiency of aircraft operations of
The following information provides local government with            strategic airports.
information to assist in the assessment of development
                                                                    Generally, buildings and structures exceeding 12 metres
against the SPP code: Strategic airports and aviation facilities.
                                                                    in height should be assessed for their potential impact
The guidance is structured in accordance with the relevant          on operational airspace as measured in Australian Height
performance outcomes of and acceptable outcomes within              Datum (AHD).
the code and needs to be read in conjunction with the SPP
                                                                    While the Procedures for Air Navigation Services—Aircraft
code: Strategic airports and aviation facilities.
                                                                    Operational Surfaces (PANS-OPS) is not included within a
                                                                    local planning instrument overlay, it will be considered as
PO1 to PO4—operational airspace                                     part of the airport manager/Australian Government agency
A development proposal should not adversely impact on               assessment of an infringement into operational airspace.
the operational safety and viability of strategic airports
by creating obstacles or compromising aircraft safety in            The height of operational airspace in relation to local
operational airspace. This policy outcome will be achieved if:      topography needs to be taken into account when considering
                                                                    height restrictions for buildings or structures. Generally,
• development does not include or create a permanent or             the further the distance a proposed structure is from the
  temporary physical or transient obstruction in a strategic        runway(s), the taller the structure can be without intruding
  airport’s operational airspace                                    into operational airspace. This is because the height of
                                                                    the surface for operational airspace (above ground level)
• development does not include or create external lighting          increases as the distance from runways increases (see
  or reflective surfaces that could distract or confuse pilots      Figure 1). The exception to this trend is where topography
                                                                    surrounding an airport is mountainous or undulating.

                                                                    Therefore appropriate height restrictions for a structure
                                                                    need to be determined following advice from the relevant
                                                                    airport manager.

Figure 1—Conceptual illustration of operational airspace

                                                                                                                                        12
PART C
Consideration should also be given to any ancillary
projections (e.g. antennae, satellite dishes, masts,
signs, lift overruns etc.) on buildings and any cranes that         REFER TO: Appendix 4: Guidance on the National
are likely to be used during construction. Development              Airports Safeguarding Framework.
applications should ensure ancillary projections are
included in all calculations of the height of the proposed
obstacle. Information about any cranes to be used during
                                                                  Australian Government role
construction should also be provided with the original
application. Planting of tree species that have potential to      A development proposal involving a building, structure,
grow to a height that intrudes into operational airspace is       crane or other construction equipment which encroaches
inappropriate for developments close to runway ends.              into the operational airspace of a Leased Federal or other
                                                                  strategic airport must be referred to the airport manager for
Height restrictions may be relaxed if the impacts of a            assessment who will on refer the proposal to the Australian
proposed development are shielded by existing structures.         Government if required. Encroachments into a Height
The airport manager can identify areas of ‘obstacle               Restriction Zone for a defence or joint-user airfield must
shielding’ where buildings or other structures of an agreed       be referred to DoD for assessment.
height would not cause an obstruction in operational
airspace (e.g. a new building proposed in a central business      Appendix 5: Guidance on development assessment
district with existing tall buildings and structures). However,   processes and Appendix 6: Guidance on agency roles
approval is still required from the Australian Government if      provides more information regarding the Australian
the proposed development will encroach into operational           Government’s role and assessment processes for intrusions
airspace. Obstacle shielding enables those developments           into operational airspace of strategic airports.
that would otherwise impact on operational airspace to
be assessed as achieving the performance outcome for
protecting operational airspace.

Sporting and recreational aviation activities (e.g.
parachuting, hot air ballooning or hang gliding) can
also adversely affect the safety and efficiency of aircraft
operations if they occur within an airport’s operational
airspace. Material changes of use for permanent sites
including such activities may need to include conditions
restricting the operational of these activities to prevent
intrusions into a strategic airport’s operational airspace.

Guideline F of the National Aviation Safeguarding Framework,
Managing the risk of intrusions into the protected airspace
of airports provides local government and proponents of
development with further information about how to address
risks to aviation safety posed by development.

