The Nameless World of Harry Potter

The Nameless World of Harry Potter

Patterson 1 The Nameless World of Harry Potter Diana Patterson The title of this paper will be explained a bit later. But let me begin by describing the origin of this research. I admit, openly, that my idea of what Harry Potter looks like is Thomas Taylor’s Harry next to the Hogwarts Express, looking utterly amazed at all the new information he is learning about the Wizarding world. I very much dislike the Harry with a Superman cape who looks as if he is suffering from some mental weakness while flying on a broom under an archway. I realize that had I seen the Mary GrandPré image along with my first reading, I might feel differently about it.

Still, my bias is out in the open. Because I feel strongly about the American image, I began to wonder why a great many of the translations used the American cover rather than the image which would have accompanied the original book. This paper discusses how the use of the American cover came about as part of the translation process, and the result of the publishing agreements struck in the globalized publishing market.

Thus, this paper deals with publishing, a most appropriate subject for presentation at the University of Reading, the home of Records of British Publishing and Printing, where the archives of 39 publishing firms are located, as well as many related records from printers, paper makers, writer’s unions, and so on. Because I am not expecting my audience to be full of copyright lawyers and book historians, I shall briefly supply some background about what someone like J.K. Rowling has to sell as a commodity, and how we all get to read Harry Potter, and possibly, some of this will be useful in explaining why the fan fiction that some of you write will not be legally disseminated in hard copy to your readers.

The author of a novel typically gives to the publisher the right to make copies of the work for a specific geographical area for a format (usually a book) or formats (film, audio book, and so on). A first author, even one with an agent, usually gives first world rights: the publisher can sell the book anywhere, and gets the whole edition, and can then sell the rights to geographical subareas and any translations. The film rights may be explicitly excluded to make the author feel good. With the average first novel, the author is giving away a great deal on paper, but since the work is unlikely to go much past the author’s front door, nobody really cares.

Occasionally, a book takes off, and the author realizes that the publisher has obtained the world rights and sold a portion of those rights to another publisher or to a subsidiary. For instance, they have sold the translation rights for one or two languages, or some foreign rights in the same language, and the author gets a bit more in royalties and is happy. Once in many blue moons, the rights of a book become a huge commodity, and the author and the original agent wish they had conspired to sell only national rights, not world rights, or only one language, or only one edition. But by then it is usually too late.

Joanne Rowling, of course, had a book that was a publishing phenomenon almost at once. And the rights have been both a curse and a blessing, to the author, the agent, and the readers around the world. The rights have taken on a kind of horrifying life of their own, and those images of Mary GrandPré’s versions of Harry are an indication of just what has happened in the sale of rights.

I cannot prove exactly what the first publishing agreement between Jo Rowling, The Christopher Little Literary Agency, and Bloomsbury looked like. I do have some clues, and I

can tell you for certain that a great deal of the information available on the web about this transaction is false or misleading. So beware. The most reliable source for information (other than the books themselves) so far is Sean Smith’s J.K. Rowling: A Biography, although there is suspect information even here. Smith seems to have relied heavily on Bryony Evens, who used to work for the Little Agency when Rowling submitted her manuscript but then left to join O’Mara Books, the publisher of Smith’s biography of Rowling.1 Evens reports the usual terms are that Little receives his profits based on a percentage of sales of books broken into areas (representing the sale of rights) for the home market, film, US, and translations (Smith 135).

These percentages would imply that the Little Agency would attempt to negotiate these rights separately. On the other hand, Evens had trouble getting a publisher to accept this book, which might have meant some negotiations. James Aritchie points out that usually world rights are sold for a novel, because one of the important things publishers make money on with novels is selling subsidiary rights (Aritchie). The chances that with Rowling’s first book Little was able to negotiate only UK or European rights seems incredible. And Forbes.com claims that it was Bloomsbury that gave the proofs of Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone to Arthur Levine of Scholastic Publishing to read on the plane on his way back from the Bologna Book Fair (DiCarlo).

Sara Heiberger in her interview with Levine says he obtained the manuscript at the Bologna Book Fair and read it on the way home (Heiberger). On the other hand, Smith claims that Levine read the book on the way to the Bologna Book Fair (152), owing to the fact that Janet Hogarth from Bloomsbury had left that firm to join Scholastic. The logical place for the American rights to be auctioned would be at the Bologna Book Fair; that’s what a book fair is about: selling rights. But all sources seem to claim that the auction happened in New York, and that Christopher Little personally phoned Jo Rowling from New York to say that Levine had bought the rights for $105,000, the largest sum ever paid at that time for the rights to a children’s book (e.g., Smith 152-3).

There are several problems with this description of events. First is that the Bologna Children’s Book Fair is typically at the end of March or at the beginning of April. Bloomsbury claims they published The Philosopher’s Stone in June 1997, and that The Sorcerer’s Stone did not appear until October 1998 (Bloomsbury). Several sources claim that the US rights were sold within three days of the publication of the Bloomsbury first edition (e.g., Gilan). Assuming this is so, Levine is bidding on the rights in June, more than two months after the Bologna Children’s Book Fair, whether he had been coming or going to it.

