Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development - IPCC

 
Risk management and
      decision-making in relation

7SM
SPM   to sustainable development
      Supplementary Material

      Coordinating Lead Authors:
      Margot Hurlbert (Canada), Jagdish Krishnaswamy (India)

      Lead Authors:
      Edouard Davin (France/Switzerland), Francis X. Johnson (Sweden), Carlos Fernando
      Mena (Ecuador), John Morton (United Kingdom), Soojeong Myeong (The Republic of Korea),
      David Viner (United Kingdom), Koko Warner (The United States of America), Anita Wreford
      (New Zealand), Sumaya Zakieldeen (Sudan), Zinta Zommers (Latvia)

      Contributing Authors:
      Rob Bailis (The United States of America), Brigitte Baptiste (Colombia), Kerry Bowman
      (Canada), Edward Byers (Austria/Brazil), Katherine Calvin (The United States of America),
      Rocio Diaz-Chavez (Mexico), Jason Evans (Australia), Amber Fletcher (Canada), James Ford
      (United Kingdom), Sean Patrick Grant (The United States of America), Darshini Mahadevia (India),
      Yousef Manialawy (Canada), Pamela McElwee (The United States of America), Minal Pathak
      (India), Julian Quan (United Kingdom), Balaji Rajagopalan (The United States of America),
      Alan Renwick (New Zealand), Jorge E. Rodríguez-Morales (Peru), Charlotte Streck (Germany),
      Wim Thiery (Belgium), Alan Warner (Barbados)

      Review Editors:
      Regina Rodrigues (Brazil), B.L. Turner II (The United States of America)

      Chapter Scientist:
      Thobekile Zikhali (Zimbabwe)

      This chapter supplementary material should be cited as:
      Hurlbert, M., J. Krishnaswamy, E. Davin, F.X. Johnson, C.F. Mena, J. Morton, S. Myeong, D. Viner, K. Warner, A. Wreford,
      S. Zakieldeen, Z. Zommers, 2019: Risk Management and Decision making in Relation to Sustainable Development
      Supplementary Material. In: Climate Change and Land: an IPCC special report on climate change, desertification,
      land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems
      [P.R. Shukla, J. Skea, E. Calvo Buendia, V. Masson-Delmotte, H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, P. Zhai, R. Slade, S. Connors,
      R. van Diemen, M. Ferrat, E. Haughey, S. Luz, S. Neogi, M. Pathak, J. Petzold, J. Portugal Pereira, P. Vyas, E. Huntley,
      K. Kissick, M. Belkacemi, J. Malley, (eds.)]. In press.

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Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                                                             Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development

      Table of contents

      SM7.1 Supplementary information to Section 7.2                                                                       ��������������   3

      SM7.2 Additional embers                                 ������������������������������������������������������������������������   71

      SM7.3 SSP and Mitigation Burning Embers                                                            �����������������������������   72

      References ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 73

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Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development   Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

SM7.1 Supplementary information to Section 7.2

The burning embers diagrams (Figure 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3) outline risks
associated with climate change as a function of global warming,
socio-economic development and mitigation choices. Diagrams
indicate transitions between undetectable, moderate, high, and
very high risks to humans and ecosystems. The method is based
on a literature review of estimated impacts at different global
mean surface temperature levels (O’Neill et al. 2017) on different
components of desertification, land degradation and food security,
including emerging literature on Shared Socio-economic Pathways
(SSPs) as well as literature from IPCC AR5 and SR15.

Most studies focus on changes in hazards as a function of climate
change (e.g. as represented by RCP scenarios or other climate
change scenarios) or climate change superimposed on present-day
exposure. Only a limited number of studies focus on changes in risk
as a function of both RCPs and SSPs (climate and socio-economic
change and adaptation decisions). This was addressed by splitting
the embers into different figures. Figure 7.1 focuses on the impact of
climate change on risk, under present-day exposure and vulnerability.
Figure 7.2 examines the relationship between climate change and
risks under two SSPs (SSP1 and SSP3). Figure 7.3 depicts risks to
humans and ecosystems as a function of the land area employed for
mitigation through bioenergy plantations.

Further, a formal expert elicitation protocol, based on the modified-
Delphi technique (Mukherjee et al. 2015) and the Sheffield Elicitation
Framework (Oakley and O’Hagan 2016; Gosling 2018), was followed
to develop threshold judgments on risk transitions. Specifically,
experts participated in a multi-round elicitation process, with
feedback of group opinion provided after each round: the first two
rounds involved independent anonymous threshold judgment, and
the final round involved a group consensus discussion (von der Gracht
2012). To strengthen the rigor of developing expert consensus on risk
transitions (Hasson and Keeney 2011), the protocol pre-specified
the following prior to beginning the elicitation exercise (Grant et al.
2018): the research question, eligibility criteria and strategy to recruit
experts, research materials, data collection procedure, and analysis
plan. This systematic process of developing expert consensus on
threshold judgments for risk transitions can better inform subsequent
analytical approaches – an approach that may be further developed
for use in future IPCC cycles (Bojke et al. 2010; Sperber et al. 2013).
References for the current and past assessments are listed at the end
of this document and by the relevant tables.

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Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                         Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                              Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                    Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

      Table SM7.1 | Literature considered in the expert judgement of risk transitions for Figure 7.1.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Region (Including
                                                                                 Direction of                                                                                                 Impact at               Impact at           Impact at              Impact at                Impact at         Adaptation
            Reference                 Risk               Variable (unit)                              Climate scenario        Timeframe   Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                                                regional
                                                                                   impact                                                                                                      1 degree               2 degrees           3 degrees              4 degrees               4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   differences)
       AVAILABILITY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Between 3 and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 degrees catastrophic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        declines in low
                                                                             Strong negative effect                                                                                                                                   Maize about –20       Maize +15 to –20%
                                                                                                                                                                                         See Figure 1 in paper.                                                                                         latitudes for maize,
                                                                             on yields, especially                                                                                                                                    to +5% yield change   yield change in mid      Maize is now
                                                                                                                                                                                         Maize mid to high        Maize – 20 to +5%                                                                     wheat also significant
       Rosenzweig 2014       Availability Yield        Yield                 at higher levels of      NA                                                                                                                              in mid latitude       latitude. Catastrophic   all negative in                             Low latitudes
                                                                                                                                                                                         latitude is –10 to       yield change                                                                          declines around
                                                                             warming and at lower                                                                                                                                     and ALL negative      in low latitude with     mid latitude
                                                                                                                                                                                         +15% yield change                                                                                              4 degrees and same
                                                                             latitudes                                                                                                                                                in low latitude       –10 to –60% change!
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        for rice. Adaptation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        potential limited
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        at these temp.
                                                                             “Increases the
                                                                             likelihood of such
                                                                             events considerably,
                                                                             and may
       Zscheischler et al.   Availability                                    make events of the
                                                       Crop yield                                     Review             2010
       2018                  (crop failure)                                  rarity of the Russian
                                                                             event foreseeable
                                                                             and to
                                                                             some extent
                                                                             predictable”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Limiting global
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        warming to 1.5°C
                             Availability                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               compared to 2°C
       IPCC 2019                                       Yield                 Decrease to yields       NA
                             (crop yields)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              would result in a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        lower global reduction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in crop yields
                             Availability (increased
                                                       Infection of staple
                             loss of crops and
                                                       food commodities
                             livestock; increased
                                                       by fungal diseases    Reduced availability
       Medina et al. 2017    pest burden, increased                                                   NA
                                                       pre-harvest and       of food
                             disease burden; higher
                                                       by spoilage fungi
                             post-harvest losses
                                                       post-harvest
                             due to mycotoxins)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Unclear. “Crops
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        introduced to exploit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        altered climate may
                             Availability (increased
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        be subject to fewer
                             loss of crops and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        mycotoxin producing
                             livestock; increased
       Paterson and Lima                                                     Reduced availability                                                                                                                                                                                                       fungi (the “Parasites
                             pest burden, increased    Crops after harvest                            NA                 NA
       2011                                                                  of food                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lost” phenomenon).
                             disease burden; higher
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Increased mycotoxins
                             post-harvest losses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and UV radiation may
                             due to mycotoxins)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cause fungi to mutate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        on crops and produce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        different mycotoxins”
                             Availability (increased
                             loss of crops and
                             livestock; increased
                                                                             Reduced availability
       Magan et al. 2011     pest burden, increased    Crops after harvest                            NA                 NA
                                                                             of food
                             disease burden; higher
                             post-harvest losses
                             due to mycotoxins)

