Vitreous China Plumbing Fixture and China and Earthenware Bathroom Accessories Manufacturing

 
Vitreous China Plumbing
Fixture and China and
Earthenware Bathroom
Accessories Manufacturing                                        1997
                                                                 Issued July 1999

                                                                 EC97M-3271A

1997 Economic Census
Manufacturing
Industry Series

                       U.S. Department of Commerce
                       Economics and Statistics Administration
                       U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

                  The staff of the Manufacturing and Con-      Kim Credito, Patrick Duck, Chip
                  struction Division prepared this report.     Murph, Wanda Sledd, and Veronica
                  Judy M. Dodds, Assistant Chief for Cen-      White provided primary staff assistance.
                  sus and Related Programs, was respon-
                                                               The Economic Planning and Coordination
                  sible for the overall planning, manage-
                                                               Division, Lawrence A. Blum, Assistant
                  ment, and coordination. Kenneth
                                                               Chief for Collection Activities and Shirin
                  Hansen, Chief, Manufactured Durables
                                                               A. Ahmed, Assistant Chief for Post-
                  Branch, assisted by Mike Brown, Renee
                                                               Collection Processing, assisted by Dennis
                  Coley, Raphael Corrado, and Milbren
                                                               Shoemaker, Chief, Post-Collection Census
                  Thomas, Section Chiefs, Michael Zampo-
                                                               Processing Branch, Brandy Yarbrough,
                  gna, Former Chief, Manufactured Nondu-
                                                               Section Chief, Sheila Proudfoot, Richard
                  rables Branch, assisted by Allen Fore-
                                                               Williamson, Andrew W. Hait, and Jenni-
                  man, Robert Miller, Robert Reinard,
                                                               fer E. Lins, was responsible for develop-
                  and Nat Shelton, Section Chiefs, and Tom
                                                               ing the systems and procedures for data
                  Lee, Robert Rosati, and Tom Flood,
                                                               collection, editing, review, correction and
                  Special Assistants, performed the planning
                                                               dissemination
                  and implementation. Stephanie Angel,
                  Brian Appert, Stanis Batton, Carol Bea-      The staff of the National Processing Center,
                  sley, Chris Blackburn, Larry Blum-           Judith N. Petty, Chief, performed mailout
                  berg, Vera Harris-Bourne, Brenda             preparation and receipt operations, clerical
                  Campbell, Suzanne Conard, Vance              and analytical review activities, data key-
                  Davis, Mary Ellickson, Matt Gaines,          ing, and geocoding review.
                  Merry Glascoe, Kay Hanks, Karen
                                                               The Geography Division staff developed
                  Harshbarger, Nancy Higgins, James
                                                               geographic coding procedures and associ-
                  Hinckley, Walter Hunter, Jim Jamski,
                                                               ated computer programs.
                  Evelyn Jordan, Robert Lee, John Line-
                  han, Paul Marck, Keith McKenzie,             The Economic Statistical Methods and Pro-
                  Philippe Morris, Joanna Nguyen, Betty        gramming Division, Charles P. Pautler
                  Pannell, Joyce Pomeroy, Venita Powell,       Jr., Chief, developed and coordinated the
                  Cynthia Ramsey, Chris Savage,                computer processing systems. Martin S.
                  Aronda Stovall, Sue Sundermann, Tha-         Harahush, Assistant Chief for Quinquen-
                  nos Theodoropoulos, Dora Thomas,             nial Programs, assisted by Barbara Lam-
                  Ann Truffa, Ronanne Vinson, Denneth          bert and Christina Arledge were respon-
                  Wallace, Tempie Whittington, Lissene         sible for design and implementation of the
                  Witt, and Mike Yamaner provided pri-         computer systems. Gary T. Sheridan,
                  mary staff assistance.                       Chief, Manufacturing and Construction
                                                               Branch, Lori A. Guido and Roy A. Smith,
                  Brian Greenberg, Assistant Chief for
                                                               Section Chiefs, supervised the preparation
                  Research and Methodology Programs,
                                                               of the computer programs.
                  assisted by Stacey Cole, Chief, Manufac-
                  turing Programs Methodology Branch, and      Computer Services Division, Debra Will-
                  Robert Struble, Section Chief, provided      iams, Chief, performed the computer pro-
                  the mathematical and statistical tech-       cessing.
                  niques as well as the coverage operations.
                                                               The staff of the Administrative and Cus-
                  Jeffrey Dalzell and Cathy Ritenour pro-      tomer Services Division, Walter C. Odom,
                  vided primary staff assistance.
                                                               Chief, performed planning, design, compo-
                  Mendel D. Gayle, Chief, Forms, Publica-      sition, editorial review, and printing plan-
                  tions, and Customer Services Branch,         ning and procurement for publications,
                  assisted by Julius Smith Jr. and Baruti      Internet products, and report forms.
                  Taylor, Section Chiefs, performed overall    Cynthia G. Brooks provided publication
                  coordination of the publication process.     coordination and editing.
Vitreous China Plumbing
     Fixture and China and
    Earthenware Bathroom
Accessories Manufacturing                       1997
                                                Issued July 1999

                                                EC97M-3271A

             1997 Economic Census
                         Manufacturing
                          Industry Series

           U.S. Department of Commerce
                       William M. Daley,
                                Secretary
                        Robert L. Mallett,
                          Deputy Secretary

                                Economics
                            and Statistics
                           Administration
                         Robert J. Shapiro,
                         Under Secretary for
                           Economic Affairs

                        U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
                            Kenneth Prewitt,
                                     Director
ECONOMICS
  AND STATISTICS
 ADMINISTRATION

Economics
and Statistics
Administration
Robert J. Shapiro,
Under Secretary
for Economic Affairs

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Kenneth Prewitt,
Director
William G. Barron,
Deputy Director
William G. Bostic Jr.,
Chief, Manufacturing
and Construction Division
CONTENTS

                                           Introduction to the Economic Census .............................             1
                                           Manufacturing .................................................               5

                                           TABLES

                                           1.       Industry Statistics on NAICS Basis With Distribution Among
                                                     1987 SIC~Based Industries: 1997 .........................           7
                                           2.       Industry Statistics for Selected States: 1997 .................      7
                                           3.       Detailed Statistics by Industry: 1997 ........................       8
                                           4.       Industry Statistics by Employment Size: 1997................         9
                                           5.       Industry Statistics by Industry and Primary Product Class
                                                     Specialization: 1997 .....................................          9
                                           6a.      Products Statistics: 1997 and 1992 .........................        10
                                           6b.      Product Class Shipments for Selected States: 1997 and 1992 .         ~~
                                           7.       Materials Consumed by Kind: 1997 and 1992................           10

                                           APPENDIXES

                                           A.       Explanation of Terms .....................................        A–1
                                           B.       NAICS Codes, Titles, and Descriptions ......................      B–1
                                           C.       Coverage and Methodology................................          C–1
                                           D.       Geographic Notes ........................................           ~~
                                           E.       Metropolitan Areas .......................................          ~~
                                           F.       Footnotes for Products Statistics and Materials Consumed by
                                                     Kind ...................................................            ~~
                                           G.       Comparability of Product Classes and Product Codes: 1997 to
                                                     1992 ...................................................         G–1
                                                   ~~ Not applicable for this report.