What this should mean is that if the rights’ sale had not been completed at the Bologna fair, they might have been put up for sale at BookExpo America, a book fair that happens at the end of May or beginning of June each year. But in 1997, BookExpo was in Chicago, not New York (Furtelle). And whether the rights were being auctioned by Bloomsbury or Christopher Little is similarly problematic; the Bologna book fair and BookExpo America have areas for both publishers and agents to market their wares (Bologna, BookExpo America). The one absolutely reliable piece of information is the verso (back) of the title page in the Arthur Levine edition of The Sorcerer’s Stone which says that the book is published ‘by arrangement with Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.’ By contrast, The Order of the Phoenix published by Arthur A.

Levine Books makes no mention of arrangements with anyone. Therefore, it is virtually certain that Bloomsbury bought the English language rights, if not the world rights, for The 1 Smith’s book seems reliable, and yet as there are not proper footnotes, and no specific interview with Evens is cited in the bibliography, exactly where information comes from is disturbingly difficult to detect.

Patterson 3 Philosopher’s Stone. Owing to the huge sum he invested in Harry Potter, Levine knew he had to make it pay. Thus he worked closely with Rowling to ‘adapt’ the text to the American market (Heiberger). We know that he changed the title, and changed 80 words or phrases, which are clearly mapped out in The Harry Potter Lexicon (Olsen). In addition, letters and documents are written in script, small images were added to start each chapter, and the cover art was changed to create an American-looking boy wearing a Superman cape, with sneaky and mysterious magical images in the background, which look vaguely Arabesque.

Although the Lexicon does not note other changes, nearly every page of the text has been altered in the American edition to include commas and periods according to something like the Chicago Manual of Style editing policy. Alas, commas necessary for grammatical sense are often ignored, but other commas are carefully added.

Another result of the huge sum Levine paid for the American rights is that he did not attempt to acquire North American rights,2 thereby allowing a small distribution house in Canada, Raincoast Books, to obtain Canadian rights. They are notable for being the first press to have 100% recycled paper in The Order of the Phoenix, and thus having a special notice by J.K. Rowling herself on the half-title page3 to praise their use of forest-friendly paper. Alas, just to illustrate the insidiousness of rights acquisition, I shall point out that Listen Libraries, publisher of the Jim Dale audiobook versions of the Rowling titles, did acquire the North American rights, and thus, we Canadians get the English text, but the American audiobook, so that some poor dyslexic following along in his book with Jim Dale reading is utterly confused!4 A small digression is in order here to clarify some other publishing issues that have become somewhat ridiculous rumours on the web.

In the UK, Canada, Australia, South Africa, and so on, it is possible to obtain Adult Editions of the Potter books. These adult editions are not to make adult readers feel better about reading a child’s book on the Underground. They were created in an act of retaliation for a political move made by the booksellers and publishers associations. The Potter books were occupying the top spots on the bestseller lists in the UK for months. There is an official bestseller list with data supplied by booksellers (see thebookseller.com). So the booksellers’ association decided to create a children’s bestsellers list to relegate Rowling to a kind of sideline.

So Bloomsbury put out editions of the books specifically stating that they were for adults. The Potter books again reached the top of the adult bestseller lists, again angering the booksellers and publishers who wanted newer books to appear at the top of this publicity instrument for selling books. This is not an isolated incident. The bestseller producers pulled a similar stunt in 1996 when the 2 Note above that Smith’s retelling of Little’s method of collecting royalties mentions only US rights.

3 The half-title is the page before the title page proper, usually having only the title, not the publisher or date on it. Not all books have half-titles. 4 Jim Dale’s incomprehensible mispronunciation of Hermione’s name, possibly because he felt that he should use an Americanised pronunciation, does not help the Canadian reader/listener much either. I say this is incomprehensible because Jim Dale, born in Northamptonshire, would have been well aware of the famous English character actress Hermione Gingold, if no other Hermiones, given his age. Gingold died in 1987, when Dale was 52 and had done a string of comic films, a medium in which Gingold was famous.

bestselling books were the Penguin 60p titles. The bestsellers list simply disqualified these Penguin titles from their lists as if they were not real books. Also in October 1998, Warner Bros. bought the film rights to the first two books. By the time the first film appeared in 2001, the rights took on a horrible life of their own. And here is where the title of this paper, The Nameless World of Harry Potter, will become clear. About 2000, Warner Bros. must have negotiated something beyond the film rights, and bought the names of characters and things in Harry Potter and the ‘indicia,’ a term which seems to mean the Harry Potter logo, originally appearing on the Mary GrandPré artwork, drawn by her, apparently.5 This purchase of additional rights is unusual, although, as Ivan Hoffman points out, children’s books always have more than just publishing rights, as they might be accompanied by games, toys, and so on, the rights of which are sold as separate commodities (Hoffman).

Non-English language translations that managed to be published before 2000 tend to have artwork created by an illustrator commissioned by the non-English language publisher, except for the modern Greek edition, published in 1998, which uses the Thomas Taylor illustrations. But once we pass 2000, those books published previously which have managed to get reprinted, and all subsequent translations up to about 2004, have or had at one point the American HP logo, and have, usually in English, a statement that Warner Bros. owns the names and indicia of Harry Potter. Those publishers who purchased translation rights after 1999 are very likely to use the American covers.