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Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                               Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                        Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development               Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Region (Including
                                                                                         Direction of                                                                                                       Impact at         Impact at           Impact at        Impact at         Impact at         Adaptation
            Reference                      Risk                Variable (unit)                              Climate scenario          Timeframe           Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                            regional
                                                                                           impact                                                                                                            1 degree         2 degrees           3 degrees        4 degrees        4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               differences)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Local / traditional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   knowledge in
                                 Availability (increased                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           agriculture (LTKA)
                                 loss of crops and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 is proposed in this
       Rivera-Ferre et al.       livestock; increased                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              article / has valid
                                                                                     Reduced availability
       2016                      pest burden, increased      Crop yield                                     NA                   NA                                                                                                                                                                knowledge to ensure
                                                                                     of food
                                 disease burden; higher                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            food availability under
                                 post-harvest losses                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               climate change, given
                                 due to mycotoxins)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                its long experience
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   in dealing with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   climate variability
                                 Availability (increased
                                                                                                            Three SRES climate   Three SRES climate
       Zimmermann et al.         yields if management
                                                             Crop yields in Europe   Increased yields       change scenarios     change scenarios
       2017                      assumptions hold,
                                                                                                            to 2050              to 2050
                                 thermal management)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Success of
                                 Availability (modeled                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             intensification
       Faye et al. 2018                                      Crop yield              Negative               NA
                                 crop yield)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the key factor making
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the difference
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         “At regional scale,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         they found maize
                                 Availability (modeled                                                                                                                                                                   yields declines in
       Tesfaye et al. 2017                                   Crop yield              Negative               NA
                                 crop yield)                                                                                                                                                                             2050 of up to 12%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to 14% in rainfed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and irrigated maize”
                                 Availability (modeled                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mean yield declines
       Scheelbeek et al. 2018                                Crop yield              Negative               NA
                                 crop yield)                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of fruits –31.5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         “30–60% of common
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         bean growing area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and 20–40% of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         banana growing areas
                                 Availability (modeled
       Rippke et al. 2016                                    Crop yield              Negative               NA                   To end of 21st century                                                                  in Africa will lose
                                 crop yield)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         viability in 2078–2098
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         with a global
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         temperature increase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         of 2.6 and 4.0”
                                 Availability (modeled
                                 fruit crop yield), and
       Bisbis et al. 2018        utilization (reduced        Crop yield              Negative               NA
                                 quality, more spoilage,
                                 reduced nutrition)
                                 Availability (models
                                                                                                                                 Short (2021–2040),
                                 relation between
       Tebaldi and Lobell                                                                                                        medium (2041–2060)                                                                      “Critical or “lethal”
                                 climate variables,          Crop yield              Negative               RCP4.5 and RCP8.5
       2018                                                                                                                      and long (2061–2080)                                                                    heat extreme
                                 CO2 concentrations,
                                                                                                                                 time horizons
                                 and yields)
                                 Availability (reduced                                                                                                                                                                   “Half a degree
                                 yields and soil fertility                           Negative for half a                                                                                                                 warming will also lead
       Schleussner et al. 2018   and increased land          Yield                   degree additional      HAPPI                                                                                                        to more extreme low
                                 degradation for some                                warming (1.5 to 2)                                                                                                                  yields, in particular
                                 regions and crops)                                                                                                                                                                      over tropical regions”
                                 Availability (reduced
                                 yields and soil fertility
                                                                                     Decrease in
       Ovalle et al. 2015        and increased land          Yield                                          NA
                                                                                     coffee yields
                                 degradation for some
                                 regions and crops)
                                 Availability (reduced
                                 yields and soil fertility
       Bunn et al. 2015                                                              Decrease in coffee
                                 and increased land          Yield                                          NA
                                                                                     yields by 50%
                                 degradation for some
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Region (Including
                                                                                         Direction of                                                                                                                             Impact at            Impact at         Impact at              Impact at        Impact at        Adaptation
            Reference                      Risk                Variable (unit)                                Climate scenario        Timeframe                Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                                             regional
                                                                                           impact                                                                                                                                  1 degree            2 degrees         3 degrees              4 degrees       4.5 degrees        potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     differences)
                                                                                     Productivity of major
                                 Availability (reduced
                                                                                     crops will decline as
                                 yields and soil fertility
       Roberts and Schlenker                                                         a result of climate
                                 and increased land          Yield                                            NA
       2013                                                                          change, particularly
                                 degradation for some
                                                                                     from increasing
                                 regions and crops)
                                                                                     warming
                                 Availability (reduced                               Grain yield of rice
                                 yields and soil fertility                           declined 10% for each
       Peng et al. 2004          and increased land          Grain yields            1°C increase in night-   NA                                                                                                            –10%                   –20%             –30%                    –40%             –50%
                                 degradation for some                                time temperature
                                 regions and crops)                                  during the dry season
                                 Availability (reduced                               While maize and
                                 yields and soil fertility                           soy bean yields are
                                                             Soy bean &                                                                                                                                                                            –12% /           –18% /                  –24% /           –30% /
       Asseng et al. 2015        and increased land                                  expected to decline      NA                                                                                                            –6% / day above 30°C
                                                             maize yields                                                                                                                                                                          day above 30°C   day above 30°C          day above 30°C   day above 30°C
                                 degradation for some                                by 6% for each day
                                 regions and crops)                                  above 30°C
                                 Availability (reduced
                                                                                     Wheat yields are
                                 yields and soil fertility
                                                                                     expected to decline                                                  Warming is already slowing yield gains at a majority of wheat-
       Asseng et al. 2017        and increased land          Wheat yields                                     NA                                                                                                            –0.06                  –0.12            –0.18                   –0.24            –0.3
                                                                                     by 6% for each                                                       growing locations.
                                 degradation for some
                                                                                     1°C increase
                                 regions and crops)
                                 Availability (reduced                               If global temperature
                                 yields and soil fertility                           increases beyond
       Porter et al. 2014        and increased land          Crop yields all crops   3°C it will have         NA                                                                                                                                                    Negative yield impact
                                 degradation for some                                negative yield impacts
                                 regions and crops)                                  on all crops
                                 Availability (reduced
                                                                                     increasing competition
                                 yields and soil fertility
                                                                                     for land from
       Schleussner et al. 2016   and increased land          Competition for land                             NA
                                                                                     the expansion
                                 degradation for some
                                                                                     of bioenergy
                                 regions and crops)
                                 Availability (reduced
                                 yields and soil fertility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               On-farm and via
       Fischer et al. 2005       and increased land                                  Decrease in yields       NA                                                                                                            10%                    10–20%           10–20%                  10–20%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               market mechanisms
                                 degradation for some
                                 regions and crops)
                                 Availability (reduced
                                 yields and soil fertility
       Smith et al. 2016         and increased land          Soil                    Reduced yields           NA                 NA
                                 degradation for some
                                 regions and crops)
                                 Availability (reduced
                                 yields and soil fertility
       Challinor et al. 2014     and increased land          Crop yield              Reduced yields           NA                 2050 to end of century
                                 degradation for some
                                 regions and crops)
                                 Availability (reduced
                                 yields and soil fertility
       FAO 2018                  and increased land          Crop yield              Reduced yields           NA
                                 degradation for some
                                 regions and crops)
                                 Availability (reduced
                                 yields and soil fertility
       Roberts and Schlenker     and increased land
                                                                                     Decrease in yields       NA                                                                                                            30–46%                 30–46%           63–80%                  63–80%
       2013                      degradation for some
                                 regions and crops)
                                 (3crops)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Region (Including
                                                                                     Direction of                                                                                                                       Impact at                Impact at          Impact at         Impact at        Impact at         Adaptation
            Reference                     Risk                Variable (unit)                              Climate scenario         Timeframe        Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                                                   regional
                                                                                       impact                                                                                                                            1 degree                2 degrees          3 degrees         4 degrees       4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 differences)
                                Availability (reduced
                                yields and soil fertility
                                and increased land
       Betts et al. 2018                                    Yield                Decrease                  NA
                                degradation for some
                                regions and crops)
                                (food crops)
                                Availability (reduced
                                yields and soil fertility
                                and increased land
       Tigchelaar et al. 2018                                                    Decrease in yields        NA                                                                                                                              7–10%                                87%
                                degradation for some
                                regions and crops)
                                (Maize)
                                Availability (reduced
                                yields and soil fertility
                                                                                 Declining yield
                                and increased land                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Study doesn’t
       Leng and Hall 2019                                                        (but varies between       NA
                                degradation for some                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 consider adaptations
                                                                                 crops and regions)
                                regions and crops)
                                (six crops)
                                Availability (reduced
                                yields and soil fertility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Increasing altitude
                                and increased land
       Bocchiola et al. 2019                                                     Declining                 NA                                                                                                                                                                                                        – increases yield for
                                degradation for some
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     maize and rice slightly
                                regions and crops)
                                (wheat, rice, maize)
                                Availability (simulated                                                    AgMIP coordinated
       Rosenzweig et al.
                                wheat and maize             Crop yield           Negative                  global and regional                                                                                                                                                                                       Between 1.5 and 2.0
       2018
                                yield changes)                                                             assessment (CGRA)
                                Availability (simulated
       Parkes et al. 2018       wheat and maize             Crop yield           Negative                  NA                                                                                                                                                                                                        Between 1.0 and 1.5
                                yield changes)
                                                                                 Positive effect of CO2                                                                                                                                                                         Corn: –10 to +20%
       Lombardozzi et al.                                                        on future crop yields     CESM/CLM4.5                                                                                                                                                          Wheat +40 to +100%;
                                Availability (Yield)        Yield                                                                2006–2100
       2018                                                                      muted by negative         under RCP8.5                                                                                                                                                         Soy –10 to +5%;
                                                                                 impacts of climate                                                                                                                                                                             Rice +10 to +50%
                                                                                 Decrease in organic
       Chen et al. 2018         Availability (Yield)        Yield                matter in soil,           NA
                                                                                 soil erosion