                                                                                                                                  13
PART C
Lighting and reflective surfaces
Pilots are reliant on the specific patterns of aeronautical           REFER TO: Appendix 4: Guidance on the National
ground lights (i.e. runway lights and approach lights), to            Airports Safeguarding Framework.
safely approach and land aircraft at a strategic airport during
inclement weather and outside daylight hours. Aeronautical
ground lights enable pilots to align their aircraft with the
runway in use and land the aircraft at the appropriate part         Australian Government role
of the runway.
                                                                    A development proposal within six kilometres of a strategic
Lighting associated with development within six kilometres          airport involving installation of external lighting that is likely
of a strategic airport can have adverse effects on operational      to affect aircraft operations must be referred to the airport
airspace if it is configured in such a way as to:                   manager for assessment who will on refer the proposal
                                                                    to the Australian Government if required. Both the Civil
• confuse pilots because of similarities with approach or           Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) (under the Civil Aviation
  runway lighting                                                   Act 1988 and Regulation 94 of the Civil Aviation Regulations
                                                                    1988) and DoD have legislative powers to cause lighting
• distract or interfere with a pilot’s vision while in control of   which may cause distraction, confusion or glare to pilots
  approaching or departing aircraft, for example because of         flying aircraft to be turned off or modified.
  brightness or glare.
                                                                    Lighting design matters should be addressed during
Configurations of lights in straight parallel lines 500–1000        pre-lodgement stage of development assessment processes
metres long, particularly in the vicinity of large unlit areas,     to avoid CASA or DoD directives to modify lighting after
can replicate the appearance of airport runways at night.           it has been installed. CASA can provide advice about the
Such lighting configurations could be associated with roads,        design and installation of lighting within six kilometres
large parking/storage handling areas, container parks,              of a strategic airport on the request of local government
wharves and sporting fields. Glare or flashes from sporting         or an applicant.
stadia, flare plumes, refineries, upward shining lights,
flashing or sodium (yellow) lighting and reflected sunlight
can distract pilots at critical moments.

It is important that lighting associated with development in
the vicinity of a strategic airport is not configured in a way
that pilots could be distracted or mistake such lighting as
the aeronautical ground lights from the airport. Development
involving significant external lighting, flare plumes,
laser lights and other such bright light sources within six
kilometres of an airport needs to be designed so that the
lighting does not increase the risk of an aircraft incident.

Guideline E of the National Aviation Safeguarding
Framework, Managing the risk of distractions to pilots
from lighting in the vicinity of airports provides local
government and proponents of development with further
information about how to address risks to aviation safety
posed by development.

                                                                                                                                         14
PART C
Emissions                                                         Australian Government role
A gaseous plume with a velocity exceeding 4.3 metres              Any plume rise exceeding a velocity of 4.3 metres per second
per second                                                        at exit must be referred to the airport manager who will on
                                                                  refer the proposal to CASA for assessment. CASA will assess
Exhaust plumes can originate from several sources including:      the potential hazard and dangers under Regulation 139.370
                                                                  of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations and Regulation 6 of
• stacks or vents from industrial facilities
                                                                  the Airspace Regulations 2007.
• industrial flares creating an instantaneous release of
                                                                  The Advisory Circular AC 139–5(1) provides guidance to
  hot gases
                                                                  proponents regarding the plume rise assessment process
• cooling towers producing large volumes of buoyant gases         and the information required from proponents to initiate a
                                                                  plume rise assessment by CASA. CASA can provide advice
• exhaust gases from power generation facilities.                 and conduct a preliminary screening of the location for local
                                                                  government or applicants during the pre-lodgement stage
Development incorporating stacks or vents that can                of development assessment.
emit high velocity gaseous plumes have the potential
to adversely impact aircraft operations by affecting the
handling characteristics of an aircraft in flight. In such
situations there is danger of a momentary loss of control
of the aircraft.

Where a development involves plume rises exceeding a
velocity of 4.3 metres per second, mitigation measures may
be required. In some circumstances, mitigation will not be
possible without adversely affecting the operational safety
and efficiency of the strategic airport.