The reason is Warner Bros. Accio (2005) is the first UK conference about Harry Potter. But there are have been other conferences in the U.S., Canada, and Australia. Those who have run these conferences have had problems with using the name ‘Harry Potter’ because it belongs to Warner Bros. And the people at Nimbus (2003) had problems even with advertising material related to Harry Potter. At the Nimbus 2003 Symposium there was a session on copyright where publishers of literary criticism shared their horror stories of dealing with Warner Bros. and the Christopher Little Literary Agency who did not appear to understand the concept of literary criticism, and wanted to limit the ability to quote from the original works as well as use of the names and logos (Anatole).

Both of these organisations have relaxed somewhat. Jo Rowling has allowed fan fiction to use the copyrighted names, so long as they do not appear in printed form. But still, using the name ‘Harry Potter’ can be dangerous unless it is accompanied by a statement that it is copyrighted and trademarked by Warner Bros. Now the name of this paper, ‘The Nameless World of Harry Potter’ may make some sense — conferences and book titles often do not use the names of characters because those names are Warner Bros.’ names and should have a copyright or trademark symbol beside them. Similarly, fan fiction reusing Rowling’s names are tolerated so long as they remain in the ether and not in printed form.

Let us now look at the impact of Warner Bros on the art work of the first Potter 5 There is some ambiguity because GrandPré is credited with the artwork, but is credited jointly with David Saylor for the dust jacket design. Typefaces and lettering are usually associated with the design rather than the illustration. The precise text on the title page verso says: Illustrations copyright © 1998 by Mary GrandPré All rights reserved. Published by Scholastic Press, a division of Scholastic Inc. Jacket art by Mary GrandPré. Jacket design by Mary GrandPré and David Saylor. This book was art directed by David Saylor and designed by Becky Terhune.

The art for both the jacket and interior was created using pastels on toned printmaking paper.

Patterson 5 volume, both for domestic publication and for the indigenous artwork that has or that might have appeared on translations of Rowling’s works. First, see what the film did to the British and Canadian version of The Philosopher’s Stone. The early printings had a wizard in a fez-like version of a turban on the back cover. Presumably this is Quirrell as Thomas Taylor imagined him. When Warner Bros. decided to put Quirrell in a Sikh turban, the image on the back was changed to Dumbledore, who clearly looks a bit more like the portrayal by Richard Harris in the film. You might notice that this character seems to have a distorted right hand, which may have been why the drawing was rejected originally.

Now turning to the translations, we can start with Japan because they had not gone into a second printing of The Philosopher’s Stone as of 2004, when I was able to get a copy. The Japanese artwork and translation are copyright-dated 1999. Many details in the book are left in English, including the copyright information and the name ‘Harry Potter’ on the cover, made into a logo with a broom. By the time The Chamber of Secrets was translated and printed in 2000, the notice of Warner Bros.’s copyright of the characters and indicia appeared, and the logo taken from Mary GrandPré’s artwork was now on the cover.

However, the Japanese have stuck with their artist, Dan Schlesinger. The story is much the same with most, but not all, translations: if the translation rights were acquired by 1999, the cover art is very likely done by a local artist. If the translation rights were acquired after 1999, the cover art is most likely to be Mary GrandPré’s artwork, sometimes altered in order to match the reading direction of the alphabet. Thus, although Harry flies on his broomstick from left to right in the American original, he flies from right to left in Hebrew, and Taiwanese because these languages read from right to left After 2000, the lettering designed by Mary GrandPré was used by all translated editions, even those in other alphabets, save for the Japanese, which uses the lettering only on the English name — still it is there.

So when a book was reprinted or went into a second edition, the lettering was changed to use the Warner Bros.’ indicia somewhere on the cover. The most striking examples are those using other alphabets, so that we can see Hebrew, Ukrainian, and Thai lettering tortured into the lightning design created by GrandPré. That this was Warner Bros.’ doing rather than a free choice is evident first by the ubiquitousness of the logo, and secondly by the wording attached to each book in its copyright statement, viz: ‘Harry Potter, names, characters and related indicia are copyright and trademark Warner Bros., 2000.’6 This wording appears in English, exactly as stated, except where there is a typographical error in the Czech version.

So far I have found only a few attempts to translate this copyright statement, in Spanish and in Hungarian, except for the Bloomsbury publications in Welsh and Irish. The books have been translated presumably 6 The occurrence of the comma after ‘Harry Potter’ is very odd, and probably ought not to be there syntactically, another indication of the dictation by Warner Bros., and possibly the fear to translate the phrase. Only the Finnish translation leaves out that comma after ‘Harry Potter’ possibly because someone knew English very well, rather than that the typist made an error. And the Spanish translation uses ‘Harry Potter’ as an adjective rather than a noun, so that someone here, too, saw that the comma was a mistake.