       Leng 2018                Availability (Yield)        Yield                                          NA

       Byers et al. 2018        Availability (Yield)        Yield                                          NA

                                                                                 Decrease in barley
                                Availability                                     yield, consumption
       Xie et al. 2018                                      Yield                                          NA                                                                                                                              –3%                   –10%           –17%
                                barley yields (beer)                             (and hence global
                                                                                 beer supply)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Negative corn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Negative corn yield
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   yield response          Majority of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     response to warmer
                                                                                                                                                2.5% decrease of corn yield for the historical period, which is    to warmer growing       impacts will be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     growing season. Corn
       Leng and Hall 2019       Availability Corn Yields    Yield                Decrease to yields        NA                                   reduced to 1.8% if accounting for the effects of corn growing      season, largest yield   driven by trends in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     yield is predicted to
                                                                                                                                                pattern changes                                                    reduction up to         temperature rather
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     decrease by 20~40%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20% by 1° increase      than precipitation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     by 2050s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of temperature

       Leng 2018                Availability crop yields    Yield                Decrease in yields        NA

       Su et al. 2018           Availability crop yields    Yield                Decrease in yields        NA

                                Availability                Yield, production/
       Zhao et al. 2017                                                          Decrease in yield         NA
                                maize yields                per hectare

       Brisson et al. 2010      Availability Yield          Yield                Yield losses/plateauing   NA

       Lin and Huybers 2012     Availability Yield          Yield                Yield losses/plateauing   NA

       Grassini et al. 2013     Availability Yield          Yield                Yield losses/plateauing   NA
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Region (Including
                                                                                       Direction of                                                                                         Impact at       Impact at          Impact at      Impact at      Impact at         Adaptation
            Reference                    Risk             Variable (unit)                              Climate scenario   Timeframe       Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                     regional
                                                                                         impact                                                                                              1 degree       2 degrees          3 degrees      4 degrees     4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        differences)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Adaptation could lead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           to crop yields that are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           7–15% higher. Gains
                                Availability yield                                                                                                                                                                                                                         will be highest in
       Myers et al. 2017                                Yield                                          NA
                                declines                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   temperate areas but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           will be unlikely to help
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tropical maize and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           wheat production
                                Mitigation policy
       Hasegawa et al. 2018     combined with climate   Available land                                 NA
                                effect on yields

       ACCESS

       Schmidhuber and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Current period
                                Access Price (cereal)   Price                      Increase in price   NA                                                                                                                80%               170%
       Tubiello 2007                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (timewise)

       Easterling et al. 2007   Access Price (cereal)   Price                      Increase in price   NA                                                                                10–30%          10–30%          10–40%            10–40%         10–40%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Increase fertiliser and
                                Access Price
       Parry et al. 2004                                Price                      Increase in price   NA                                                                                                5–35%                                                             pesticide application,
                                (food crops)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           irrigation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Food policy scenarios
                                Access Price                                                                                                                                                                                                                               (international aid,
       Fujimori et al. 2018                             Price                      Increase in price   NA
                                (food crops)                                                                                                                                                                                                                               domestic reallocation,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           bioenergy tax)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           New crop varieties,
                                Access Price                                                                                                                                                                                                                               significant expansion
       Hertel et al. 2010                               Price                      Increase in price   NA                             3.60%                                              10–15%
                                (major staples)                                                                                                                                                                                                                            of irrigation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Infrastructure
                                Access
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Low (soil health
                                (disproportionate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           provides key
                                impact on low-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           adaptation option,
                                income consumers,
       UNCCD 2017                                       Soil health                Negative            NA                                                                                                                                                                  without which lit
                                in particular women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           reviewed by UNCCD
                                and girls, due to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           points towards low
                                lack of resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           adaptation potential)
                                to purchase food)
                                Access (inability to    Agricultural yields and
                                invest in adaptation    earnings, food prices,
                                                                                   Reduced access
       Vermeulen et al. 2012    and diversification     reliability of delivery,                       NA
                                                                                   to food
                                measures to endure      food quality, and,
                                price rises)            notably, food safety
                                Access (indirect                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Strong negative
                                impacts due to                                                                                                                                                                                                                             effects of climate
                                spatial dislocation                                Reduced access                                                                                                                                                                          change, especially
       Morris et al. 2017                               Crop Yield                                     GGCMs
                                of consumption from                                to food                                                                                                                                                                                 at higher levels
                                production for many                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of warming and
                                societies)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 at low latitudes
                                Access (loss of
                                agricultural income
                                due to reduced yields
       FAO 2016a                and higher costs of     Crop Yield                 Negative            NA                                                                                                                                                                  Likely 1.0 and 1.5
                                production inputs,
                                such as water, limits
                                ability to buy food)
                                Access (loss of
                                agricultural income
                                due to reduced yields
       Abid et al. 2016         and higher costs of     Farm income                Negative            NA                                                                                                                                                                  Likely 1.0 and 1.5
                                production inputs,
                                such as water, limits
                                ability to buy food)
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      7SM-12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   7SM-13
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                         Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                             Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                             Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Region (Including
                                                                                 Direction of                                                                                                                Impact at               Impact at               Impact at               Impact at    Impact at         Adaptation
            Reference                   Risk             Variable (unit)                             Climate scenario       Timeframe          Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                                                  regional
                                                                                   impact                                                                                                                     1 degree               2 degrees               3 degrees               4 degrees   4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          differences)
                               Access (loss of
                               agricultural income
                               due to reduced yields
       Harvey et al. 2014      and higher costs of     Farm income           Negative                NA                                                                                                                                                                                                         Likely 1.0 and 1.5
                               production inputs,
                               such as water, limits
                               ability to buy food)

       Calvin et al. 2014      Access (Price)          Price                 increase in price       NA                                                                                                                                                                           320%

       Kreidenweis et al.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Increase investment
                               Access (Price)          Price                 Increase in price       NA                                                                                                                         60–80%
       2016                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     in R&D, etc
                                                                             Doubling of demands
       Tilman and Clark 2014   Access demand           Demand                                        NA
                                                                             by 2050
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Key wheat-growing
                                                                                                                                                                                                        regions display yield
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        “persistent large-scale
                                                                                                                                                                                                        reductions from −28%    “Besides Australia,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        harvest failures may
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Australia) to −6%      three more regions
       Chatzopoulos et al.                                                                                                                Negative. Large-scale events will ‘very likely’ occur more                                                    deplete grain stocks
                               Access                  Economic impacts                                                                                                                                 (US and Ukraine).       exceed a reduction of
       2019                                                                                                                               frequently, more intensely, and last longer                                                                   and thus render
                                                                                                                                                                                                        ...consumer prices      –20%: Canada, Russia,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        future prices even
                                                                                                                                                                                                        increase by up to one   and Kazakhstan.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        more responsive.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                        third, most notably
                                                                                                                                                                                                        in Asian countries

       UTILIZATION

                               Utilization (decline
                               in nutritional                                Negative (heat stress
       Müller et al. 2014      quality resulting       Human migration       induced long-term       NA
                               from increasing                               migration of people)
                               atmospheric CO2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Low/Moderate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Differences between
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cultivars of a
                               Utilization (decline                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             single crop suggest
                               in nutritional                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   that breeding for
       Myers et al. 2014       quality resulting       Zinc and iron         Reduced nutrition       NA                 2050 or 550 ppm                                                                                                                                                                         decreased sensitivity
                               from increasing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to atmospheric CO2
                               atmospheric CO2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 concentration could
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                partly address these
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                new challenges to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                global health
                               Utilization (decline
                               in nutritional
                                                                             Negative
       Smith et al. 2017       quality resulting       Iron                                          NA                                                                                                                         550 ppm
                                                                             (iron deficiency)
                               from increasing
                               atmospheric CO2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The total number of
                               Utilization (decline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                people estimated to
                               in nutritional          Zinc deficiency
                                                                             Negative                                                                                                                                           be placed at new risk
       Myers et al. 2015       quality resulting       under different CO2                           NA                 2050
                                                                             (zinc deficiency)                                                                                                                                  of zinc deficiency by
                               from increasing         concentrations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2050 was 138 million
                               atmospheric CO2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (95% CI 120–156)
                               Utilization (higher
                                                                             Reduced availability
       Moretti et al. 2019     post-harvest losses     Crops after harvest                           NA                 Current to 2050
                                                                             of food
                               due to mycotoxins)
                               Utilization (negative
                               impact on food
                               safety due to
       Van der Fels-Klerx      effect of increased
                                                                             Reduced utilization
       et al. 2016             temperatures on         Crops after harvest                           NA
                                                                             of food
                               microorganisms,
                               including increased
                               mycotoxins in food
7SM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         7SM
                               and feed)