Airborne particulates that may impair visibility                  Australian Government role
Development with the potential to produce steam, dust,            A development proposal involving emission of airborne
smoke, ash and other airborne particles or pollutants             particulates that may impair visibility in operational
(e.g. extractive industries) into operational airspace may        airspace must be referred to the airport manager who will
affect aircraft safety by reducing pilot or air traffic control   on refer the proposal to CASA for assessment. Proposals
(ATC) visibility, or impacting engine operation. Impacts on       with the potential to affect visibility in a Height Restriction
visibility can cause a change from visual to instrument flight    Zone for a defence or joint-user airfield must be referred
rules which can in turn reduce the handling capacity of           to DoD for assessment.
operational airspace by as much as 50 per cent.
                                                                  Appendix 5: Guidance on development assessment
Development that emits airborne particles is incompatible         processes and Appendix 6: Guidance on agency roles
with operational safety and efficiency of strategic airports      provides more information regarding the Australian
if it occurs on land beneath operational airspace.                Government’s role and assessment processes for intrusions
                                                                  into operational airspace of strategic airports.

                                                                  It is recommended proponents seek CASA or DoD
                                                                  advice during pre-lodgement stage of development
                                                                  assessment processes.

                                                                                                                                    15
PART C
Wildlife hazards—managing the risk of strike in the                Guideline C of the National Aviation Safeguarding Framework,
vicinity of airports                                               Managing the risk of wildlife strikes in the vicinity of airports
                                                                   provides local government and proponents of development
All wildlife on or around an airport should be regarded as         with further information about how to address risks to
a potential hazard to aircraft safety. Most wildlife strikes       aviation safety posed by development.
occur on and in the vicinity of airports, where aircraft fly
at lower elevations. Flying vertebrates (e.g. birds or bats)
mainly use airspace within 300 metres of the ground so are
likely to conflict with aircraft when they are at their most         REFER TO: Appendix 4: Guidance on the National
vulnerable, i.e. immediately after take-off and during landing       Airports Safeguarding Framework.
approaches or other low flying manoeuvres.

The risk of a wildlife strike by an aircraft is relative to the
level and form of wildlife activity within the boundary of an      Australian Government role
airport and in surrounding areas. Certain land uses (see
Table 1) can attract wildlife which then migrate onto the          Local government may refer a development proposal in
airport or across flight paths, increasing the risk of strikes.    the vicinity of a strategic airport that may increase risk of
Airports actively reduce wildlife populations and manage the       wildlife strike to the airport manager for advice if required.
risk of strikes on airport land.                                   A development proposal in the vicinity of a defence or
                                                                   joint-user airfield that may increase risk of wildlife strike
Where local government seek to approve land uses which             should be referred to DoD for assessment.
may increase the risk of wildlife strike near existing airports,
steps should be taken to mitigate risk in consultation
with the airport manager and qualified bird and wildlife
management experts.

Risk mitigation measures that should be considered in such
cases include:

• a requirement for a wildlife hazard management program

• the establishment of wildlife management performance
  standards

• allowance for changes to design and/or operating
  procedures at places where land use has been identified
  as increasing the risk of wildlife strike to aircraft

• establishment of appropriate habitat management for
  incompatible land uses

• creation of performance bonds over increased risk
  development to ensure clean-up and compensation
  should obligations not be met

• authority for airport operators to inspect and monitor
  properties close to airports where wildlife hazards have
  been identified

• consistent and effective reporting of wildlife events
  in line with Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB)
  guidelines.

                                                                                                                                       16
PART C
Risk associated with wind turbine installations (wind             Australian Government role
farms) or wind monitoring towers
                                                                  A proponent must notify the airport manager, CASA and
Wind farms can be hazardous to aviation as wind turbines          Airservices Australia when wind turbines over 110 metres
are tall structures with the potential to come into conflict      above ground level are proposed within 30 kilometres of
with low-flying aircraft. Temporary and permanent wind            a strategic airport. DoD must be notified of any wind farm
monitoring towers can be erected in anticipation of, or in        proposal in Queensland. Pre-lodgement meetings are
association with, wind farms and can also be hazardous            recommended with the airport manager, CASA, DoD and
to aviation, particularly given their low visibility. These       the Department of State Development, Infrastructure and
structures can also affect the performance of aviation            Planning (DSDIP).
facilities operated by Airservices Australia and DoD.
                                                                  Appendix 5: Guidance on development assessment
A state code for wind farm developments is being developed        processes and Appendix 6: Guidance on agency roles
by DSDIP, which will inform the planning, construction            provides more information regarding the Australian
and operation of wind farms in Queensland, including              Government’s role and assessment processes for intrusions
consideration of potential aviation impacts. Wind farms           into operational airspace of strategic airports.
in Queensland will be required to comply with this code.