MANUFACTURINGmINDUSTRY SERIES                                                                                         NAICS 327111   iii
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census   Jul. 7, 1999
Introduction to the Economic Census

PURPOSES AND USES OF THE ECONOMIC CENSUS                         52        Finance and Insurance
                                                                 53        Real Estate and Rental and Leasing
    The economic census is the major source of facts about
                                                                 54        Professional, Scientific, and Technical
the structure and functioning of the Nation’s economy. It
                                                                           Services
provides essential information for government, business,
                                                                 55        Management of Companies and Enterprises
industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United
                                                                 56        Administrative and Support and Waste
States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Cen-
                                                                           Management and Remediation Services
sus Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years,
                                                                 61        Educational Services
covering years ending in 2 and 7.
                                                                 62        Health Care and Social Assistance
    The economic census furnishes an important part of the
                                                                 71        Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation
framework for such composite measures as the gross
                                                                 72        Accommodation and Foodservices
domestic product estimates, input/output measures, pro-
                                                                 81        Other Services (except Public Administration)
duction and price indexes, and other statistical series that
measure short-term changes in economic conditions. Spe-        (Not listed above are the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and
cific uses of economic census data include the following:      Hunting sector (NAICS 11), partially covered by the census
                                                               of agriculture conducted by the U.S. Department of Agri-
• Policymaking agencies of the Federal Government use          culture, and the Public Administration sector (NAICS 92),
  the data to monitor economic activity and assess the         covered by the census of governments conducted by the
  effectiveness of policies.                                   Census Bureau.)
• State and local governments use the data to assess               The 20 NAICS sectors are subdivided into 96 subsectors
  business activities and tax bases within their jurisdic-     (three-digit codes), 313 industry groups (four-digit codes),
  tions and to develop programs to attract business.           and, as implemented in the United States, 1170 industries
                                                               (five- and six-digit codes).
• Trade associations study trends in their own and com-
  peting industries, which allows them to keep their mem-      RELATIONSHIP TO SIC
  bers informed of market changes.                                 While many of the individual NAICS industries corre-
• Individual businesses use the data to locate potential       spond directly to industries as defined under the SIC sys-
  markets and to analyze their own production and sales        tem, most of the higher level groupings do not. Particular
  performance relative to industry or area averages.           care should be taken in comparing data for retail trade,
                                                               wholesale trade, and manufacturing, which are sector
ALL-NEW INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS                               titles used in both NAICS and SIC, but cover somewhat dif-
                                                               ferent groups of industries. The industry definitions dis-
   Data from the 1997 Economic Census are published pri-       cuss the relationships between NAICS and SIC industries.
marily on the basis of the North American Industry Classi-     Where changes are significant, it will not be possible to
fication System (NAICS), unlike earlier censuses, which        construct time series that include data for points both
were published according to the Standard Industrial Classi-    before and after 1997.
fication (SIC) system. NAICS is in the process of being            For 1997, data for auxiliary establishments (those func-
adopted in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Most         tioning primarily to manage, service, or support the activi-
economic census reports cover one of the following NAICS       ties of their company’s operating establishments, such as
sectors:                                                       a central administrative office or warehouse) will not be
                                                               included in the sector-specific reports. These data will be
   21           Mining                                         published separately.
   22           Utilities
   23           Construction                                   GEOGRAPHIC AREA CODING
   31-33        Manufacturing                                     Accurate and complete information on the physical
   42           Wholesale Trade                                location of each establishment is required to tabulate the
   44-45        Retail Trade                                   census data for the states, metropolitan areas (MAs), coun-
   48-49        Transportation and Warehousing                 ties, parishes, and corporate municipalities including cit-
   51           Information                                    ies, towns, villages, and boroughs. Respondents were

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS                                                                                    INTRODUCTION       1
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
required to report their physical location (street address,    Manufacturing and Construction Division            301-457-4673
municipality, county, and state) if it differed from their     Service Sector Statistics Division                 301-457-2668
mailing address. For establishments not surveyed by mail
(and those single-establishment companies that did not
                                                               HISTORICAL INFORMATION
provide acceptable information on physical location), loca-
tion information from Internal Revenue Service tax forms          The economic census has been taken as an integrated
is used as a basis for coding.                                 program at 5-year intervals since 1967 and before that for
                                                               1954, 1958, and 1963. Prior to that time, individual com-
BASIS OF REPORTING                                             ponents of the economic census were taken separately at
                                                               varying intervals.
   The economic census is conducted on an establishment
basis. A company operating at more than one location is            The economic census traces its beginnings to the 1810
required to file a separate report for each store, factory,    Decennial Census, when questions on manufacturing were
shop, or other location. Each establishment is assigned a      included with those for population. Coverage of economic
separate industry classification based on its primary activ-   activities was expanded for the 1840 Decennial Census
ity and not that of its parent company.                        and subsequent censuses to include mining and some
                                                               commercial activities. The 1905 Manufactures Census was
DOLLAR VALUES                                                  the first time a census was taken apart from the regular
                                                               decennial population census. Censuses covering retail and
   All dollar values presented are expressed in current dol-   wholesale trade and construction industries were added in
lars; i.e., 1997 data are expressed in 1997 dollars, and       1930, as were some covering service trades in 1933. Cen-
1992 data, in 1992 dollars. Consequently, when making          suses of construction, manufacturing, and the other busi-
comparisons with prior years, users of the data should         ness service censuses were suspended during World War
consider the changes in prices that have occurred.             II.
    All dollar values are shown in thousands of dollars.          The 1954 Economic Census was the first census to be
                                                               fully integrated: providing comparable census data across
AVAILABILITY OF ADDITIONAL DATA                                economic sectors, using consistent time periods, con-
                                                               cepts, definitions, classifications, and reporting units. It
Reports in Print and Electronic Media                          was the first census to be taken by mail, using lists of
                                                               firms provided by the administrative records of other Fed-
   All results of the 1997 Economic Census are available       eral agencies. Since 1963, administrative records also
on the Census Bureau Internet site (www.census.gov) and        have been used to provide basic statistics for very small
on compact discs (CD-ROM) for sale by the Census Bureau.       firms, reducing or eliminating the need to send them cen-
Unlike previous censuses, only selected highlights are         sus questionnaires.
published in printed reports. For more information, includ-
                                                                   The range of industries covered in the economic cen-
ing a description of electronic and printed reports being
                                                               suses expanded between 1967 and 1992. The census of
issued, see the Internet site, or write to U.S. Census
                                                               construction industries began on a regular basis in 1967,
Bureau, Washington, DC 20233-8300, or call Customer
                                                               and the scope of service industries, introduced in 1933,
Services at 301-457-4100.
                                                               was broadened in 1967, 1977, and 1987. While a few
                                                               transportation industries were covered as early as 1963, it
Special Tabulations
                                                               was not until 1992 that the census broadened to include
   Special tabulations of data collected in the 1997 Eco-      all of transportation, communications, and utilities. Also
nomic Census may be obtained, depending on availability        new for 1992 was coverage of financial, insurance, and
of time and personnel, in electronic or tabular form. The      real estate industries. With these additions, the economic
data will be summaries subject to the same rules prohibit-     census and the separate census of governments and cen-
ing disclosure of confidential information (including name,    sus of agriculture collectively covered roughly 98 percent
address, kind of business, or other data for individual        of all economic activity.
business establishments or companies) that govern the             Printed statistical reports from the 1992 and earlier
regular publications.                                          censuses provide historical figures for the study of long-
   Special tabulations are prepared on a cost basis. A         term time series and are available in some large libraries.
request for a cost estimate, as well as exact specifications   All of the census reports printed since 1967 are still avail-
on the type and format of the data to be provided, should      able for sale on microfiche from the Census Bureau.
be directed to the Chief of the division named below, U.S.     CD-ROMs issued from the 1987 and 1992 Economic Cen-
Census Bureau, Washington, DC 20233-8300. To discuss a         suses contain databases including nearly all data pub-
special tabulation before submitting specifications, call      lished in print, plus additional statistics, such as ZIP Code
the appropriate division:                                      statistics, published only on CD-ROM.