      7SM-14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     7SM-15
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                            Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                                         Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development       Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Region (Including
                                                                                     Direction of                                                                                                                           Impact at            Impact at        Impact at   Impact at    Impact at         Adaptation
            Reference                 Risk               Variable (unit)                                    Climate scenario       Timeframe              Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                                  regional
                                                                                       impact                                                                                                                                1 degree            2 degrees        3 degrees   4 degrees   4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     differences)
                             Utilization (negative
                             impact on food
                             safety due to
       Tirado and Meerman    effect of increased
                                                                                 Reduced utilization
       2012                  temperatures on                                                                NA                 To midcentury
                                                                                 of food
                             microorganisms,
                             including increased
                             mycotoxins in food
                             and feed)
                             Utilization (negative
                             impact on nutrition
       Aberman and Tirado    resulting from reduced    Food availability,
                                                                                 Negative                   NA                 2020–end of century
       2014                  water quantity and        utilization, access
                             quality used to
                             prepare food)
                             Utilization (negative
                             impact on nutrition
       Thompson and Cohen    resulting from reduced    Nutrition, distribution
                                                                                 Negative                   NA
       2012                  water quantity and        of food
                             quality used to
                             prepare food)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Associated impacts                                                                Limiting global
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       are both detectable                                                               warming to 1.5°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Indicates closer
                                                                                 Decrease in nutritional                                             At 0.87, yellow – associated impacts are both detectable and      and attributable                                                                  compared to 2°C
       IPCC 2018             Utilization (nutrition)   Nutrients                                            NA                                                                                                                               to severe and
                                                                                 content                                                             attributable to climate change with at least medium confidence    to climate change                                                                 would result in a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             widespread impacts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       with at least                                                                     lower global reduction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       medium confidence                                                                 in nutritional quality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Grain yield per plant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         was greater under
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         e[CO2]. Irrigation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         treatment significantly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         enhanced grain yield
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         by 128%. Grain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         protein concentration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (%) decreased by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         12% in e[CO2] grown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         wheat compared to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         a[CO2]. Grain protein
                                                                                 Above ground                                                                                                                                                                                                            concentration (%) was
                                                                                 biomass production                                                                                                                                                                                                      15% higher in rain-fed
                                                                                 and yield will typically                                                                                                                                                                                                than well-watered
                                                                                 increase by 17–20%                                                                                                                                                                                                      treatments but did
                                                                                 while concentrations                                                                                                                                                                                                    not differ between
                                                                                 of nutrients such                                                                                                                                                                                                       the two wheat
       Bahrami et al. 2017   Utilization Nutrients     Nutrients                                            NA
                                                                                 as N will decrease                                                                                                                                                                                                      cultivars. Continuing
                                                                                 by 9–15% in plant                                                                                                                                                                                                       favourable water
                                                                                 tissues. Here they                                                                                                                                                                                                      supply conditions
                                                                                 found – The 12%                                                                                                                                                                                                         for photosynthesis
                                                                                 loss in grain protein                                                                                                                                                                                                   during grain
                                                                                 under e[CO2]                                                                                                                                                                                                            filling can prolong
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         carbohydrate delivery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to grains and thereby
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         increase yield but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         depress grain protein,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         which is consistent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         with greater grain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         yield and lower grain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         protein concentrations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         in well watered
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         compared to rain-fed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         crops in our study

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      7SM-16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7SM-17
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                               Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                                Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development       Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Region (Including
                                                                                    Direction of                                                                                                                      Impact at           Impact at   Impact at      Impact at       Impact at         Adaptation
            Reference                      Risk             Variable (unit)                               Climate scenario      Timeframe        Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                                   regional
                                                                                      impact                                                                                                                           1 degree           2 degrees   3 degrees      4 degrees      4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             differences)
                                                                                Decrease Under eCO2,
                                                                                rice, wheat, barley,
                                                                                and potato protein
       Medek et al. 2017       Utilization nutrition      Protein content                                 NA
                                                                                contents decreased by
                                                                                7.6%, 7.8%, 14.1%,
                                                                                and 6.4%,respectively
                                                                                CO2 concentrations
                                                                                of 550 ppm can lead
                                                                                to 3–11% decreases
                                                                                of zinc and iron
                                                                                concentrations
                                                                                in cereal
                                                                                grains and legumes
                                                                                and 5–10% reductions
                                                                                in the concentration
                                                                                of phosphorus,
       Smith et al. 2017       Utilization nutrition      Nutrients                                       NA
                                                                                potassium,
                                                                                calcium, sulfur,
                                                                                magnesium, iron,
                                                                                zinc, copper, and
                                                                                manganese across
                                                                                a wide range
                                                                                of crops under
                                                                                more extreme
                                                                                conditions of
                                                                                690 ppm CO2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Increased connectivity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and flows within
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 global trade networks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 suggest that the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 global food system
                               Utilization (disruptions                                                                                                                                                          is vulnerable to
                               to food storage                                  Reduced utilization                                                                                                              systemic disruptions,
       Puma et al. 2015                                   Crops after harvest                             NA                 1992–2009      Moderate risk at present
                               and transportation                               of food                                                                                                                          especially considering
                               networks)                                                                                                                                                                         tendency for exporting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 countries to switch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 to non-exporting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 states during times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of food scarcity in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the global markets
                               Utilization (disruptions
                               to food storage                                  Reduced utilization
       Wellesley et al. 2017                              Food prices                                     NA
                               and transportation                               of food
                               networks)

       STABILITY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 In semiarid areas,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 droughts can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 dramatically reduce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 crop yields and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 livestock numbers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and productivity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (most in                                                                          Food import, freer
                                                                                                                                            Negative. Increased fluctuations in crop yields and local food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 sub-Saharan Africa                                                                trade, investment
       Schmidhuber and                                                          High Fluctuation                                            supplies and higher risks of landslides and erosion damage,
                               Stability                                                                  NA                                                                                                     and parts of South                                                                (storage, irrigation,
       Tubiello 2007                                                            (price, supply, yields)                                     they can adversely affect the stability of food supplies and thus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Asia) poorest regions                                                             transport,
                                                                                                                                            food security
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 with the highest                                                                  communication)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 level of chronic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 undernourishment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 will also be exposed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 to the highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 degree of instability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 in food production
7SM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7SM

      7SM-18                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7SM-19
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                           Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                             Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development       Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Region (Including
                                                                                   Direction of                                                                                                Impact at            Impact at   Impact at     Impact at       Impact at         Adaptation
            Reference                    Risk            Variable (unit)                                Climate scenario       Timeframe   Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                             regional
                                                                                     impact                                                                                                     1 degree            2 degrees   3 degrees     4 degrees      4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 differences)
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Extreme events will
                                                                                                                                                                                             severely disrupt the
                                                                                                                                                                                             food supply
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Extreme events
                               Stability (civil                                                                                                                                              will escalate
       Zheng et al. 2014       disturbance,            Social tension          Disruption food supply   NA                                                                                   popular unrest,
                               social tension)                                                                                                                                               rebellions and wars
                                                                                                                                                                                          3. Extreme events
                                                                                                                                                                                             will increase
                                                                                                                                                                                             expenditure
                                                                                                                                                                                             to 60 –70%
                               Stability (impacts on
                               world market export
       Diffenbaugh             prices that carry
                                                       Price of corn           Negative                 NA
       et al. 2012             through to domestic
                               consumer prices due
                               to climate shocks)
                               Stability (impacts on
                               world market export
                               prices that carry
       Verma et al. 2014                               Price of corn           Likely negative          NA
                               through to domestic
                               consumer prices due
                               to climate shocks)
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Extreme events,
                                                                                                                                                                                             such as flooding,
                                                                                                                                                                                             can wipe out
                                                                               Negative (potential                                                                                           economic
                               Stability (impacts on                           food price impacts of                                                                                         infrastructure;
                               world market export                             a number of extreme                                                                                        2. Agricultural
                               prices that carry                               weather event                                                                                                 infrastructure
       Willenbockel 2012                               Food price                                       NA                 2030
                               through to domestic                             scenarios in 2030                                                                                             will be affected
                               consumer prices due                             for each of the main                                                                                       3. Weather-related
                               to climate shocks)                              exporting regions for                                                                                         yield shocks
                                                                               rice, maize and wheat)                                                                                        occurred will occur
                                                                                                                                                                                          4. Global crop
                                                                                                                                                                                             production
                                                                                                                                                                                             will drop
                                                                               Disruption food                                                                                                                                                                              Agricultural
                               Stability (political                            supply, price                                                                                                                                                                                intensification,
       Salmon et al. 2015                              Rainfall, temperature                            NA
                               and economic)                                   fluctuation, decrease                                                                                                                                                                        changes in land
                                                                               in production                                                                                                                                                                                use practices
       Medina-Elizalde         Stability (political
                                                       Rainfall                Low yields               NA
       and Rohling 2012        and economic)
                               Stability
                               (widespread crop
       Challinor et al. 2018   failure contributing    Crop failure            Negative                 NA                                                                                                                                                                  Moderate
                               to migration
                               and conflict)
                               Stability
                               (widespread crop
       Hendrix 2018            failure contributing    Crop failure            Negative                 NA                 Current                                                                                                                                          Moderate
                               to migration
                               and conflict)