Guideline D of the National Aviation Safeguarding
Framework, Managing the risk of wind turbine farms
as physical obstacles to air navigation provides local
government and proponents of development with further
information about how to address risks to aviation safety
posed by development.

Risk associated with shooting ranges
If a new shooting range is proposed beneath a strategic
airport’s operational airspace, CASA should be notified.

CASA has interests in the siting of shooting ranges in the
vicinity of airports. Bullets, shots or pellets associated with
shooting ranges should not penetrate operational airspace.
CASA (under the Civil Aviation Act 1988, Civil Aviation Safety
Regulations 1998 and manual of operational standards)
can provide advice on safety areas, distances and range
orientation.

                                                                                                                               17
PART C
PO5—Protection of aviation facilities
Local government and proponents of development can                          REFER TO: Appendix 6: Guidance on agency roles
determine whether a proposed development is located                         for further information.
in a building restricted area and, if so, which zone of the
building restricted area the development is located in
by consulting the SPP Interactive Mapping System and
Appendix 3: Building restricted areas for aviation facilities             Where a development is proposed on land within Zone
(communication).                                                          A/B, local government and/or the proponent of the
                                                                          development will need to use the information provided in
In most cases, a building restricted area is divided into two             Appendix 3: Building restricted areas for aviation facilities
zones: Zone A and Zone A/B. Radar and very high frequency                 (communication) to determine whether the proposed
(VHF) facilities have a third zone called the area of interest            development will be located in Zone A or Zone B. Whether
(see Figure 2). Each zone has a different level of restriction            a development is in Zone A or B depends on the location
on the type of structures and activities that can occur in the            and height of the development, relative to the aviation
zone and different assessment requirements.                               facility. If the height of the development is such that it
                                                                          will not encroach into the airspace defined as Zone A, the
Zone A describes the dimensions of airspace around an                     development will not need to be assessed against the
aviation facility that is critical for the functioning of the             requirements of the SPP code: Strategic airports and aviation
facility. Development proposals on land in Zone A should                  facilities or referred to Airservices Australia for assessment.
comply with the SPP code: Strategic airports and aviation
facilities and be referred to Airservices Australia for                   Where a development is proposed on land within an
assessment of the impacts of the development on the facility.             area of interest, it is not required to be referred to
                                                                          Airservices Australia for assessment unless it encroaches
                                                                          into protected airspace for a radar facility as defined in
                                                                          Appendix 3: Building restricted areas for aviation facilities
                                                                          (communication).

                                                                     A

                                                                    A/B

                                                              Area of interest

                                 Figure 2—Conceptual illustration of zones within a building restricted area

                                                                                                                                            18
PART C
Generally, the types of development proposals which
require assessment, if proposed within a building restricted
area include:                                                     REFER TO: Appendix 6: Guidance on agency roles
                                                                  for contact details.
• buildings (multistorey offices or residential, sheds,
  car parks etc.)

• hangars and warehouses                                        Australian Government role
• infrastructure including bridges and motorway/freeway,        A development proposal on land located within a building
  overpasses etc.                                               restricted area should be referred to Airservices Australia
                                                                or DoD for assessment in accordance with the requirements
• power station stacks and plumes                               outlined in Appendix 3: Building restricted areas for aviation
                                                                facilities (communication). Airservices Australia or DoD will
• power lines, power poles and light poles                      provide local government and proponents with authoritative
                                                                advice about the impact of a proposed development on
• telecom towers
                                                                the function of an aviation facility, requirements for risk
• commercial signage and advertising billboards                 assessment processes and mitigation methods. It is
                                                                recommended advice is sought during pre-lodgement stage
• construction cranes (mobile, tower and luffing etc.)          of development assessment processes to avoid objections
                                                                from Airservices Australia or DoD.
• wind turbines and wind monitoring masts.
                                                                If a development adversely affects the functioning of an
Applications for development in a building restricted           aviation facility, CASA (under the Civil Aviation Act 1988)
area should contain sufficient information about the site       has legislative powers to cause buildings and structures
and development proposal for the assessment manager             to be modified, an activity to cease, or other action to be
and Airservices Australia to be able to establish that the      taken as necessary to remove the interference.
proposed use would not adversely affect the functioning
of aviation facilities.