2   INTRODUCTION                                                                                  1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
                                                                                              U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION                                        V      Represents less than 50 vehicles or .05
                                                                           percent.
   More information about the scope, coverage, classifica-
                                                                    X      Not applicable.
tion system, data items, and publications for each of the           Y      Disclosure withheld because of insufficient
economic censuses and related surveys is published in the                  coverage of merchandise lines.
Guide to the 1997 Economic Census and Related Statistics            Z      Less than half the unit shown.
at www.census.gov/econguide. More information on the                a      0 to 19 employees.
methodology, procedures, and history of the censuses will           b      20 to 99 employees.
be published in the History of the 1997 Economic Census             c      100 to 249 employees.
at www.census.gov/econ/www/history.html.                            e      250 to 499 employees.
                                                                    f      500 to 999 employees.
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS                                           g      1,000 to 2,499 employees.
   The following abbreviations and symbols are used with            h      2,500 to 4,999 employees.
the 1997 Economic Census data:                                      i      5,000 to 9,999 employees.
                                                                    j      10,000 to 24,999 employees.
   A            Standard error of 100 percent or more.              k      25,000 to 49,999 employees.
   D            Withheld to avoid disclosing data of individual     l      50,000 to 99,999 employees.
                companies; data are included in higher level        m      100,000 employees or more.
                totals.                                             p      10 to 19 percent estimated.
   F            Exceeds 100 percent because data include            q      20 to 29 percent estimated.
                establishments with payroll exceeding rev-          r      Revised.
                enue.                                               s      Sampling error exceeds 40 percent.
   N            Not available or not comparable.                    nec    Not elsewhere classified.
   Q            Revenue not collected at this level of detail for   nsk    Not specified by kind.
                multiestablishment firms.                           –      Represents zero (page image/print only).
   S            Withheld because estimates did not meet             (CC)   Consolidated city.
                publication standards.                              (IC)   Independent city.

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS                                                                                  INTRODUCTION       3
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
This page is intentionally blank.

4   INTRODUCTION                                           1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
                                                       U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Manufacturing

SCOPE                                                              The General Summary report contains industry and geo-
                                                                graphic area statistics summarized in one report. It
   The 1997 Economic Census – Manufacturing covers all
                                                                includes higher levels of aggregation than the industry
manufacturing establishments with one or more paid
                                                                and state reports, as well as revisions to the data made
employees. Manufacturing is defined as the mechanical,
                                                                after the release of the industry and state reports.
physical, or chemical transformation of materials or sub-
                                                                   The Products and Materials Consumed reports summa-
stances into new products. The assembly of components
                                                                rize the products and materials data published in the
into new products is also considered manufacturing,
                                                                industry reports. The Product Summary report also
except when it is appropriately classified as construction.
                                                                includes data from the Current Industrial Reports (CIR) and
   Establishments in the manufacturing sector are often         a special table with data for products that are primary to
described as plants, factories, or mills and typically use      more than one industry, which are not in the industry
power-driven machines and materials-handling equipment.         reports.
Also included in the manufacturing sector are some estab-          The Concentration Ratios report publishes data on the
lishments that make products by hand, like custom tailors       percentage of value of shipments accounted for by the 4-,
and the makers of custom draperies. While manufacturers         8-, 20-, and 50-largest companies for each manufacturing
typically do not sell to the public, some establishments        industry. Also shown in this report are Hirschmann-
like bakeries and candy stores that make products on the        Herfindahl Indexes for each industry.
premises may be included.                                          The Location of Manufacturing data files contain statis-
                                                                tics on the number of establishments for the three- and
GENERAL                                                         six-digit NAICS industry by state, county, place, and ZIP
   This report, from the 1997 Economic Census – Manufac-        Code by employment-size of the establishment.
turing, is one of a series of 480 industry reports and 51
geographic area reports, each of which provides statistics      GEOGRAPHIC AREAS COVERED
for individual industries or states, respectively. Seven of        Statistics at the six-digit NAICS industry level are shown
the industry reports are for industries no longer in the        for states and the District of Columbia in both the state
manufacturing sector but are included with manufacturing        and industry reports for cells with 100 employees or
for the 1997 census year. Also included for this sector are     more.
General, Product, and Materials Consumed Summary                   The state reports also include data at the ‘‘all manufac-
reports, a special report on Concentration Ratios in Manu-      turing’’ level for a variety of geographies that meet the
facturing, and data files on Location of Manufacturing          employment criteria.
Plants.                                                            Data are available for the metropolitan areas (MAs) with
   Each industry report presents data for a six-digit North     250 employees or more. The term MA is a general term
American Industry Classification System (NAICS) industry.       used to encompass all of the specifically defined metro-
A description of the particular NAICS industry may be           politan areas. A consolidated metropolitan statistical area
found in Appendix B. These reports include such statistics      (CMSA) is made up of two or more contiguous primary
as number of establishments, employment, payroll, value         metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs) with a combined
added by manufacture, cost of materials consumed, value         population of at least 1 million. A PMSA is a subdivision of
of shipments, capital expenditures, etc. Explanations of        a CMSA that demonstrates very strong internal economic
these and other terms may be found in Appendix A. The           and social links separate from the ties to other portions of
industry reports also include data for states with 100          the CMSA. A metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is an inte-
employees or more in the industry.                              grated economic and social unit with a population of at
   State reports, which include the District of Columbia,       least 50,000. An MA is made up of one or more counties
present similar statistics at the ‘‘all manufacturing’’ level   meeting standards of metropolitan character. In New
for each state and its metropolitan areas (MAs) with 250        England, cities and towns, rather than counties, are the
employees or more, and for counties, consolidated cities,       component geographic units. Determination of the MAs
and places with 500 employees or more. The state reports        was made by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
also include six-digit NAICS level data for industries with     as of June 30, 1997. The population estimates were from
100 employees or more in the state.                             the 1990 Census of Population or a subsequent special