7SM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7SM

      7SM-20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7SM-21
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                           Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                                    Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                        Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Region (Including
                                                                                   Direction of                                                                                                                       Impact at                Impact at                Impact at        Impact at    Impact at           Adaptation
            Reference                   Risk              Variable (unit)                                Climate scenario       Timeframe        Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                                                      regional
                                                                                     impact                                                                                                                            1 degree                2 degrees                3 degrees        4 degrees   4.5 degrees           potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                differences)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 “Multiyear drought
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 episodes in the late
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1950s, 1980s, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1990s, (i) the total
                              Stability                                                                                                                                                                          population of Syria
                              (widespread crop                                                                                              Negative. severe drought 2006/2007 caused northeastern               grew from 4 million
       Kelley et al. 2017     failure contributing      Crop failure           Negative                  NA                 Current         “breadbasket” region to collapse (zero or near-zero production,      in the 1950s to                                                                                    Low to medium
                              to migration                                                                                                  livestock herds lost)                                                22 million in recent
                              and conflict)                                                                                                                                                                      years; (ii) decline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 groundwater supply
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (iii) drought occurred
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 shortly after the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1990s drought
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1. Extreme events
                              Stability (widespread                                                                                                                                                                 will lead to
                              crop failure                                     Negative, low yields                                                                                                                 unprecedented rise
       Kelley et al. 2015                               Crop failure                                     NA                 Current                                                                                                                                                                                 Low
                              contributing to                                  and price increase                                                                                                                   in food prices
                              migration and conflict)                                                                                                                                                            2. Extreme events will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    obliterate livestock
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1. Droughts can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    dramatically
                                                                               Fluctuation (yield                                                                                                                   reduce crop yields                                                                              Food imports, Freer
                              Stability                                        and supply),                                                                                                                         and livestock                                                                                   trade, Investment
       Schmidhuber and
                              production, supply        Extreme events         Reduction (labour,        NA                                                                                                         productivity                                                                                    (storage, irrigation,
       Tubiello 2007
                              chain, extreme events                            productivity), Increase                                                                                                           2. Exposed to the                                                                                  transport,
                                                                               (disease burden)                                                                                                                     highest degree of                                                                               communication)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    instability in food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Besides Australia,      The transmission                                 Buffer stock schemes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           three more regions      of domestic prices                               for stabilizing supply
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           exceed a reduction of   to global markets                                and prices of major
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Key wheat-growing         –20%: Canada, Russia,   is visible in most                               staple commodities
                                                                                                                                            Negative. climate extremes collide with major drivers (population    regions display yield     and Kazakhstan.         scenarios with                                   in food-insecure
       Chatzopoulos et al.    Stability (variability                           Fluctuation (yield,
                                                        Yield, market, price                             NA                                 growth, dietary shifts, environmental degradation, and trade         reductions −28%           The highest absolute    large shocks in                                  regions may mitigate
       2019                   in supply, price)                                market and price)
                                                                                                                                            interdependence                                                      (Australia) to −6%        drops, corresponding    key exporters                                    some of the induced
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (US and Ukraine).         to −0.9 tha–1 and       and importers                                    price volatility but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           −0.7 tha–1, were        being responsible                                are generally difficult
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           found in Canada         for the most                                     to achieve and sustain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and Russia.             pronounced effects.                              in practice
                                                                               Negative, trade
                                                                               in situations
                                                                               where global grain
                                                                               production is reduced
                                                                               does not distribute
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2009–2011 food
                                                                               world food stocks/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 price increases led
                                                                               inadequate and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 to increases in social
                                                                               counter to modeling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 unrest, food price                                                                                 Medium in
       Bellemare 2015         Stability (trade)         Trade, supply, price   results (in reality       NA                 2007–2010       Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 volatility has not                                                                                 SSP1-like world
                                                                               producing countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 been associated
                                                                               protect domestic grain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 with increases
                                                                               reserves; prices spike
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 in social unrest
                                                                               upwards in times of
                                                                               reduced yields but
                                                                               do not fall as much
                                                                               in times of normal
                                                                               or increased yields)
                              Stability (variability                           Fluctuation (yield,
       Zampieri et al. 2017                             Yield, market, price                             NA                                 Negative
                              in supply, price)                                market and price)

7SM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               7SM

      7SM-22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           7SM-23
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                   Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                             Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development       Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Region (Including
                                                                          Direction of                                                                                                                 Impact at              Impact at   Impact at   Impact at       Impact at         Adaptation
            Reference                Risk         Variable (unit)                               Climate scenario      Timeframe        Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                              regional
                                                                            impact                                                                                                                      1 degree              2 degrees   3 degrees   4 degrees      4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              differences)
                                                                       Negative, trade in
                                                                       situations where
                                                                       global grain
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Open trade helps
                                                                       production is reduced
                                                                                                                                                                                                  improve access to
                                                                       does not distribute
                                                                                                                                                                                                  food at lower prices,
                                                                       world food stocks/
                                                                                                                                                                                                  combined with
                                                                       inadequate and
                                                                                                                                                                                                  observations in other
                                                                       counter to modeling
                                                                                                                                                                                                  articles about impact
       Donati et al. 2016   Stability (trade)   Trade, supply, price   results (in reality                         2007–2010      Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                                  of market speculation
                                                                       producing countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (US) combined with
                                                                       protect domestic grain
                                                                                                                                                                                                  export restraints
                                                                       reserves; prices spike
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Russia, Ukraine, India,
                                                                       upwards in times of
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vietnam) in 2007–
                                                                       reduced yields but
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2011 drought periods.
                                                                       do not fall as much
                                                                       in times of normal
                                                                       or increased yields)
                                                                                                                                                                                                  “World dollar prices
                                                                                                                                                                                                  of major agricultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                  food commodities rose
                                                                                                                                                                                                  dramatically from late
                                                                       Negative, trade in                                                                                                         2006 through to mid-
                                                                       situations where                                                                                                           2008. Prices collapsed
                                                                       global grain                                                                                                               dramatically in the
                                                                       production is reduced                                                                                                      second half of 2008
                                                                       does not distribute                                                                                                        with the onset of the
                                                                       world food stocks/                                                                                                         financial crisis. periods
                                                                       inadequate and                                                                                                             of high volatility have
                                                                       counter to modeling                                                                                                        been relatively
       Gilbert and Morgan                                                                                                         Negative. not yet clear if trend in food price volatility is
                            Stability (trade)   Trade, supply, price   results (in reality                         2007–2010                                                                      short and interspaced                                                             Moderate                Global
       2010                                                                                                                       permanent
                                                                       producing countries                                                                                                        with longer periods
                                                                       protect domestic grain                                                                                                     of market tranquillity.
                                                                       reserves; prices spike                                                                                                     It would therefore
                                                                       upwards in times of                                                                                                        be wrong simply to
                                                                       reduced yields but                                                                                                         extrapolate recent
                                                                       do not fall as much                                                                                                        and current high
                                                                       in times of normal                                                                                                         volatility levels into
                                                                       or increased yields)                                                                                                       the future. However,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  it remains valid to
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ask whether part of
                                                                                                                                                                                                  the volatility rise may
                                                                                                                                                                                                  be permanent.”
                                                                       Negative, trade in
                                                                       situations where
                                                                       global grain
                                                                       production is reduced
                                                                       does not distribute                                                                                                        Index‐based
                                                                       world food stocks/                                                                                                         investment in
                                                                       inadequate and                                                                                                             agricultural futures
                                                                       counter to modeling                                                                                                        markets is seen as the                                                            Moderate depending
                                                                                                                                  Negative. not yet clear if trend in food price volatility is
       Gilbert 2010         Stability (trade)   Trade, supply, price   results (in reality                         2007–2010                                                                      major channel through                                                             on exposure to market
                                                                                                                                  permanent
                                                                       producing countries                                                                                                        which macroeconomic                                                               speculation
                                                                       protect domestic grain                                                                                                     and monetary factors
                                                                       reserves; prices spike                                                                                                     generated the 2007–
                                                                       upwards in times of                                                                                                        2008 food price rise
                                                                       reduced yields but
                                                                       do not fall as much
                                                                       in times of normal or
                                                                       increased yields)