Yet another quirky use of this phrase occurs recently: Bloomsbury has taken to adding a trademark symbol at the end of the phrase, which seems to mean that the year 2000 has been trademarked by Warner Bros. I wonder if someone is having a good laugh. See the appendix below for Irish, Welsh, Latin, and Ancient Greek translations.

because the expected reader does not read English, or at least does not read English comfortably, and thus the presence of this statement, exactly the same, in English appears to be absurd, particularly in books in languages that do not use the Roman alphabet. Clearly publishers have been ordered to reproduce this statement exactly, and so they have done so— in some ways they have thus undermined the whole point of such a notice. Clearly the important thing is that Warner Bros. could read the notice, not that any potential copyright violator could read it.

Mary GrandPré, by the way, is not collecting royalties on all these uses of her design of the Harry Potter name, nor on the reuse of her cover art.

Heidi Tandy reported on a talk given by GrandPré where she said that she did not own the copyright to her artwork, which was sold for a lump sum payment, but she does receive some compensation ‘in lieu of royalties’ (Tandy). Tandy goes on to claim that she understood Warner Bros. to have ‘some rights to it as well.’ Clearly, Warner Bros. has bought the complete cover art in order to own the ‘indicia.’ Precisely how the cover art is sold to non-English publishers seems to be negotiated individually. I quote at length from Amber Fredman, a spokesperson for Warner Bros.: First, it is important for me to emphasize that J.K.

Rowling has retained most print publishing rights to Harry Potter. The publishing agreements for the Harry Potter books are between the publisher and the author, and are not between the publishers and Warner Bros. Many of the terms of those agreements and the arrangements agreed between the author and Warner Bros. that relate to their operation (the use of artwork, etc.) are confidential. That said, I can say that different market trends, local custom, business strategies and local laws have all played a part in bringing about what you have observed in terms of the differences between the various printings.

(Fredman) The interpretation of this official statement might be that most print publishing rights means ‘after The Philosopher’s Stone’, when the value of the commodity allowed Rowling and the Christopher Little Agency to market individual rights. Rowling’s control is also only on the text of the books, so that each publisher starts with Rowling’s text, not the American version of the text, a possibility that might be assumed considering the American cover art. The ‘operation’ means any use of the name ‘Harry Potter’ which is owned by Warner Bros., meaning that there is no getting out of dealing with Warner Bros.

in the creation of covers. One clue to the precise moment when Warner Bros. purchased the cover art is provided by copies of the dust jackets of The Sorcerer’s Stone. As it happens, I have two hardcover copies of this volume, one the 29th printing, dated 1999, and the other the 38th printing, dated 2000, and one 17th printing of the paperback edition, still dated 1999.7 The 1999 dust jacket says the cover art is copyright 1998 by Mary GrandPré. The 2000 dust jacket says that the cover art is by Mary GrandPré but omits her copyright symbol. The American paperback edition, first published in September 1999, still had Mary GrandPré as copyright holder, and does not use the Warner Bros.

phrase, so we may assume the Warner Bros. purchase happened in early 2000. The interior of the book printed in 2000, however, has not been altered to mention Warner Bros.

Because The Philosopher’s Stone is the book most likely to have been translated before Warner Bros. began enforcing their indicia use in 2000, these are the covers that shall be examined in the spoken version of this paper. See the tables below in the appendix for a 7 See the appendix at the end for the details.

Patterson 7 detailed comparison of the differences in such things as copyright notices, use of logos, and so on. There are several points that can be seen by a detailed examination of translations. First, the sudden shift to the use of the Mary GrandPré artwork after 2000 shows that Warner Bros.

sold the copyright of the artwork at the same price or with only a slight increase in price as the trademarked name ‘Harry Potter’ with the lightning bolt. Most covers include the symbol ™ beside that name when it is added to indigenous artwork, but most users of the full GrandPré artwork do not.8 A particularly interesting example illustrating the shift to the full artwork is the Turkish edition of The Philosopher’s Stone. Harry Potter ve Felsefe TaÕi was published in 2001,9 with a cover using only a portion of the Mary GrandPré artwork. In fact, the selection is well made in that the cover is plain pink with the title, author and translator’s names in a simple, sans serif typeface.

Below the lettering is an arched-shaped portion of the American artwork, showing Harry under an arch, catching the snitch. Since the titling has been removed from the stone arch within the drawing itself, the snitch is much easier to see, and thus Harry’s raised eyes seem to have a point and he looks considerably less foolish. GrandPré’s artwork has all the arabesque qualities that would appeal to a middle-eastern audience—no need for an indigenous artist in such circumstances. However, the copy as I received it had a heavy wrapper placed around the original paper cover. The heavy wrapper has the full Mary GrandPré artwork, including the trademarked ‘Harry Potter’ and the subtitle placed back on the drawing, on the arch, again obscuring the snitch and making Harry look more than a bit distracted.

No mention is made of Warner Bros. copyright or indicia either within the book or on the original or replacement covers.10 One suspects that the fact that Turkey did not sign the Trademark Law Treaty until 2005, whereas the US signed it in 2000, might have had something to do with this ability to ignore the use of Warner Bros.’ name as trademark holder (WIPO).