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS                                                                                  MANUFACTURING         5
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
census. When applicable, the make-up of an MA is                manufacturing data. This change affects data in the state
included in Appendix E. Changes to geographical bound-          reports and the general summary.
aries are noted in Appendix D.
    The state reports include data for counties with 500
                                                                DISCLOSURE
employees or more. These are the primary divisions of
states, except in Louisiana where they are called parishes         In accordance with Federal law governing census
and in Alaska where they are called boroughs and census         reports (Title 13 of the United States Code), no data are
areas. Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia have one        published that would disclose the operations of an indi-
or more places that are independent of county organiza-         vidual establishment or company. However, the number of
tions. These places are treated as counties and places. The     establishments classified in a specific industry or geogra-
counties and places are defined as of January 1, 1997.
                                                                phy is not considered a disclosure, and may be released
    The state reports include data for places with 500
                                                                even when other information is withheld.
employees or more. Places are typically cities, towns, and
villages. They may be incorporated municipalities, semi-           The disclosure analysis for the industry statistics files is
independent municipalities, special economic urban areas        based on the total value of shipments. When the total
(SEUAs), or other place equivalents.                            value of shipments cannot be shown without disclosing
    The state reports also include data for consolidated cit-   information for individual companies, the complete line is
ies with 500 employees or more. Consolidated cities are         suppressed except for capital expenditures. However, the
made up of separately incorporated municipalities.              suppressed data are included in higher-level totals. A sepa-
                                                                rate disclosure analysis is performed for capital expendi-
COMPARABILITY OF THE 1992 AND 1997 CENSUSES                     tures that can be suppressed even though value of ship-
                                                                ments data are published.
    The adoption of the North American Industry Classifica-
tion System (NAICS) has had a major impact on the compa-
rability of data between the 1992 and 1997 censuses.            AVAILABILITY OF MORE FREQUENT ECONOMIC
Approximately half of the industries in the manufacturing       DATA
sector of NAICS do not have comparable industries in the
                                                                   The Census Bureau conducts the Annual Survey of
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system that was
                                                                Manufactures (ASM) in each of the 4 years between the
used in the past. If industries are not comparable between
                                                                economic censuses. The ASM is a probability-based
the two censuses, historic data are not shown. When appli-
                                                                sample of approximately 58,000 establishments and col-
cable, Appendix G shows the product class and product
                                                                lects many of the same industry statistics (including
comparability between the two systems.
                                                                employment, payroll, value of shipments, etc.) as the eco-
    While most of the change affecting the manufacturing
                                                                nomic census. However, there are selected statistics not
sector was change within the sector, some industries left
                                                                included in the ASM. Among these are the number of com-
manufacturing and others came into manufacturing.
                                                                panies and establishments, detailed product and materials
Prominent among those leaving manufacturing are logging
                                                                data, and substate geographic data.
and portions of publishing. Prominent among the indus-
tries coming into the manufacturing sector are bakeries,           In addition to the ASM, the Census Bureau conducts a
candy stores where candy is made on the premises, cus-          Current Industrial Reports (CIR) program. The CIR pub-
tom tailors, makers of custom draperies, and tire retread-      lishes detailed product statistics for selected manufactur-
ing. Data for the industries coming into manufacturing as       ing industries at the U.S. level annually and, in some
well as those leaving manufacturing are included in the         cases, monthly and/or quarterly. For the 1997 Economic
manufacturing industry report series for 1997. However,         Census – Manufacturing, the annual CIR data are included
the state and summary reports only include data for             in the Product Summary report.
industries in the NAICS definition of manufacturing.               The Census Bureau also conducts the monthly Manufac-
    Another change resulting from the conversion to NAICS       turers’ Shipments, Inventories, and Orders (M3) program,
is that data for central administrative offices (CAOs) asso-    which publishes detailed statistics for manufacturing
ciated with manufacturing are not included along side the       industries at the U.S. level.

6   MANUFACTURING                                                                                  1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
                                                                                               U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Table 1.         Industry Statistics on NAICS Basis With Distribution Among 1987 SIC~Based
                 Industries: 1997
[NAICS codes appear in bold type. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see appendixes]

                                                                        All employees                     Production workers
NAICS                                                         All                                                                                                                            Total capital
or SIC                Industry                           estab~                                                                           Value added by         Cost of          Value of      expendi~
 code                                            Com~      lish~                        Payroll                    Hours        Wages        manufacture        materials       shipments           tures
                                               panies1   ments2      Number           ($1,000)      Number        (1,000)      ($1,000)          ($1,000)       ($1,000)          ($1,000)      ($1,000)

327111 Vitreous china plumbing fixture
        & bathroom accessories mfg .               44          58      9 232          285 156        7 824        16 322       235 064           796 305        287 893        1 099 442          14 900
326100   Vitreous plumbing fixtures .....           N          58      9 232          285 156        7 824        16 322       235 064           796 305        287 893        1 099 442          14 900

         1For the census, a company is defined as a business organization     consisting of one establishment or more under common ownership or control.
         2Includes establishments with payroll at any time during the year.

Table 2.         Industry Statistics for Selected States: 1997
[States that are disclosures or with less than 100 employees are not shown. For explanation of terms, see appendixes. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

                                                      All              All employees                      Production workers
                                               establishments

     Industry and geographic area                     With 20
                                                         em~                                                                                                                                 Total capital
                                                        ploy~                                                                             Value added by        Cost of           Value of      expendi~
                                                       ees or                           Payroll                   Hours         Wages        manufacture       materials        shipments           tures
                                          E1    Total   more         Number           ($1,000)     Number        (1,000)       ($1,000)          ($1,000)      ($1,000)           ($1,000)      ($1,000)

327111, VITREOUS CHINA
 PLUMBING FIXTURE &
 BATHROOM ACCESSORIES
 MFG
         United States ..............      –       58          34      9 232         285 156         7 824       16 322        235 064          796 305         287 893        1 099 442          14 900

California ..........................      1       11           5        652           16 557          512        1 113         13 659           35 441          14 927           50 233           2 805
New Jersey ........................        –        4           3        566           19 941          475          984         16 129           52 786          18 162           69 546           1 218
Texas .............................        –        7           5      1 943           54 283        1 616        3 618         45 038          154 813          63 631          224 094           1 038

         * Hawaii has no incorporated places in the sense of functioning governmental units; however, in agreement with Hawaiian law, the Bureau of the Census reports data for census designated
places (CDPs) which have been designated as place equivalents. Those CDPs, only for the state of Hawaii, with 2,500 or more population are recognized.
          1Some payroll and sales data for small single~unit companies with up to 20 employees (cutoff varied by industry) were obtained from administrative records of other government agencies rather
than from census report forms. These data were then used in conjunction with industry averages to estimate statistics for these small establishments. This technique was also used for a small number of
other establishments whose reports were not received at the time data were tabulated. The following symbols are shown where estimated data based on administrative~record data account for 10 percent
or more of the figures shown: 1–10 to 19 percent; 2–20 to 29 percent; 3–30 to 39 percent; 4–40 to 49 percent; 5–50 to 59 percent; 6–60 to 69 percent; 7–70 to 79 percent; 8–80 to 89 percent; 9–90
percent or more.