7SM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             7SM

      7SM-24                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         7SM-25
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                      Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                                    Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                      Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Region (Including
                                                                             Direction of                                                                                                                        Impact at               Impact at                  Impact at              Impact at           Impact at         Adaptation
           Reference                    Risk         Variable (unit)                               Climate scenario      Timeframe        Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                                                                       regional
                                                                               impact                                                                                                                             1 degree               2 degrees                  3 degrees              4 degrees          4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          differences)
                                                                                                                                                                                                            When food prices
                                                                                                                                                                                                            peaked in June of
                                                                          Negative, trade in
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2008, they soared
                                                                          situations where                                                                                                                                          “In all cases except
                                                                                                                                                                                                            well above the new
                                                                          global grain                                                                                                                                              soybeans, we find
                                                                                                                                                                                                            equilibrium price.
                                                                          production is reduced                                                                                                                                     that large surges
                                                                                                                                                                                                            observations that
                                                                          does not distribute                                                                                                                                       in export volumes
                                                                                                                                                                                                            international rice
                                                                          world food stocks/                                                                                                                                        preceded the price
                                                                                                                                                                                                            prices surged in
                                                                          inadequate and                                                                                                                                            surges. The presence
                                                                                                                                                                                                            response to export
                                                                          counter to modeling                                                                                                                                       of these large demand
                                                                                                                                                                                                            restrictions by
       Headey 2011            Stability (trade)    Trade, supply, price   results (in reality                                        Negative                                                                                       surges, together with
                                                                                                                                                                                                            India and Vietnam
                                                                          producing countries                                                                                                                                       back-of-the-envelope
                                                                                                                                                                                                            suggested that trade-
                                                                          protect domestic grain                                                                                                                                    estimates of their price
                                                                                                                                                                                                            related factors could
                                                                          reserves; prices spike                                                                                                                                    impacts, suggests that
                                                                                                                                                                                                            be an important basis
                                                                          upwards in times of                                                                                                                                       trade events played a
                                                                                                                                                                                                            for overshooting,
                                                                          reduced yields but                                                                                                                                        much larger and more
                                                                                                                                                                                                            especially given
                                                                          do not fall as much                                                                                                                                       pervasive role than
                                                                                                                                                                                                            the very tangible
                                                                          in times of normal or                                                                                                                                     previously thought.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                            link between
                                                                          increased yields)
                                                                                                                                                                                                            export volumes
                                                                                                                                                                                                            and export prices
                                                                          Negative, trade in
                                                                          situations where
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Increased number
                                                                          global grain                                                                                                                      Supply shocks                                                             “Compounded risk:                      Medium. Trade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and volume of trade
                                                                          production is reduced                                                                                                             driven not only by                                                        greater reliance on                    dependency has
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    links (relative to
                                                                          does not distribute                                                                                                               the intensification                                                       imports increases                      substantially
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    production), decrease
                                                                          world food stocks/                                                                                                                of trade, but as                                                          the risk of critical                   increased in the last
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and a more even            Possibility of
                                                                          inadequate and                                                                                                                    importantly by                                                            food supply losses                     few decades and more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    distribution of global     multiple supply
                                                                          counter to modeling                                                                                                               changes in the                                                            following a foreign                    than doubled since the
                                                                                                                                     Negative. Without coordinated and effective international                                      reserves (still relative   side shocks across
       Marchand et al. 2016   Stability (trade)    Trade, supply, price   results (in reality                         2007–2010                                                                             distribution of                                                           shock, notably in                      mid-1980s likely as a
                                                                                                                                     and domestic risk management of food stocks                                                    to production). –          different regions of
                                                                          producing countries                                                                                                               reserves. trade                                                           the case of several                    result of liberalization
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ->distribution of          the world (multi-
                                                                          protect domestic grain                                                                                                            dependency may                                                            Central American                       and the associated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    reserves matters more      breadbasket failure)
                                                                          reserves; prices spike                                                                                                            accentuate the risk                                                       and Caribbean                          removal of subsidies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    than their aggregate
                                                                          upwards in times of                                                                                                               of food shortages                                                         countries that import                  and trade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    quantity in terms of
                                                                          reduced yields but                                                                                                                from foreign                                                              grains from the                        protections in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    conferring resilience
                                                                          do not fall as much                                                                                                               production shocks                                                         United States”                         developing countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to shocks.
                                                                          in times of normal or
                                                                          increased yields)
                                                                          Negative, trade in
                                                                          situations where
                                                                          global grain
                                                                          production is reduced
                                                                          does not distribute
                                                                          world food stocks/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Depends on food
                                                                          inadequate and
                                                                                                                                     “Chinese drought contributed to a doubling of global wheat                                                                                                                              reserves, trade policy
                                                                          counter to modeling
                              Stability                                                                                              prices. The drought affected the price of bread in Egypt which                                                                                                                          (risk management)
       Sternberg 2012                              Trade, supply, price   results (in reality                         2007–2010
                              (trade, political)                                                                                     influenced political protest. The process exemplifies the potential                                                                                                                     and if multi-
                                                                          producing countries
                                                                                                                                     global consequences of climate hazards today.”                                                                                                                                          breadbasket failure
                                                                          protect domestic grain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             is present
                                                                          reserves; prices spike
                                                                          upwards in times
                                                                          of reduced yields but
                                                                          do not fall as much
                                                                          in times of normal
                                                                          or increased yields)

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      7SM-26                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     7SM-27
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                  Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                          Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                           Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Region (Including
                                                                             Direction of                                                                                                          Impact at                  Impact at               Impact at              Impact at                Impact at       Adaptation
            Reference                   Risk     Variable (unit)                                   Climate scenario           Timeframe        Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                                              regional
                                                                               impact                                                                                                               1 degree                  2 degrees               3 degrees              4 degrees               4.5 degrees       potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      differences)
       Permafrost degradation

                                                                         Increased loss of
                                                                         permafrost, leading
                                                                         to radical changes
                                                                         in high-latitude
                                                                         hydrology and
                                                                         biogeochemical
                                Permafrost     Permafrost area
       Chadburn et al. 2017                                              cycling. Estimated        CMIP5, multiple RCPs   1850–2300       Indirectly                                          13                         9                       6                      4                        2                                  Global
                                degradation    change (million km2)
                                                                         sensitivity of
                                                                         permafrost area
                                                                         loss to global
                                                                         mean warming at
                                                                         stabilization of 4.0 ±
                                                                         1.1 million km2°C–1
                                                                         Additional emissions
                                                                         between 225 and
                                                                         345 GtC (10th to          JULES-IMOGEN
                                               Increased land                                                                                                                                 1.5: 0.08 to               0.09 to 0.19 GtC yr−1
                                Permafrost                               90th percentile) from     intermediate           1.5° and 2°C
       Burke et al. 2018                       carbon emissions at                                                                                                                            0.16 GtC yr−1 (10th        (10th to 90th                                                                                              Global
                                degradation                              permafrost thaw           complexity climate     stabilization
                                               stabilization Gt C yr–1                                                                                                                        to 90th percentile)        percentile)
                                                                         under 2°C stabilised      model
                                                                         warming. 60–100 GtC
                                                                         less in a 1.5°C world
       Jorgenson &              Permafrost                               Increased
                                               Water erosion                                       Review                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Global
       Osterkamp 2005           degradation                              water erosion
                                                                         Permafrost thawing
                                                                         in dry continental
                                                                         Siberia may trigger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fennoscandia, Siberia
                                                                         widespread drought-
                                Permafrost                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and the northern
       Gauthier et al., 2015                   Tree mortality            induced mortality in      Review
                                degradation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         reaches of North
                                                                         dark coniferous forests
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    America
                                                                         and larch forests that
                                                                         cover 20% of the
                                                                         global boreal forest
                                                                         Permafrost thawing
                                                                         will reinforce the
                                                                         greenhouse effect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Carbon release by
                                                                         and induce irreversible
                                Permafrost     Damage to forest                                                                                                                                                                                                         2100 could be several
       FAO 2012                                                          damage to forest          Review                 2012–2030                                                                                                                                                                                                 Siberia
                                degradation    hydrological regimes                                                                                                                                                                                                     times that of current
                                                                         hydrological regimes,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tropical deforestation
                                                                         especially across
                                                                         regions receiving
                                                                         little rainfall
                                                                         Increases in
                                                                         nearsurface
                                                                                                                                                                                              Permafrost is now
                                                                         permafrost
                                                                                                                                                                                              warming at almost all
                                                                         temperatures during
                                                                                                                                                                                              sites across the North                             Rapid degradation
                                                                         2007–2009 are
                                                                                                                                                                                              American permafrost                                and disappearance
                                                                         up to 2°C warmer
                                                                                                                                                                                              zones, except for site                             over extensive areas   16%–35% of
                                                                         compared to 2–3
                                Permafrost                                                                                                                                                    where the permafrost                               within next 50–100     Canadian permafrost
       Price et al., 2013                      Permafrost thaw           decades, and there is     Review                 1995–2100                                                                                                                                                                                                 Canada
                                degradation                                                                                                                                                   is already close to                                years. Accelerated     area in 2000 may
                                                                         a concurrent trend in
                                                                                                                                                                                              0°C and vertical                                   degradation by         be lost by 2100
                                                                         its degradation and
                                                                                                                                                                                              ground temperature                                 2050 likely in
                                                                         disappearance. Overall
                                                                                                                                                                                              profiles are isothermal,                           several regions
                                                                         transient responses
                                                                                                                                                                                              indicating ongoing
                                                                         of permafrost to
                                                                                                                                                                                              phase changes
                                                                         warming are likely
                                                                         to be nonlinear