What is noticeable in the late addition of the lightning-bolt name to artwork other than GrandPré’s is that usually the style of lettering does not go well with the overall book design. The French artwork by Jean-Claude Götting would be one I would single out for two reasons: first, the artwork on the cover of the copy I own, which appears to be 2001, is very modern in style and uses sans serif typefaces, except for the use of a serif type for the subtitle (À l’école 8 See the Appendix below for mention of the use of the trademark symbol on each cover and title page.

9 The date 2001 may be a ‘publisher’s year’ date.

Books published at the end of a calendar year frequently have the date of the coming year placed on them so that they appear fresher to subsequent purchasers. Thus any of the dates mentioned in these books, unless they also include the month, may be publisher’s years rather than actual years. 10 The one printed change on the cover is the addition of the TEMA logo, motto and phone number. TEMA is an organization that funds a number of ecological projects, research, and public relations work. An organization that seems connected to the publisher appears to contribute to TEMA (TEMA). But such an addition could have been made to the original cover through the use of a much cheaper sticker.

And another holographic sticker, from an as yet unidentified organization, was added to the wrapper. That this addition of TEMA is not the reason for the addition of the wrapper is clear: TEMA promoted reforestation and would be against cutting down trees for the additional paper used in the wrapper.

des sorciers); second, the covers of the first three books have been redesigned recently, presumably since 2003, when Book 5 was published, because Book 5 has the trademarked ‘Harry Potter’, but the Harry Potter ‘indicia’ have been removed from the reprints of the first three books and replaced by the typeface from the subtitle, clearly originally used for the full title.11 Thus, this paper can end on an up beat. While Warner Bros. seems to have repressively controlled the words ‘Harry Potter’, thus controlling much of the advertising, in all languages and media, there are signs that they have understood that the many web sites, books, translations, and fan fiction do not detract from the films but build interest in them.

The easiest method of seeing this change in attitude is in the post-2004 printings, or possibly editions,12 or translations of the texts. Some of the new covers of editions using indigenous artwork, besides Gallimard’s French translations, have dispensed with the Mary GrandPré lightning-bolt lettering. So far these include the German translations published by Carlsen and the Spanish translations published by Salamandra (Bloomsbury ‘Harry Potter’). This change can only mean that Warner Bros. no longer fears for its franchise, and book designers can get on with designing their book covers to suit their national artists and their personal tastes.

However, those translations begun just before the release of the first film are likely to continue using the American art, and thus the Warner Bros. effect is going to be a lasting one. Works Cited Anatol, Giselle, John Granger, Edmund Kern, et al. ‘Publishing on Potter: Dodging the Bludgers Panel Discussion.’ We Solemnly Swear These Papers Were Worth the Wait: Selected Papers? from Nimbus-2003: A Harry Potter Symposium. Walt Disney World 11 The website for Gallimard, www.harrypotter.gallimard-jeunesse.fr/Pages/ Livres/GabaritLivres.html, as of 1 June 2005, still shows the original covers, but the Bloomsbury website, www.bloomsbury.com/harrypotter/default.asp?sec=2, shows the revised covers.

12 A new edition of a book is somehow significantly different from the first. The original meaning was that the type had been reset—in other words, even if the pages contain essentially the same words, someone had changed more than half the physical letters (Gaskell 313). The University of Chicago’s definition is that something significant has changed in the text, the Preface, or the Afterword; they do not think that the paperback version of the text should constitute a new edition (Chicago 1.21-22). Probably the truth lies somewhere between these two. If the reference to a page number would change because words are now on different pages, it makes sense to call the text a new edition.

Thus, despite the publisher’s title, the adult, children’s, and magic editions of all the Harry Potter books from Bloomsbury, Raincoast, and Allen & Unwin are the same editions. Every word and every typo remains the same on the same page. However, when Bloomsbury put out the new adult editions in 2004, the pages are a completely different size, and so any reference to text from these books would require different page numbers, and so the 2004 adult editions really are the 2nd edition of the Potter texts, and cannot be called ‘reprints’ or ‘reissues’ which are really part of the same edition just printed at a different time from the first printing.

Here is a simple example: In the PoA children’s edition (hard cover or soft), adult edition (1999), and magic edition, Harry falls off his broom after seeing the Dementors on p. 134. In the 2004 adult edition, he falls off on p. 194.

Patterson 9 Swan and Dolphin July 17-20, 2003. Houston: HP Education Fandom, 2004. Aritchie, James. ‘The Write Community — First Novel Draws $2M.’ Post 16 Jul 2004, 08:33:34. www.writermag.com/wrt/community/forum/topic.asp?page= - 1&TOPIC_ID=4957&REPLY_ID=33836 Bloomsbury. ‘Harry Potter’ Path: Harry Potter; Books; Foreign www.bloomsbury.com/ harrypotter/default.asp?sec=2. ‘ Time Line’ www.bloombury.com Path: Harry Potter; Books; Timeline. Bologna Children’s Book Fair. www.bookfair.bolognafiere.it BookExpo American. www.bookexpoamerica.com Chicago Manual of Style. 14th ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1993.

DiCarlo, Lisa. ‘The Transformers:Harry Potter And The Triumph Of Scholastic’. Forbes.com. 9 May 2002. /www.forbes.com/2002/05/09/0509harrypotter.html Fredman, Amber. ‘Warner Bros agreements with publishers of translations.’ Personal e-mail to Diana Patterson. 20 October 2004.