Height limits for development within/beneath an aviation
facility’s building restricted area may be relaxed if the
impacts of any proposed use are shielded by existing
structures. Airservices Australia can identify areas of
‘obstacle shielding’ where buildings or other structures
to an agreed height would not cause an obstruction in
building restricted area.

It should be noted that the SPP Interactive Mapping System
does not include mapping of the building restricted areas for
SGS antennas or instrument landing systems (ILS) (localisers
and glide paths) due to the complexity of the dimensions
of these areas. Local government and proponents of
development in the vicinity of these types of facilities can
contact the relevant airport manager or Airservices Australia
for advice in these circumstances

                                                                                                                                 19
PART C
PO6—Public safety areas                                                  PO7—Aircraft noise
Development should not increase the risk to public safety in             When assessing an application, a material change of use
a PSA. Any development involving a material change of use                should be consistent with compatible and incompatible
or reconfiguration of a lot in a PSA should avoid:                       land use within ANEF contours as outlined in Table 2.

• increasing the numbers of people living, working or                    Where Table 3 classifies a land use as assessable
  congregating in the PSA                                                development, approvals for material changes of use should
                                                                         be subject to a condition requiring associated building
• the use or storage of hazardous, explosive or flammable                work to incorporate noise attenuation measures that
  materials.                                                             achieve the indoor design sound levels set out in Table 4.
                                                                         Noise attenuation measures should be determined by an
Any assessment of a development’s compatibility with the
                                                                         appropriately qualified acoustic professional.
policy intent of a PSA should consider:
                                                                         Guideline A of the National Aviation Safeguarding
• direct impacts to aircraft passengers and people on the
                                                                         Framework, Measures for managing impacts of aircraft noise
  ground in the case of an aircraft accident in a PSA
                                                                         provides local government and proponents of development
• indirect impacts arising from damage to ground facilities              with further information about how to address adverse
  such as storage facilities for explosive, flammable or                 impacts on development from aircraft noise.
  other hazardous materials.

                                                                            REFER TO: Appendix 3: Guidance on the National
                                                                            Airports Safeguarding Framework for further
                                                                            information.

Table 2—Compatible and incompatible land uses within ANEF contours

                                                                          Compatibility of use within ANEF contour of site
 Sensitive land uses                                                          Compatible         Compatible subject   Incompatible
                                                                                                   to conditions

 Accommodation activity (except short–term accommodation,                 Less than 20 ANEF          20–25 ANEF       25–40 ANEF
 rooming accommodation), residential care facility
 Short-term accommodation, hotel, rooming accommodation                   Less than 25 ANEF          25–30 ANEF       30–40 ANEF
 Educational establishment, child care centre                             Less than 20 ANEF          20–25 ANEF       25–40 ANEF
 Hospital, health care service                                            Less than 20 ANEF          20–25 ANEF       25–40 ANEF
 Community use, places of worship                                         Less than 20 ANEF          20–30 ANEF       3–40 ANEF
 Office                                                                   Less than 25 ANEF          25–35 ANEF       35–40 ANEF

Source: Adapted from AS 2021 (as adopted 7 July 2000).
Note:
1. Table 2 only considers aircraft noise impacts on indoor spaces specifically.
2. AS 2021 should be referred to by those seeking information/background on the basis for Table 2.

                                                                                                                                      20
PART C
Table 3—Levels of assessment for development within ANEF contours

                                                                             Level of assessment
Land uses
                                                                     Self-assessable          Assessable

Accommodation activity (except short-term accommodation,            Less than 25 ANEF    Reconfiguration of a lot
rooming accommodation), residential care facility                                       or material change of use
                                                                                        on land within the 25–40
                                                                                                  ANEF
Short-term accommodation, hotel, rooming accommodation              Less than 30 ANEF    Material change of use
                                                                                        on land within the 30–40
                                                                                                  ANEF
Educational establishment, child care centre                        Less than 25 ANEF    Material change of use
                                                                                        on land within the 25–40
                                                                                                  ANEF
Hospital, health care service                                       Less than 25 ANEF    Material change of use
                                                                                        on land within the 25–40
                                                                                                  ANEF
Community use, places of worship                                    Less than 30 ANEF    Material change of use
                                                                                        on land within the 30–40
                                                                                                  ANEF
Office                                                              Less than 35 ANEF    Material change of use
                                                                                        on land within the 35–40
                                                                                                  ANEF