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      7SM-28                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7SM-29
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material               Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                             Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development       Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Region (Including
                                                                         Direction of                                                                                                            Impact at         Impact at          Impact at   Impact at       Impact at       Adaptation
              Reference              Risk     Variable (unit)                                 Climate scenario            Timeframe            Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                          regional
                                                                           impact                                                                                                                 1 degree         2 degrees          3 degrees   4 degrees      4.5 degrees       potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  differences)
                                            Proportion of
                                            all residential,
                                            transportation,
                                            and industrial            Arctic infrastructure
                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 million people,
                             Permafrost     infrastructure in areas   at risk from            Infrastructure hazard
       Hjort et al. 2018                                                                                              2041–2060                                                                               70% of current                                                                    Global
                             degradation    of nearsurface            degrading permafrost    computations
                                                                                                                                                                                                              infrastructure
                                            permafrost thaw           by mid-century
                                            (a) and high hazard
                                            (b) in the pan-Arctic
                                            permafrost area (%)

       Fire

                                                                      Multidirectional
                                                                      relationships
                                                                      between climate, land
                                                                      degradation and fire
       Bajocco et al. 2011   Fire           Area burned                                                               1990–2000                                                                                                                                                                 Mediterranean
                                                                      may be amplified
                                                                      under future land
                                                                      use change and
                                                                      climate scenarios
                                                                      Increase in charcoal
                                                                      influx (i.e. biomass
                                                                      burning) during the
                                                                                              Paleoclimate
       Marlon et al. 2016    Fire           Biomass burning           industrial period                               Last 22,000 years                                                                                                                                                         Global
                                                                                              reconstruction
                                                                      (probably not related
                                                                      to climate but human
                                                                      activities)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Northern Hemisphere
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Africa has experienced
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                a fire decrease
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                of 1.7 Mha yr–1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (–1.4% yr–1) since
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2000, while Southern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hemisphere Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                saw an increase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                of 2.3 Mha yr–1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (+1.8% yr–1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                during the same
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                period. Southeast
                                                                      Trends in land area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Asia witnessed
       Giglio et al. 2013    Fire           Area burned               burnt have varied       Recent observations     1995–2011           Regionally varying trends                                                               –
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                a small increase
                                                                      regionally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                of 0.2 Mha yr–1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (+2.5% yr–1) since
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1997, while Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                experienced a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                sharp decrease of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                about 5.5 Mha yr–1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (–10.7% yr–1) during
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2001–11, followed by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                an upsurge in 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                that exceeded the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                annual area burned in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                the previous 14 years

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      7SM-30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7SM-31
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                                      Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development       Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Region (Including
                                                                             Direction of                                                                                                                  Impact at       Impact at       Impact at        Impact at       Impact at         Adaptation
            Reference                 Risk     Variable (unit)                                     Climate scenario           Timeframe        Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                            regional
                                                                               impact                                                                                                                       1 degree       2 degrees       3 degrees        4 degrees      4.5 degrees         potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    differences)
                                                                         A recent analysis
                                                                         using the Global
                                                                         Fire Emissions
                                                                         Database v.4 that
                                                                         includes small fires
                                                                         concluded that the
                                                                         net reduction in land
                                                                         area burnt globally
                                                                         during 1998–2015
                                                                         was –24.3± 8.8%
                                                                         (–1.35 ± 0.49% yr–1).
                                                                         However, from the
                                                                         point of fire emissions
       Andela et al. 2017      Fire          Area burned                                           Remote sensing          1998–2015      Global decline                                                                                                                                  High in the tropics     Global
                                                                         it is important to
                                                                         consider the land
                                                                         cover types which
                                                                         have experienced
                                                                         changes in area
                                                                         burned; in this
                                                                         instance, most of
                                                                         the declines have
                                                                         come from grasslands,
                                                                         savannas and
                                                                         other non-forest
                                                                         land cover types
                                                                         (Andela et al. 2017)
                                                                         Significant recent
                                                                         increases in forest
                                                                         area burned                                                                                                                                                                                                      Moderate (rise in
       Abatzoglou and                                                    (with higher fuel                                                +100% cumulative forest fire area, CC accounted for 55% of                                                                                      forest fires despite    Western and boreal
                               Fire          Forest area burned                                    Detection/attribution   1979–2015
       Williams 2016                                                     consumption per unit                                             increase in fuel aridity                                                                                                                        increasing adaptation   north America
                                                                         area) recorded in                                                                                                                                                                                                measures)
                                                                         western and boreal
                                                                         North America
                                                                         Clear link between
                                                                         the western Canadian                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Western and boreal
       Ansmann et al. 2018     Fire          Forest area burned                                    Aerosols, case study    2017–2017
                                                                         fires and aerosol                                                                                                                                                                                                                        north America
                                                                         loading over Europe
                                                                         Temperature increase
                                                                         and precipitation
                                                                         decline may become
                                                                         the major driver of       Driving forces, A2,
       Pechony and Shindell                  Fire activity (% relative                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Low under high          Global with strong
                               Fire                                      fire regimes under        A1B, B1 scenarios;      800–2100                                                                     0–10%           0–10%           5–10%            10–35%          15%
       2010                                  to pre-industrial)                                                                                                                                                                                                                           warming levels          regional variations.
                                                                         future climates as        single GCM
                                                                         evapotranspiration
                                                                         increases and soil
                                                                         moisture decreases
                                                                         Temperature increase
                                                                         and precipitation
                                                                         decline may become
                                                                         the major driver of
                                                                                                   Random forest on
       Aldersley et al. 2011   Fire          Fire regimes                fire regimes under                                2000–2000                                                                                                                                                                              Global
                                                                                                   data sets
                                                                         future climates as
                                                                         evapotranspiration
                                                                         increases and soil
                                                                         moisture decreases

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      7SM-32                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   7SM-33
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                     Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development       Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Region (Including
                                                                       Direction of                                                                                                        Impact at      Impact at          Impact at     Impact at       Impact at       Adaptation
            Reference                 Risk     Variable (unit)                                Climate scenario         Timeframe        Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                          regional
                                                                         impact                                                                                                             1 degree      2 degrees          3 degrees     4 degrees      4.5 degrees       potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           differences)
                                                                   Temperature increase
                                                                   and precipitation
                                                                   decline may become
                                                                   the major driver of
       Fernandes et al. 2017   Fire          Fire regimes          fire regimes under         Logistic regression   1995–2015      Yes, for Indonesia during moderate to wet years                                                                                                       Indonesia
                                                                   future climates as
                                                                   evapotranspiration
                                                                   increases and soil
                                                                   moisture decreases
                                                                   The risk of wildfires
                                                                   in future could be
                                                                   expected to change,                                                                                                                                                                                                   North America, South
                                                                   increasing significantly                                                                                                                                                                                               America, central Asia,
       Liu et al. 2010         Fire          Probability of fire   in North America,          KBDI on GCM data      2070–2100                                                                                                                                                            southern Europe,
                                                                   South America, central                                                                                                                                                                                                southern Africa,
                                                                   Asia, southern Europe,                                                                                                                                                                                                and Australia
                                                                   southern Africa,
                                                                   and Australia
                                                                   Fire weather season
                                                                   has already increased
                                                                   by 18.7% globally
                                                                   between 1979 and
                                                                   2013, with statistically
                                                                   significant increases
                                                                   across 25.3% but
                                             Fire weather
       Jolly et al. 2015       Fire                                decreases only across      Weather analysis      1979–2013      Yes, global                                         plus18.7%                                                                                         Global
                                             season length
                                                                   10.7% of Earth’s
                                                                   land surface covered
                                                                   with vegetation; even
                                                                   sharper changes
                                                                   have been observed
                                                                   during the second half
                                                                   of this period
                                                                   Global area
                                                                   experiencing long
                                             Area experiencing
                                                                   weather fire season
       Jolly et al. 2015       Fire          long weather                                     Weather analysis      1979–2013      Yes, global                                         plus108.1%                                                                                        Global
                                                                   has increased by 3.1%
                                             fire season
                                                                   per annum or 108.1%
                                                                   during 1979–2013
                                                                   Fire frequencies by
                                                                   2050 are projected
                                                                   to increase by ~27%
                                                                   globally, relative to
                                                                   the 2000 levels, with
                                                                   changes in future fire
                                                                   meteorology playing
                                                                   the most important
       Huang et al. 2014       Fire          Fire frequencies      role in enhancing          A1B                   2000–2050                                                                                          19%                                                               Global
                                                                   the future global
                                                                   wildfires, followed
                                                                   by land cover changes,
                                                                   lightning activities
                                                                   and land use, while
                                                                   changes in population
                                                                   density exhibits
                                                                   the opposite effects