MANUFACTURINGmINDUSTRY SERIES                                                                                                                                               NAICS 327111               7
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census        Jul. 7, 1999
Table 3.         Detailed Statistics by Industry: 1997
[For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see appendixes]

                                     Item                                                       Value                                       Item                                                    Value

327111, VITREOUS CHINA PLUMBING FIXTURE &                                                                327111, VITREOUS CHINA PLUMBING FIXTURE &
 BATHROOM ACCESSORIES MFG                                                                                 BATHROOM ACCESSORIES MFGmCon.
Companies1 ................................................ number..                                 44 Value added ................................................. $1,000..                   796 305
All establishments ........................................... number..                              58 Total inventories, beginning of year ............................. $1,000..              118   249
   Establishments with 1 to 19 employees ....................... number..                            24   Finished goods inventories, beginning of year .................. $1,000..               71   579
   Establishments with 20 to 99 employees ..................... number..                             10   Work~in~process inventories, beginning of year ................. $1,000..               25   763
   Establishments with 100 employees or more .................. number..                             24   Materials and supplies inventories, beginning of year ............ $1,000..             20   907

All employees ............................................... number..                          9   232 Total inventories, end of year .................................. $1,000..               102   352
Total compensation2 .......................................... $1,000..                       370   413   Finished goods inventories, end of year ....................... $1,000..                58   762
   Annual payroll.............................................. $1,000..                      285   156   Work~in~process inventories, end of year ...................... $1,000..                23   336
   Total fringe benefits ......................................... $1,000..                    85   257   Materials and supplies inventories, end of year ................. $1,000..              20   254
                                                                                                        Gross book value of total assets at beginning of year .............. $1,000..            388 132
Production workers, average for year .......................... number..                        7   824   Total capital expenditures (new and used) ..................... $1,000..                14 900
  Production workers on March 15 ............................ number..                          8   179      Capital expenditures for buildings and other structures
  Production workers on May 15 .............................. number..                          8   022       (new and used) ......................................... $1,000..                     1 589
  Production workers on August 15 ............................ number..                         7   640      Capital expenditures for machinery and equipment (new
  Production workers on November 15 ......................... number..                          7   455       and used) .............................................. $1,000..                   13 311
Production~worker hours ....................................... 1,000..                        16   322   Total retirements2 .......................................... $1,000..                   3 089
Production~worker wages ...................................... $1,000..                       235   064 Gross  book value of total assets at end of year ................... $1,000..            399 943
                                                                                                        Total depreciation during year2 ................................. $1,000..                29 267
Total cost of materials ......................................... $1,000..                    287   893
  Cost of materials, parts, containers, etc., consumed ............. $1,000..                 220   906 Total rental payments2 ........................................ $1,000..                   3 336
  Cost of resales ............................................. $1,000..                              D   Buildings and other structures rental payments2 ................ $1,000..                1 200
  Cost of fuels ............................................... $1,000..                       24   593   Machinery and equipment rental payments2 .................... $1,000..                   2 136
  Cost of purchased electricity ................................. $1,000..                     14   887
  Cost of contract work ....................................... $1,000..                              D Cost of purchased   services for the repair of buildings and other
                                                                                                         structures3 .................................................. $1,000..                   1 041
Quantity of electricity purchased for heat and power ...........1,000 kWh..                   298   728   Response coverage ratio4 .................................. percent..                       60
Quantity of electricity generated less sold for heat and power ... 1,000 kWh..                        D Cost of purchased services for the repair of machinery and
                                                                                                         equipment3 ................................................. $1,000..                     4 566
Total value of shipments ...................................... $1,000..                   1 099    442   Response coverage ratio4 .................................. percent..                       60
  Primary products value of shipments .......................... $1,000..                    975    033 Cost of purchased communications services3 .................... $1,000..                     388
  Secondary products value of shipments ....................... $1,000..                      89    902   Response coverage ratio4 .................................. percent..                       60
  Total miscellaneous receipts ................................. $1,000..                     34    507 Cost of purchased legal services3 .............................. $1,000..                    423
    Value of resales .......................................... $1,000..                              D   Response coverage ratio4 .................................. percent..                       60
    Contract receipts ......................................... $1,000..                              – Cost of purchased accounting and bookkeeping services3 ......... $1,000..                     39
    Other miscellaneous receipts .............................. $1,000..                              D   Response coverage ratio4 .................................. percent..                       60
                                                                                                        Cost of purchased advertising services3 ......................... $1,000..                 1 650
Primary products specialization ratio ........................... percent..                          91   Response coverage ratio4 .................................. percent..                       60
Value of primary products shipments made in all industries ........ $1,000..                  982   730 Cost of purchased software and other data processing
  Value of primary products shipments made in this industry ....... $1,000..                  975   033 services3 ...................................................$1,000..                          14
  Value of primary products shipments made in other                                                       Response coverage ratio4 .................................. percent..                        60
   industries ................................................. $1,000..                        7   697 Cost of purchased refuse removal (including hazardous waste)
                                                                                                         services3 ...................................................$1,000..                     1 332
Coverage ratio .............................................. percent..                              99   Response coverage ratio4 .................................. percent..                       60

         1For the census, a company is defined as a business organization consisting of one establishment or more under common ownership or control.
         2These items are collected in the ASM and estimated for the remaining establishments; therefore, the levels of estimation are higher than for other items in the table.
         3Based on ASM sample data.
         4A response coverage ratio is derived for this item by calculating the ratio of the weighted employment (establishment data multiplied by sample weight) for those        ASM establishments that
reported to the weighted total employment for all ASM establishments classified in this industry.

         Note: The amounts shown for purchased services reflect only those services that establishments purchase from other companies.