                                                                                                                    21
PART C
Table 4—Desirable indoor design sound levels for sensitive land uses

                                                                Location within development                      Indoor design sound
 Land use
                                                                                                                     level dB(A)
 Accommodation activities                                  Sleeping areas                                                     50

 Residential care facilities                               Other habitable                                                    55

 Short-term accommodation                                  Sleeping areas                                                     55

 Hotels

 Rooming accommodation (hostel)
 Educational establishments                                Libraries                                                          50

 Child care centres                                        Classrooms, study areas

                                                           Sleeping areas
                                                           Teaching area, assembly areas                                      55
 Hospitals                                                 Wards, theatres, treatment and                                     50
                                                           consulting rooms
 Health care services
                                                           Laboratories                                                       65
 Community uses                                                                                                               50

 Places of worship
 Offices                                                   Private offices, conference rooms                                  55
                                                           Open offices                                                       65

Source: Adapted from AS 2021 (as adopted 7 July 2000).
Note:
1. AS 2021 as adopted 7 July 2000, should be referred to for advice and information about the indoor design sound levels in Table 4.

                                                                                                                                       22
PART D
PART D: Model codes and provisions

Refer to the SPP code: Strategic airports and aviation facilities located in Appendix 4 in the SPP.

                                                                                                      23
APPENDIX 1
Appendix 1: Core concepts

This Appendix provides advice around those core concepts             c) supporting existing and planned urban/regional
which must be considered in the integration of the state                areas and townships
interest—strategic airports and aviation facilities.
                                                                     d) being a major freight and logistics hub or providing
Specifically:                                                           significant industry and employment opportunities

• What is a strategic airport?                                       e) supporting both community access to essential
                                                                        air services and social connectivity for regional
• What is an aviation facility?                                         communities.
• What is operational airspace?                                 Airports meeting the above criteria are listed in the SPP
                                                                Table 2: Strategic airports. The airports are categorised as
• What is a PSA?
                                                                one of four different types to assist in differentiating the
• What are the impacts of aircraft noise?                       planning requirements that apply to land in the vicinity of
                                                                the strategic airport:
• What is a building restricted area?
                                                                1. Leased Federal
• What is the role of the Commonwealth Government
  in aviation matters?                                          2. defence airfields

                                                                3. joint-user

What is a strategic airport?                                    4.	other (either owned by a local authority or private entity
                                                                    or leased from the state).
A strategic airport is an airport that is considered by the
state to be essential to the national and state air transport   Table 2 of the SPP identifies the name the strategic airport
network or the national defence system. An airport is a         identified in the SPP and affected local governments.
strategic airport for the purposes of the SPP if it meets one
of the following criteria:

1.   The airport is listed as a ‘Commonwealth place’ as
                                                                What is an aviation facility?
     defined by the Commonwealth Places (Application of         An aviation facility is a communication, navigation or
     Laws) Act 1970 and comes under the regulatory regime       surveillance (CNS) facility that allows:
     of the Airports Act 1996.
                                                                • pilots to navigate while en-route between airports
2.   The airport is a defence airfield subject to the Defence
     Act (Areas Control) Regulations 1989, implemented by       • pilots to utilise terminal area navigation aids to conduct
     DoD under the Defence Act 1903.                              instrument approach procedures

3.   The airport is deemed to be public passenger               • dialogue between pilots and ATC
     transport infrastructure that is serviced by regular
     public transport services and it has more than 50 000      • ATC to monitor and confirm an aircraft location.
     passenger movements per annum consisting of:
                                                                The aviation facilities protected by the SPP are listed
     a) aircraft with a capacity to carry greater than          in Appendix 2: Aviation facilities—location and type.
        30 passengers per flight                                These facilities are:

     b) aircraft with a weight of greater than                  • directly associated with the operations of a strategic
        3400 kilograms.                                           airport listed in Table A and operated by the airport owner
                                                                  or
4.   The airport is deemed to be essential to the state for
     economic or social reasons. Such reasons include, but      • a system-wide (or en-route) aviation facility operated
     are not limited to:                                          by Airservices Australia, DoD or another agency under
                                                                  contract with the Australian Government.
     a) being used as an international gateway or
        international alternate                                 Further information about communication, navigation and
                                                                surveillance facilities is provided on the next page.
     b) enabling services necessary to support both existing
        tourism and identified tourism opportunities