Futrelle, David. ‘Bookend’ Salon Magazine. 4 July 1997. archive.salon.com/june97/media /media970604.html Gaskell, Philip. A New Introduction to Bibliography. New York: Oxford UP, 1972. Gilan, Galit.‘Book Beat: Potter Mania’ [2003] www.tim.co.il/main/siteNew/ index.php?page= 52&stId=880&action=display Heiberger, Sara. ‘Arthur Levine ’84: How the best-selling wizard got to the New World’. Brown University Alumni Magazine. Dec. 2001. /www.brownalumnimagazine.com/ storydetail.cfm?ID=421 Hoffman, Ivan. ‘Children’s Book Publishing.’ 2002. www.ivanhoffman.com/ childrenspublishing.html The Hogwarts Gallery.

‘Books Cover Art.’ www.hogwarts-gallery.org/ hogwartsgallery/category.php?cat=176&expand=169,176,169,169&start=32 , pages 3–5.

Olsen, Edward. ‘British/US Editions’ Harry Potter Lexicon. www.hp-lexicon.org Path: Enter; British/US Editions. Smith, Sean. J.K. Rowling: A Biography. Rev. ed. London: Michael O’Mara Books, 2003. Tandy, Heidi. ‘Report from the Mary GrandPré Talk’ The Leaky Cauldron. 17 Nov. 2003. www.the-leaky-cauldron.ord/MTarchives/week_2003_11_16.html TEMA. The Turkish Foundation for Combating Soil Erosion, for Reforestation, and the Protection of Natural Habitats. english.tema.org.tr. Path: About Us; Our Supporters WIPO. Word Intellectual Property Organisation. ‘Treaties and Contracting Parties’ c. 1 January 2005.

www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ Path: Trademark Law Treaty; Contracting Parties.

Appendix I Harry Potter title page verso information on copyrights Taken from The Philosopher’s Stone (save in the U.S. where it is The Sorcerer’s Stone): Editions with the Mary GrandPré Illustrations American. Arthur A. Levine. (New York: hardcover 1998; this printing 38/00; also checked against 29/99) From title page verso: ‘Illustrations copyright © 1998 by Mary GrandPré All rights reserved. Published by Scholastic Press, a division of Scholastic Inc., Publishers since 1920 by arrangement with Bloomsbury Publishing Plc . First American edition, October 1998.’ On the dust jacket of the 29th printing: Jacket art © 1998 by Mary GrandPré Jacket design by Mary GrandPré and David Saylor’ On the dust jacket of the 38th printing: ‘Jacket art by Mary GrandPré Jacket design by Mary GrandPré and David Saylor.’ Colophon: ‘This book was art directed by David Saylor and designed by Becky Terhune.

The art for both the jacket and interior was created using pastels on toned printmaking paper. The text was set in 12-point Adobe Garamond, a typeface based on the sixteenth-century type designs of Claude Garamond, redrawn by Robert Slimback in 1989. This book was printed and bound at Quebecor Fairfield, in Fairfield, Pennsylvania. The production was supervised by Angela Biola and Mike Derevjanik.’ The Lightning logo appears only on the dust jacket. The title page and gold embossing on the spine use the Hogwarts typeface. The American edition has made the following physical changes to the text: an illustration appears at the start of each chapter, and letters and other documents are made into facsimiles, with signatures, pseudo-printing, letterheads, and so on.

Israeli. Proza (Tel Aviv: 2001) From title page verso: ‘Cover Artwork © Warner Bros. A division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P.’ There is no obvious mention of internal illustrations, yet this edition has a full set of internal MG illustrations for chapter titles. Letters are somewhat italicized, but not elaborate facsimiles. The verso of the title page incorrectly attributes the 2000 date to J.K. Rowling, rather than WB. The name ‘Hari Potr’ in Hebrew has been written so that two of the characters, ‘h‘’ and ‘hôl.m-v~v’ have their stems turned into lighting bolts in the manner of MG.

This logo style of name does not appear on the title page; however, the Hogwarts crest from the UK edition appears on the verso of the half-title. Indicia are not mentioned. Mary GrandPré’s name, transliterated into Hebrew, appears on the inside cover flap at the front, but without a copyright symbol.

Portuguese. Editorial Presença (Lisboa: claims to be 11th edition. 1st edition 1999; 11th 2001) Translation by Isabel Fraga. This volume was later retranslated. From the title page verso: ‘Capa: Illustração de Mary GrandPré © Warner Bros. A division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P.’ There are no internal illustrations. Letters and documents are in italics. The ‘Harry Potter’ lightning logo with ™ appears on the front cover, and without the ™ on the spine. The ‘HP’ logo with the snitch appears without a ™ on the back. Neither logo is used inside.

Hungarian. Animus (Budapest: 2001) From the title page verso: ‘A Harry Potter nevet, a könyvsorozat szereplÅinek, színhelyeinek és tárgyainak nevét engedély nélkül felhasználni tilos.

Warner Bros. © 2000 Illustrations [but there are no internal illustrations] by Mary GrandPré from Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone by J.K.