8      NAICS 327111                                                                                                                   MANUFACTURINGmINDUSTRY SERIES
                                                                                                                                                U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census      Jul. 7, 1999
Table 4.         Industry Statistics by Employment Size: 1997
[For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see appendixes]

                                                     All               All employees                   Production workers
                                              establishments

         Employment size class                       With 20
                                                        em~                                                                                                                                 Total capital
                                                       ploy~                                                                           Value added by          Cost of           Value of      expendi~
                                                      ees or                        Payroll                     Hours        Wages        manufacture         materials        shipments           tures
                                         E1    Total   more          Number       ($1,000)       Number        (1,000)      ($1,000)          ($1,000)        ($1,000)           ($1,000)      ($1,000)

327111, VITREOUS CHINA
 PLUMBING FIXTURE &
 BATHROOM ACCESSORIES
 MFG
         All establishments .........     –          58        34     9 232       285 156          7 824      16 322        235 064          796 305           287 893        1 099 442          14 900

Establishments with 1 to 4
 employees ........................       9          11         –        14             506           13           24            422              869               351            1 224              28
Establishments with 5 to 9
 employees ........................       9           6         –        37             948           31           58            787            2 539            1 020             3 564              77
Establishments with 10 to 19
 employees ........................       9           7         –         D               D            D            D              D                D                 D                D               D
Establishments with 20 to 49
 employees ........................       –           1         1         D               D            D            D              D                D                 D                D               D
Establishments with 50 to 99
 employees ........................       1           9         9       604        16 723            475          947        13 305            41 722           21 913           62 376           1 672
Establishments with 100 to 249
 employees ........................       –           8         8     1 387        42 679          1 144        2 382        33 800          103 344            46 719          147 966           4 445
Establishments with 250 to 499
 employees ........................       –          11        11     3 397        99 312          2 969        6 082        84 874          230 398            96 350          334 790           4 570
Establishments with 500 to 999
 employees ........................       –           5         5     3 692       122 640          3 110        6 688       100 098          411 553           119 168          541 161           3 956
Establishments with 1,000 to 2,499
 employees ........................       –           –         –          –              –            –            –              –                 –                –                –               –
Establishments with 2,500 employees
 or more ...........................      –           –         –          –              –            –            –              –                 –                –                –               –

Administrative records2 ..............    9          22         –       117            2 866         100          179         2 382             7 674            3 083           10 773             232

          1Some payroll and sales data for small single~unit companies with up to 20 employees (cutoff varied by industry) were obtained from administrative records of other government agencies rather
than from census report forms. These data were then used in conjunction with industry averages to estimate statistics for these small establishments. This technique was also used for a small number of
other establishments whose reports were not received at the time data were tabulated. The following symbols are shown where estimated data based on administrative~record data account for 10 percent
or more of the figures shown: 1–10 to 19 percent; 2–20 to 29 percent; 3–30 to 39 percent; 4–40 to 49 percent; 5–50 to 59 percent; 6–60 to 69 percent; 7–70 to 79 percent; 8–80 to 89 percent; 9–90
percent or more.
         2Some payroll and sales data for small single~unit companies with up to 20 employees (cutoff varied by industry) were obtained from administrative records of other government agencies rather
than from census report forms. These data were then used in conjunction with industry averages to estimate statistics for these small establishments. Data are also included in respective size classes
shown.

Table 5.         Industry Statistics by Industry and Primary Product Class Specialization: 1997
[For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see appendixes]

   NAICS                                                               All employees                   Production workers
                                                               All                                                                       Value added                                        Total capital
 industry or                                              estab~                                                                                   by          Cost of          Value of       expendi~
                 Industry or primary product class
   product                                                  lish~                   Payroll                    Hours         Wages       manufacture          materials       shipments            tures
 class code                                               ments      Number       ($1,000)      Number        (1,000)       ($1,000)         ($1,000)         ($1,000)          ($1,000)       ($1,000)

327111                 Vitreous china plumbing
                        fixture & bathroom
                        accessories mfg ........              58      9 232       285 156         7 824       16 322        235 064          796 305          287 893        1 099 442           14 900

MANUFACTURINGmINDUSTRY SERIES                                                                                                                                             NAICS 327111                9
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census       Jul. 7, 1999
Table 6a.            Products Statistics: 1997 and 1992
[Includes quantity and value of products of this industry produced by (1) establishments classified in this industry (primary) and (2) establishments classified in other industries (secondary). Transfers of
  products of this industry from one establishment of a company to another establishment of the same company (interplant transfers) are also included. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see
  introductory text. For explanation of terms, see appendixes]

                                                                                                                    1997                                                      1992

                                                                                          Number of                         Product shipments        Number of                           Product shipments
     NAICS                                                                                companies                                                  companies
     product                                       Product                                       with                                                       with
      code                                                                                 shipments      Quantity of                                 shipments     Quantity of
                                                                                                   of     production                                          of    production
                                                                                            $100,000          for all                         Value    $100,000         for all                         Value
                                                                                             or more       purposes        Quantity         ($1,000)    or more      purposes        Quantity         ($1,000)

327111                         Vitreous plumbing fixtures ........................                 N               X             X          982 730            N             X               X        807 202

3271110              Vitreous plumbing fixtures, accessories, and
                      fittings ...................................................                 N               X             X          982 730            N             X               X        807 202

32711101               China plumbing fixtures ...................................                 N               X             X          826 039            N             X               X              N
3271110110               China plumbing fixtures .................................                14               X             X          826 039           12             X               X        771 191

32711102               China plumbing fixture accessories and
                        fittings, including earthenware ............................               N               X             X          144 794            N             X               X               N
3271110211                China plumbing fixture accessories and
                            fittings (including towel racks, soap
                            cups, etc.) ............................................                8              X             X           23 956            9             X               X               D
3271110221                Earthenware plumbing fixtures,
                            accessories, and fittings ...............................               8              X             X          120 838            2             X               X               D

3271110Y               Vitreous plumbing fixtures, nsk .............................               N               X             X           11 897            N             X               X               N
3271110YWW               Vitreous plumbing fixtures, nsk, for
                           nonadministrative~record
                           establishments........................................                  N               X             X                8            N             X               X         11 432
3271110YWY               Vitreous plumbing fixtures, nsk, for
                           administrative~record establishments ....................               N               X             X           11 889            N             X               X           6 328

          # Additional information is available for this item; see Appendix F.
          @ Additional data are available for this item in the Current Industrial Report (CIR) series; see Appendix F for the CIR survey number and title.
          $ This product is primary to more than one industry; see Appendix F for a listing of the related product codes.

        Note: For some establishments, data have been estimated from central unit values which are based on quantity~value relationships of reported data. The following symbols are used when
percentage of each quantity figure estimated in this manner equals or exceeds 10 percent of published figure: p 10 to 19 percent estimated; q 20 to 29 percent estimated. If 30 percent or more is
estimated, figure is replaced by S.