                                                                                                                                 24
APPENDIX 1
Communication facilities                                         What is operational airspace?
Communication facilities enable air-to-ground
communications between pilots and ATC or communications          Airports need airspace around it to enable aircraft to take-
between major ATC and other aviation facilities.                 off, land or manoeuvre safely and efficiently. This airspace
Communication facilities used in Queensland are:                 is called ‘operational airspace’ or ‘prescribed airspace’ for
                                                                 Leased Federal airports.
• VHF radio transmitters and receivers
                                                                 During take-off, landing or manoeuvring operations, pilot
• high frequency (HF) radio transmitters and receivers           workload is greatest and an aircraft is least manoeuvrable.
                                                                 Therefore, it is very important that operational airspace
• SGS antennas.                                                  remains clear of any obstacles or activities that could
Signal reception between aircraft and ground facilities is       distract or interfere with the safe operation of an aircraft.
by line of sight or via a satellite link.                        Development (such as buildings and structures), natural
                                                                 landscape features and transient activities can have adverse
Navigation facilities                                            impacts on the safety, viability and efficiency of airport
A network of ground-based navigation aids is used for            operations if it encroaches into operational airspace. The
instrument navigation by pilots of suitably equipped aircraft.   effects of individual obstacles may be relatively minor when
Generally, navigation aids are located at airports or at key     assessed using Collision Risk Modelling, however together
points on air routes. Navigation aids used in Queensland are:    a number of obstacles may seriously limit runway utilisation,
                                                                 cause airspace congestion and reduce the effective handling
• the ILS, including associated localisers, glide paths and      capacity of a strategic airport. For example, a tall building
  marker beacons                                                 that encroaches into operational airspace may result in the
                                                                 minimum descent altitude for an approaching aircraft being
• the non-directional beacon (NDB)
                                                                 lifted to account for the new, taller obstacle. As a result,
• VHF omnidirectional range (VOR), conventional very high        aircraft operators may have to reduce the amount of fuel,
  frequency omni-directional range (CVOR) and doppler            number of passengers and/or weight of cargo carried by an
  VHF omni-directional range antennas (DVOR)                     aircraft, or restrict the number of aircraft that may be able
                                                                 to land during inclement weather.
• distance measuring equipment (DME).
                                                                 The SPP uses the following tools to ensure operational
                                                                 airspace is protected:
Surveillance facilities
Surveillance facilities monitor air routes and aircraft          • for Leased Federal and other airports—the OLS and the
movements to assist ATC with more accurate information             PANS-OPS surface
on aircraft position. This reduces the need for voice
communications between ATC and the pilot. Surveillance           • for defence airfields and joint-user airfields—Height
facilities used in Queensland are:                                 Restriction Zones pursuant to the Defence (Areas Control)
                                                                   Regulations 1989 (DACR) under the Defence Act 1903.
• Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR)

• Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)

• Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)
  surveillance system

• Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control
  System (A-SMGCS).

                                                                                                                                 25
APPENDIX 1
Obstacle Limited Surface (OLS)                                     Procedures for Air Navigation Services—Aircraft
The OLS for an airport is a surface which defines the              Operations Surface (PANS-OPS)
operational airspace that should be kept free of obstacles         The PANS-OPS surface determines the operational airspace
for aircraft operations being conducted under visual               a pilot is required to use when flying an aircraft under non-
operations. The OLS can extend up to 15 kilometres from            visual operations, that is, when relying on instruments for
the end of runways at major airports.                              navigation. This normally occurs during poor visibility or
                                                                   inclement weather. The PANS-OPS surface protects aircraft
An obstacle that encroaches into OLS airspace is not
                                                                   from colliding with obstacles when flying using instruments.
automatically prohibited. However, pre-existence of a
structure or other obstacle in OLS airspace does not               Under Regulation 9 of the Airports (Protection of Airspace)
necessarily mean that a new proposal to encroach into              Regulations 1996, a permanent encroachment into PANS-
OLS airspace will be approved. The aim is to ensure that all       OPS airspace for a Leased Federal airport is not permitted.
obstacles that encroach into OLS airspace can be identified        For other airports, development should seek to avoid
and assessed by the relevant airport manager, CASA and/            any permanent encroachments into PANS-OPS airspace.
or Airservices Australia for their potential impact upon the       However, if all stakeholders agree that a permanent
safety and efficiency of airport operations. The assessment        encroachment into PANS-OPS airspace is essential, the
will determine whether the encroachment is permissible and         PANS-OPS surface should be raised so it is clear of the
if so, whether any risk mitigation requirements (e.g. lighting)    development causing the intrusion. This may cause
need to be imposed to protect operational safety.                  operational restrictions for airport operations and could
                                                                   result in greater impacts on the community, for example
                                                                   re-design of flight paths which increases the population
                                                                   exposed to high levels of aircraft noise.