Patterson 11 Rowling. [sic] Published by Arthur Levine Books, an imprint of Scholastic Press, a division of Scholastic Inc. Illustrations copyright © 1998 by Scholastic Inc.’ Obviously some of this is incorrect according to the American edition. The only internal illustration is a small owl, not by GrandPré, that appears on each chapter uniformly. Letters, etc. are in a typewriter face. The ‘Harry Potter’ logo appears on the front cover portion of the cover and dust jacket — these are identical — on the half-title, and on the title page, all without the ™.

Brazilian. Rocco (Rio de Janeiro: 2000) From title page verso: ‘Arte de Capa © Warner Bros.

A division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P.’ Indicia are not mentioned and Mary GrandPré is not mentioned within the book nor on the cover. There are no internal illustrations. A note on the back cover flap claims that the book is already translated into 31 languages in 42 countries. The ‘Harry Potter’ logo is is on the front cover trademarked, but not on the spine, back or anywhere inside. The title page uses the typeface from the UK edition, and uses the Hogwarts crest. Letters and other documents are in italics and small caps.

Norwegian. N.W. Damm & Søn. ([Oslo]: 2000) From the title page verso: ‘Omslagsillustrasjon: © Warner Bros. A division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P . Published by agreement with Christopher Little Literary Agency, London. ’ There is no mention of indicia. The ‘Harry Potter’ logo (in blue and purple) appears on the cover, on the half-title, and on the title page without the ™ symbol. It does not appear on the spine, or the back. The Hogwarts typeface appears on the dust jacket, the covers, and extensively inside. Letters and documents are in facsimile, but there are no internal illustrations.

Mary GrandPré is not mentioned within the book, nor on the dust jacket.

Russian. Rosmen (Moscow: 2000) From title page verso: ‘Illustrations by Mary GrandPré from HARRY POTTER AND THE SORCERER’S STONE by J.K. Rowling. Published by Arthur Levine Books, an imprint of Scholastic Press, a division of Scholastic Inc. Illustrations copyright © 1998 by Scholastic Inc. Used by permission. [except there are no internal illustrations.] Cover Artwork © Warner Bros. A division of Time Warner Entertainment company [sic] L.P. Harry Potter, names, characters and related indicia are copyright and trademark Warner Bros. © 2000’. Letters and other internal documents are italicized only.

The ‘Harry Potter’ name, transliterated into Russian, in a design attempting to look like GrandPré’s design, has at trademark symbol beside it. Interestingly, the character like gamma, representing G, begins Harry’s name, so he is Garry Potter, and that gamma has been turned into the lightning bolt. Compare this transliteration with the Bulgarian version. The Warner Bros. ‘HP’ design also appears on the cover with a trademark symbol. Both of these trademarked images appear on the title page as well. It would appear that someone is unclear about what all this English verbiage means.

Bulgarian. Egmont Bschchlgariya. (Sofia: 2001) From the half-title verso: ‘Harry Potter, names, characters and related indicia are copyright and trademark Warner Bros. © 2001 [sic] Cover Artwork ©Warner Bros. A division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P.’ A lightning logo without ™ appears on the front cover, the half-title, and the title page, but not on the spine. The Hogwarts crest from the UK edition is also on the half-title page. The Bulgarian transliteration of the title is ‘Khary Pot’r’ where the pi-like character has received the lightning-bolt treatment. Compare this transliteration with the Russian version.

There are no internal illustrations. Letters and

other documents are in italics. Thai. Nanmeebooks (Bankok: 2544 = 2001) From the title page verso: ‘Illustrations by Mary GrandPré from Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone by J.K. Rowling. Published by Arthur Levine Books, and imprint of Scholastic Press, a division of Scholastic Inc. Cover Artwork © Warner Bros. A division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P. Copyright arranged with Christopher Little Literary Agency 10 Eel Brook Studios, 125 Moor Park Road, London SW6 4PS, England Through Tuttle–Mori Agency Co., Ltd. Bangkok Harry Potter, names, characters and related indicia are copyright and trademark Warner Bros.

© 2000’. GrandPré’s chapter illustrations are used. The letters and documents are facsimiles in close approximation to the American edition’s. The snitch on the cover has been removed and replaced by the Warner Bros. ‘HP’ with snitch logo with a very tiny ™ below it. Taiwanese. Choice (seemingly an imprint of Crown Publishing). (Taipei: 2000): Contains a full poster of the cover artwork, presumably for removal. It has been reversed in keeping with the format of the book (right to left, rather than left to right). The poster has the full English lettering, and no Chinese characters except the copyright notice, which is beneath: ‘© Warner Bros.

A division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P.’ The cover flap says ‘Mary GrandPré’ with all other characters on the wrapper in Chinese. Within the text block, the copyright material is in a colophon (at the front by English reading direction): ‘Illustrations copyright © Warner Bros. A division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P. Complex Chinese Edition Copyright© [sic] 2000 by Crown Publishing Company Ltd., a division of Crown Culture Corporation. Complex Chinese Characters edition arrangement [sic] with Christopher Little Literary Agency. Harry Potter, names, characters and related indicia are copyright and trademark Warner Bros., 2000.