Table 6b.            Product Class Shipments for Selected States: 1997 and 1992
[Not applicable for this report]

Table 7.          Materials Consumed by Kind: 1997 and 1992
[Includes quantity and cost of materials consumed or put into production by establishments classified only in this industry. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation
  of terms, see appendixes]

                                                                                                                                        1997                                         1992
 NAICS
 material                                              Material consumed
  code                                                                                                                                            Delivered cost                                 Delivered cost
                                                                                                                                 Quantity               ($1,000)             Quantity                  ($1,000)

327111         VITREOUS CHINA PLUMBING FIXTURE & BATHROOM
                ACCESSORIES MFG
21232011       Clay, ceramic, and refractory minerals .....................................................                             X                85   146                    X                 58 191
32221001       Paperboard containers, boxes, and corrugated paperboard ..................................                               X                36   531                    X                 23 356
332000AC       Metal stampings ........................................................................                                 X                 5   714                    X                      N
00970099       All other materials and components, parts, containers, and supplies ...........................                          X                80   469                    X                      N
00971000       Materials, ingredients, containers, and supplies, n.s.k. .......................................                         X                13   046                    X                  3 549

          # Additional information is available for this item; see Appendix F.

        Note: For some establishments, data have been estimated from central unit values which are based on quantity~value relationships of reported data. The following symbols are used when
percentage of each quantity figure estimated in this manner equals or exceeds 10 percent of published figure: p 10 to 19 percent estimated; q 20 to 29 percent estimated. If 30 percent or more is
estimated, figure is replaced by S.

10        NAICS 327111                                                                                                                  MANUFACTURINGmINDUSTRY SERIES
                                                                                                                                                  U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census         Jul. 7, 1999
Appendix A.
Explanation of Terms

BEGINNING- AND END-OF-YEAR INVENTORIES                          3. Cost of fuels consumed for heat and power—Includes
                                                                   the cost of materials or fuel consumed, whether pur-
   Respondents were asked to report their beginning-of-
                                                                   chased by the individual establishment from other
year and end-of-year inventories at cost or market. Effec-
                                                                   companies, transferred to it from other establishments
tive with the 1982 Economic Census, this change to a uni-
                                                                   of the same company, or withdrawn from inventory
form instruction for reporting inventories was introduced
                                                                   during the year.
for all sector reports. Prior to 1982, respondents were per-
mitted to value inventories using any generally accepted        4. Cost of purchased electricity—The cost of purchased
accounting method (FIFO, LIFO, market, to name a few).             electric energy represents the amount actually used
Beginning in 1982, LIFO users were asked to first report           during the year for heat and power. In addition, infor-
inventory values prior to the LIFO adjustment and then to          mation was collected on the quantity of electric
report the LIFO reserve and the LIFO value after adjust-           energy generated by the establishment and the quan-
ment for the reserve.                                              tity of electric energy sold or transferred to other
                                                                   plants of the same company.
Inventory Data by Stage of Fabrication
                                                                5. Cost of contract work—This term applies to work
    Total inventories and three detailed components (1) fin-       done by others on materials furnished by the manu-
ished goods, (2) work-in-process, and (3) materials, sup-          facturing establishment. The actual cost of the mate-
plies, fuels, etc., were collected.                                rial is to be reported on the cost of materials, parts,
    When using inventory data by stage of fabrication for          and containers line of this item. The term ‘‘Contract
‘‘all industries’’ and at the three-digit subsector level, it      Work’’ refers to the fee a company pays to another
should be noted that an item treated as a finished product         company to perform a service.
by an establishment in one industry may be reported as a
raw material by an establishment in a different industry.       Specific Materials Consumed
For example, the finished-product inventories of a steel
                                                                    In addition to the total cost of materials, which every
mill would be reported as raw materials by a stamping
                                                                establishment was required to report, information also
plant. Such differences are present in the inventory figures
                                                                was collected for most manufacturing industries on the
by stage of fabrication shown for all publication levels.
                                                                consumption of major materials used in manufacturing.
                                                                The inquiries were restricted to those materials which
COST OF MATERIALS
                                                                were important parts of the cost of production in a par-
    This term refers to direct charges actually paid or pay-    ticular industry and for which cost information was avail-
able for items consumed or put into production during the       able from manufacturers’ records. If less than $25,000 of
year, including freight charges and other direct charges        a listed material was consumed by an establishment, the
incurred by the establishment in acquiring these materials.     cost data could be reported in the ‘‘Cost of all other mate-
It includes the cost of materials or fuel consumed,             rials...,’’ Census material code 00970099. Also, the cost of
whether purchased by the individual establishment from          materials for small establishments for which administra-
other companies, transferred to it from other establish-        tive records or short forms were used was imputed into
ments of the same company, or withdrawn from inventory          the ‘‘Materials not specified by kind,’’ Census materials
during the year.                                                code 00971000.
    Included in this item are:
                                                                Duplication in Cost of Materials and Value of
 1. Cost of parts, components, containers, etc.—Includes        Shipment
    all raw materials, semifinished goods, parts, contain-
    ers, scrap, and supplies put into production or used as        The aggregate of the cost of materials and value of
    operating supplies and for repair and maintenance           shipments figures for industry groups and for all manufac-
    during the year.                                            turing industries includes large amounts of duplication
                                                                since the products of some industries are used as materi-
 2. Cost of products bought and sold in the same condi-         als by others. This duplication results, in part, from the
    tion.                                                       addition of related industries representing successive