Height Restriction Zones                                           Australian Government role
The DACR specifies Height Restriction Zones for Queensland         Part 12 of the Airports Act 1996 and the Airports (Protection
defence airfields at Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) base        of Airspace) Regulations 1996 establishes mechanisms
Townsville, RAAF base Amberley, RAAF base Scherger and             for the declaration of ‘prescribed airspace’ at and around
Army Aviation Centre, Oakey. The height restrictions may           Leased Federal airports.
limit the height of new structures or additions to existing
structures to heights of 7.5, 15, 45 or 90 metres above            CASA sets the standards used to determine the OLS and
ground level. If a building, structure or natural object (e.g. a   PANS-OPS surface for strategic airports. An airport manager
tree) encroaches into the Height Restriction Zone prescribed       is responsible for determining the OLS and PANS-OPS
for the defence airfield, an approval is required from DoD.        surface applicable to the airport. Height Restriction Zones
                                                                   for Queensland’s defence airfields are depicted by maps in
                                                                   the schedules of the Defence (Areas Control) Regulations.

                                                                   Under Part 139 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations, CASA
                                                                   must be notified of any object extending to a height of 110
                                                                   metres or more above ground level (even if the obstacle
                                                                   to located outside of OLS airspace). Any object extending
                                                                   to a height of 150 metres or more above ground level is
                                                                   considered to be an obstacle unless assessed by CASA
                                                                   to be otherwise.

                                                                                                                                   26
APPENDIX 1
What is a public safety area?                                    PSAs are also required for other runways (i.e. secondary or
                                                                 cross-runways) of strategic airports where the runway meets
(PSA)                                                            the aircraft movements threshold listed above (i.e. has
                                                                 greater than 10 000 aircraft movements per year [excluding
A PSA is a defined area at the end of a strategic airport’s      light aircraft movements]).
runway where there is potentially an increased risk of an
aircraft accident occurring. The probability of an accident      The strategic framework and land use strategies in a local
occurring during any single aviation operation is very low.      planning instrument should ensure that future land uses
However, an analysis of aircraft accidents reported to the       and development do not increase risk to public safety by
International Civil Aviation Organisation since 1970 suggests    avoiding:
most accidents that do occur, occur immediately beyond
the ends of a runway—up to 1000 metres before the runway         • significant increases in people living, working or
during landing or up to 500 metres beyond the runway end           congregating in a PSA
on take-off. During this time the aircraft is aligned with       • the use or storage of hazardous, explosive or flammable
the extended runway centreline and is relatively close             materials in a PSA.
to the ground.
                                                                 Table A on the next page identifies the strategic airports
PSAs define the area in which development should be              which require a PSA for the specific runways and those
restricted in order to protect the safety of both aircraft       strategic airports where the local government has put a
passengers, property and people on the ground in the             PSA in place at their own discretion.
event of an aircraft accident during landing or take-off.

A PSA is required at the each end of a strategic airport’s
main runway if:

• the airport is listed as a ‘Commonwealth place’
  under the Commonwealth Places (Application of Laws) Act
  1970

• the airport is a defence airfield subject to the Defence Act
  (Areas Control) Regulations 1989

• the runway meets the following criteria:

     – regular public transport jet aircraft services are
       provided, or
     – greater than 10 000 aircraft movements occur
       per year (excluding light aircraft movements).

                                                                                                                               27
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