All Rights Reserved.’ The Mary GrandPré chapter illustrations are used for titles and as running heads (although some are simplified in the heads). The cover contains both Chinese complex characters modified to create a lightning-bolt title, plus the English ‘Harry Potter’ logo with ™. The ‘HP’ with snitch logo with ™ appears on the back cover. English words of the title and the author’s name are also in English, mixed with Chinese. Letters are simply in a smaller font, but the Hogwarts list includes something that looks like chops, presumably to represent a letterhead.

Croatian. Algoritam. (Zagreb: 2001). Facing the title page: ‘Cover Artwork © Warner Bros. A division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P. Harry Potter, names, characters and related indicia are copyright and trademark Warner Bros. © 2000’. The trademarked ‘Harry Potter’ appears on the title page, and on the spine without the ™. The ‘HP’ logo with the snitch appears on the back cover with the ™ symbol. The title page, however, has the words ‘Harry Potter’ in the same font as the UK edition and the Hogwarts crest from the UK edition. The cover artwork is repeated for use as endpapers. There are no internal illustrations.

Letters have in italics and full caps in some attempt to create facsimiles.

Korean. Moonhak Soochup (Gyunggi:1999) Published as 2 vols. On the front jacket flap: ‘Jacket art © 1999 by Mary GrandPré Jacket Design by Mary GrandPré and David Saylor.’ On the title page verso: ‘Translation Copyright © 1999 by Moonhak Soochup Publishing Co. Korean translation rights arranged with Christopher Little Agency through Eric Yang Agency, Seoul, Korea.’ No mention is made of Warner Bros. ‘Harry Potter’ transliterated into Korean has one character with a lightning-bolt stem. This character design is used on the front cover, the half-title, and title pages of both

Patterson 13 volumes.

The chapter illustrations and title page illustrations appear exactly as they do in the US edition, including the use of the chessboard squares. Facsimile letters look very much like US ones. Turkish. Yap2 Kredi Kültür Sanat Yay2nc2l2k. (Istanbul: 2001) Nowhere in the book is Warner Bros. or Mary GrandPré mentioned. This volume has a paper cover of plain pink with an arch-shaped portion of the original GrandPré drawing on the front. It show Harry under his arch catching his snitch, which is very clear because no writing has been used to cover the arch. The back cover has a small circle showing GrandPré’s Harry’s face only.

On the back cover the following credit appears: ‘Kapak Resmi: Mary GrandPré - David Saylor’. Above this credit is a mention of the number of fans, the many translations, and the Harry Potter film. A cardboard wrapper has been added to obscure the original cover. It uses the full GrandPré artwork, including the ‘Harry Potter’ in lighting bolt form and ‘J.K. Rowling’ in Hogwarts typeface. No trademark symbols appear, however. The same credit appears: ‘Kapak Resmi: Mary GrandPré - David Saylor’ on the back. The wording of the blurb on the back cover has not changed. There is no mention of Warner Bros.

on either jacket. The only addition on this jacket is ‘TEMA Türkíye çöl olmasin!’ followed by a phone number. A holographic sticker has been placed on the new wrapper which says ACE KÍM but within the holographic image has a picture of Turkey with the crescent moon and star, and TC KB, a tree symbol. There are no internal illustrations, and letters and documents are in italics only.

Slovakian. Ikar. (Bratislava: 2000) From the title page verso: ‘Illustration copyright © 1998 by Mary GrandPré Cover Artwork © Warner Bros. A division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P . Harry Potter, names, characters and related indicia are copyright and trademark Warner Bros. © 2000 [the WB HP logo with the snitch] Harry Potter™ - Trademark’. The cover has the ‘Harry Potter’ lightning bolt name in white, with no trademark symbol, and the number ‘1’; at the bottom of the front cover are two logos, the ‘HP’ logo with the snitch ™ and the ‘iKAR’ logo. The title page looks like the American title page, with the addition of the two Warner Bros.

logos: the full ‘Harry Potter’ and the ‘HP’, only the second has the ™. The Mary GrandPré chapter illustrations appear as in the US edition, and the letters attempt something like the American facsimiles.

Faroese. Bókadeild Føroya Lærarafelags (Tórshavn: 2000) From the title page verso: ‘Artwork, cover and illustrations © Warner Bros. - a division of Time Warner Entertainment Company L.P. Givin út í samstarvi við Christhoper [sic] Little Literary Agency, London Upprunaforlag: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 38 Soho Square, London W1V 5DF Prentumsiting: Spf. Hestprent, Tórshavn Prentað í Danmørk’. The full Mary GrandPré artwork appears on the cover, including the ‘Harry Potter’ lightning title, but with no trademark symbol. It similarly appears on the spine. The ‘HP’ logo with the snitch but without the ™ appears on the back cover.

There is no mention of Mary GrandPré’s name, although her internal illustrations are used for each chapter. Letters are in italics and caps; no serious attempt at facsimiles was made.

Editions that appear to use the US artwork, but which had not been examined: Afrikaans Estonian [website incorrect on JKRowling.com. It should be. http://www.varrak.ee/books/7/]

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