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS                                                                                      APPENDIX A    A–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
stages in the production of a finished manufactured prod-         Included in the cost of purchased refuse removal ser-
uct. Examples are the addition of flour mills to bakeries in   vices are all costs of refuse removal services paid by the
the food group and the addition of pulp mills to paper         establishment, including costs for hazardous waste
mills in the paper and allied products group of industries.    removal or treatment. Excluded are all costs included in
Estimates of the overall extent of this duplication indicate   rental payments or as capital expenditures.
that the value of manufactured products exclusive of such
duplication (the value of finished manufactures) tends to      Response Coverage Ratio
approximate two-thirds of the total value of products
                                                                   A response coverage ratio is a measure of the extent to
reported in the survey.
                                                               which respondents report for an item. The estimate is
   Duplication of products within individual industries is
                                                               made by calculating the ratio value of the weighted total
significant within a number of industry groups, e.g.,
                                                               employment data for all the ASM establishments that
machinery and transportation industries. These industries
                                                               report the item to the weighted total employment data for
frequently include complete machinery and their parts. In
                                                               all ASM establishments classified in an industry (reporters
this case, the parts made for original equipment are mate-
                                                               and non-reporters).
rials consumed for assembly plants in the same industry.
   Even when no significant amount of duplication is
                                                               DEPRECIATION CHARGES FOR FIXED ASSETS
involved, value of shipments figures are deficient as mea-
sures of the relative economic importance of individual           This item includes depreciation and amortization
manufacturing industries or geographic areas because of        charged during the year against assets. Depreciation
the wide variation in ratio of materials, labor, and other     charged against fixed assets acquired since the beginning
processing costs of value of shipments, both among             of the year and against assets sold or retired during the
industries and within the same industry.                       year are components of this category. Respondents were
   Before 1962, cost of materials and value of shipments       requested to make certain that they did not report accu-
were not published for some industries which included          mulated depreciation.
considerable duplication. Since then, these data have been
published for all industries at the U.S. level and beginning   EMPLOYEES
in 1964, for all geographic levels.
                                                                   This item includes all full-time and part-time employees
COST OF PURCHASED SERVICES                                     on the payrolls of operating manufacturing establishments
   Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) establishments          during any part of the pay period which included the 12th
were requested to provide information on the cost of pur-      of the months specified on the report form. Included are
chased services for the repair of buildings and other struc-   all persons on paid sick leave, paid holidays, and paid
tures, the repair of machinery, communication services,        vacations during these pay periods. Officers of corpora-
legal services, accounting and bookkeeping services,           tions are included as employees; proprietors and partners
advertising, software and other data processing services,      of unincorporated firms are excluded. The ‘‘all employees’’
and refuse removal. Each of these items reflects the costs     number is the average number of production workers plus
paid directly by the establishment and excludes salaries       the number of other employees in mid-March. The number
paid to employees of the establishment for these services.     of production workers is the average for the payroll peri-
   Included in the cost of purchased services for the repair   ods including the 12th of March, May, August, and Novem-
of buildings and machinery are payments made for all           ber.
maintenance and repair work on buildings and equipment.        Production Workers
Payments made to other establishments of the same com-
pany and for repair and maintenance of any leased prop-           This item includes workers (up through the line-
erty also are included. Extensive repairs or reconstruction    supervisor level) engaged in fabricating, processing,
that was capitalized is considered capital expenditures        assembling, inspecting, receiving, storing, handling, pack-
and is, therefore, excluded from this item. Repair and         ing, warehousing, shipping (but not delivering), mainte-
maintenance costs provided by an owner as part of a            nance, repair, janitorial and guard services, product devel-
rental contract or incurred directly by an establishment in    opment, auxiliary production for plant’s own use (e.g.,
using its own work force also are excluded.                    power plant), recordkeeping, and other services closely
   Included in the cost of purchased advertising services      associated with these production operations at the estab-
are payments for printing, media coverage, and other           lishment covered by the report. Employees above the
advertising services and materials.                            working-supervisor level are excluded from this item.
   Included in the cost of purchased software and other
                                                               All Other Employees
data processing services are all purchases by the estab-
lishment from other companies. Excluded are services pro-         This item covers nonproduction employees of the
vided by other establishments of the same company (such        manufacturing establishment including those engaged in
as by a separate data processing unit).                        factory supervision above the line-supervisor level. It

A–2   APPENDIX A                                                                                 1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
                                                                                             U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
includes sales (including driver-salespersons), sales deliv-    NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND COMPANIES
ery (highway truck drivers and their helpers), advertising,
                                                                   A separate report was required for each manufacturing
credit, collection, installation and servicing of own prod-
                                                                establishment (plant) with one employee or more. An
ucts, clerical and routine office functions, executive, pur-
                                                                establishment is defined as a single physical location
chasing, financing, legal, personnel (including cafeteria,
                                                                where manufacturing is performed. A company, on the
medical, etc.), professional, and technical employees. Also
                                                                other hand, is defined as a business organization consist-
included are employees on the payroll of the manufactur-
                                                                ing of one establishment or more under common owner-
ing establishment engaged in the construction of major
                                                                ship or control.
additions or alterations utilized as a separate work force.
                                                                   If the company operated at different physical locations,
                                                                even if the individual locations were producing the same
FRINGE BENEFITS
                                                                line of goods, a separate report was requested for each
   Fringe benefits are divided into legally required expen-     location. If the company operated in two or more distinct
ditures and payments for voluntary programs. The legally        lines of manufacturing at the same location, a separate
required portion consists primarily of Federal old age and      report was requested for each activity.
survivors’ insurance, unemployment compensation, and               An establishment not in operation for any portion of
workers’ compensation. Payments for voluntary programs          the year was requested to return the report form with the
include all programs not specifically required by legisla-      proper notation in the ‘‘Operational Status’’ section of the
tion whether they were employer initiated or the result of      form. In addition, the establishment was requested to
collective bargaining. They include the employer portion        report data on any employees, capital expenditures, inven-
of such plans as insurance premiums, premiums for               tories, or shipments from inventories during the year.
supplemental accident and sickness insurance, pension
plans, supplemental unemployment compensation, wel-             PAYROLL
fare plans, stock purchase plans on which the employer
payment is not subject to withholding tax, and deferred            This item includes the gross earnings of all employees
profit-sharing plans. They exclude such items as company-       on the payrolls of operating manufacturing establishments
operated cafeterias, in-plant medical services, free parking    paid in the calendar year. Respondents were told they
lots, discounts on employee purchases, and uniforms and         could follow the definition of payrolls used for calculating
work clothing for employees.                                    the Federal withholding tax. It includes all forms of com-
                                                                pensation, such as salaries, wages, commissions, dis-
GROSS BOOK VALUE OF DEPRECIABLE ASSETS AT                       missal pay, bonuses, vacation and sick leave pay, and
BEGINNING OF YEAR (BOY) AND END OF YEAR (EOY)                   compensation in kind, prior to such deductions as employ-
                                                                ees’ social security contributions, withholding taxes,
   Total value of depreciable assets is collected on all cen-   group insurance, union dues, and savings bonds. The total
sus forms. It shows the value of depreciable assets for the     includes salaries of officers of corporations; it excludes
beginning of year and end of year. The data encompass all       payments to proprietors or partners of unincorporated
fixed depreciable assets on the books of establishments.        concerns. Also excluded are payments to members of
The values shown (book value) represent the actual cost         Armed Forces and pensioners carried on the active pay-
of assets at the time they were acquired, including all         rolls of manufacturing establishments.
costs incurred in making the assets usable (such as trans-         The census definition of payrolls is identical to that rec-
portation and installation). Included are all buildings,        ommended to all Federal statistical agencies by the Office
structures, machinery, and equipment (production, office,       of Management and Budget. It should be noted that this
and transportation equipment) for which depreciation            definition does not include employers’ social security con-
reserves are maintained. Excluded are nondepreciable            tributions or other nonpayroll labor costs, such as employ-
capital assets including inventories and intangible assets,     ees’ pension plans, group insurance premiums, and work-
such as timber and mineral rights.                              ers’ compensation.
   The definition of fixed depreciable assets is consistent        The ASM provides estimates of employers’ total supple-
with the definition of capital expenditures. For example,       mental labor costs (those required by Federal and state
expenditures include actual capital outlays during the year     laws and those incurred voluntarily or as part of collective
rather than the final value of equipment put in place and       bargaining agreements).
buildings completed during the year. Accordingly, the
value of assets at the end of the year includes the value of
                                                                PRODUCT CODES AND CLASSES OF PRODUCTS
construction in progress.
   In addition, respondents were requested to make cer-            NAICS United States industries are identified by a six-
tain that assets at the beginning of the year plus capital      digit code, in contrast to the four-digit SIC code. The
expenditures, less retirements, equaled assets at the end       longer code accommodates the large number of sectors
of the year.                                                    and allows more flexibility in designing subsectors. Each

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS                                                                                       APPENDIX A     A–3
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
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