7SM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               7SM

      7SM-34                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7SM-35
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material            Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                  Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development          Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Region (Including
                                                                    Direction of                                                                                                      Impact at       Impact at       Impact at        Impact at       Impact at       Adaptation
            Reference              Risk     Variable (unit)                                Climate scenario          Timeframe   Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                             regional
                                                                      impact                                                                                                           1 degree       2 degrees       3 degrees        4 degrees      4.5 degrees       potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       differences)
                                                                Climate is only one
                                                                driver of a complex
                                                                set of environmental,
                                                                ecological and human
                                                                factors in influencing
                                                                fire. Interplay leads to
                                                                complex projections
                                                                of future burnt area       SIMFIRE+LPJGUESS
       Knorr et al. 2016a   Fire          Area burned           and fire emissions         model; RCP4.5/8.5      1971–2100                                                     No change         No change       No change       5%               10%                               Global
                                                                (Knorr et al. 2016a,b),    scenarios
                                                                yet human exposure
                                                                to wildland fires is
                                                                projected to increase
                                                                because of population
                                                                expansion into areas
                                                                already under high risk
                                                                of fires
                                                                Climate is only one
                                                                driver of a complex
                                                                set of environmental,
                                                                ecological and human
                                                                factors in influencing
                                                                fire. Interplay leads to
                                                                complex projections
                                                                of future burnt area       SIMFIRE+LPJGUESS
                                          Exposure (number
       Knorr et al. 2016a   Fire                                and fire emissions         model RCP4.5/8.5       1971–2100                                                     413                               497–646                          527–716                           Global
                                          of people)
                                                                (Knorr et al. 2016a,b),    scenarios
                                                                yet human exposure
                                                                to wildland fires is
                                                                projected to increase
                                                                because of population
                                                                expansion into areas
                                                                already under high risk
                                                                of fires
                                                                Climate is only one
                                                                driver of a complex
                                                                set of environmental,
                                                                ecological and human
                                                                factors in influencing
                                                                fire. Interplay leads to
                                                                complex projections
                                                                of future burnt area       SIMFIRE+LPJGUESS
                                          Greenhouse gas
       Knorr et al. 2016b   Fire                                and fire emissions         model;                 1971–2100                                                     –15%                                                                                                 Global
                                          emissions from fire
                                                                (Knorr et al. 2016a,b),    RCP4.5/8.5 scenarios
                                                                yet human exposure
                                                                to wildland fires is
                                                                projected to increase
                                                                because of population
                                                                expansion into areas
                                                                already under high risk
                                                                of fires

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      7SM-36                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7SM-37
Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                            Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development       Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Region (Including
                                                                           Direction of                                                                                                          Impact at       Impact at       Impact at        Impact at       Impact at       Adaptation
            Reference                  Risk     Variable (unit)                                  Climate scenario          Timeframe           Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                          regional
                                                                             impact                                                                                                               1 degree       2 degrees       3 degrees        4 degrees      4.5 degrees       potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  differences)
                                                                       General increase
                                                                       in area burned and
                                                                       fire occurrence
                                                                       but a lot of spatial
                                                                       variability, with some
                                                                       areas of no change
                                                                       or even decreases
                                                                       in area burned
                                                                       and occurrence.
                                                                       Fire seasons are
                                              Area burned, fire        lengthening for                                                                                                                                                                                                          Review of regional
       Flannigan et al. 2009    Fire                                                             Review                Present to 2100
                                              season length            temperate and boreal                                                                                                                                                                                                     studies
                                                                       regions and trend will
                                                                       continue in a warmer
                                                                       world. Future trends
                                                                       of fire severity and
                                                                       intensity are difficult
                                                                       to determine owing
                                                                       to the complex and
                                                                       non-linear interactions
                                                                       between weather,
                                                                       vegetation and people
                                                                       Anthropogenic
                                                                       increases in extreme
                                              Multimodel median
                                                                       Fire Weather Index                                                                                                                                                                                                       Global
                                              proportion of burnable                             Fire Weather Index
                                                                       days emerge for an                                                                                                                                                                                                       (pronounced effects
       Abatzoglou et al. 2019   Fire          terrestrial surfaces                               on 17 CMIP5 climate   1861–2099          Yes, on 22% of burnable land                        0–3%            15–30%          30–50%
                                                                       increasingly large                                                                                                                                                                                                       in Mediterranean
                                              for which emergence                                models
                                                                       fraction of burnable                                                                                                                                                                                                     and Amazon)
                                              occurs (%)
                                                                       land area under higher
                                                                       global temperatures
                                                                       Higher large-wildfire
                                                                       frequency, longer
                                              Wildfire frequency and
       Westerling et al. 2006   Fire                                   wildfire durations,       Fire reports          1970–2003          Yes, for Western US                                                                                                                                   Western US
                                              duration
                                                                       and longer wildfire
                                                                       seasons
                                                                       Global decline in
                                                                       recent burned area
                                                                       (1.28 × 104km2 yr–1),
                                                                       driven significant
                                                                       decline in tropics
                                                                       and extratropics
       Yang et al. 2014         Fire          Area burned                                        DLEM-Fire             1901–2007                                                                                                                                                                Global
                                                                       caused by human
                                                                       factors. warming and
                                                                       droughts are expected
                                                                       to increase wildfire
                                                                       activity towards
                                                                       the future
                                                                       Increase in burned
                                                                       area scales with
                                                                       warming levels.           SM and NSM under
       Turco et al. 2018        Fire          Area burned                                                              1981–2100                                                                              +50–75%         +75–175%                                                          Mediterranean
                                                                       Substantial benefits      RCP2.6 and RCP8.5
                                                                       from limiting warming
                                                                       to well below 2°C
                                                                       Increase burned area
                                                                                                                       1975–1995; 2050;
       Flannigan et al., 2005   Fire          Area burned              under enhanced CO2        2xCO2, 3xCO2                                                                                                                 +78%                             +143%                            Canada
                                                                                                                       2100
                                                                       scenarios

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Chapter 7 Supplementary Material                       Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development                                                           Risk management and decision-making in relation to sustainable development           Chapter 7 Supplementary Material

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Region (Including
                                                                                 Direction of                                                                                                             Impact at         Impact at       Impact at   Impact at        Impact at            Adaptation
            Reference                  Risk            Variable (unit)                                Climate scenario             Timeframe         Detection and attribution of current impact                                                                                                                      regional
                                                                                   impact                                                                                                                  1 degree         2 degrees       3 degrees   4 degrees       4.5 degrees            potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    differences)
       Coastal degradation

                                                                             Substantial global-
                                                     Coastal erosion area    scale increases                                                                                                        28,000 km2 eroded
       Mentaschi et al. 2018   Coastal degradation                                                    Remote sensing           1984–2015       No                                                                                                                                                                 Global
                                                     (km2)                   in coastal erosion                                                                                                     globally
                                                                             in recent decades
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Coastal regions are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  also characterised
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  by high population
                                                                             Increased population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  density, particularly
                                                                             exposure to 1-in-100
                                                     Number of people                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             in Asia (Bangladesh,
                                                                             year storm surge.
                                                     exposed to a 1-in-100                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        China, India,
                                                                             Strongest changes in
       Neumann et al. 2015     Coastal degradation   year flood event in                              Population projections   2000–2060       No                                                   625                 879–949         1,053–1,388                                                               Indonesia, Vietnam)
                                                                             exposure in Egypt and
                                                     coastal regions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              whereas the highest
                                                                             sub-Saharan countries
                                                     million                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      population increase
                                                                             in Western and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of coastal regions is
                                                                             Eastern Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  projected in Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (East Africa, Egypt,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and West Africa)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          High: most of the
                                                     Number of people        Increases in             DIVA model
       Nicholls et al. 2011    Coastal degradation                                                                             2000–2100       No                                                                                                                    72–187 (0.9–2.4%)    threatened population   Global
                                                     displaced (million)     coastal erosion          framework
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          could be protected.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Global (with Southeast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Asia concentrating
       Cazenave and                                                          Increases in             Review, mostly
                               Coastal degradation                                                                             2000–2100       No                                                                                                                                                                 many locations highly
       Cozannet 2014                                                         coastal erosion          qualitatively
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  vulnerable to relative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  sea level rise)
                                                                             Increases in
       Rahmstorf 2010          Coastal degradation                                                    Commentary               2000–2100       Yes                                                                                                                                                                Global
                                                                             coastal erosion
       Meeder and Parkinson                                                  Increases in
                               Coastal degradation   Coastal erosion                                  Sedimentary record       1900–2000                                                                                                                                                                          Everglades, USA
       2018                                                                  coastal erosion
                                                                             Net contraction          Land cover
       Shearman et al. 2013    Coastal degradation   Coastal erosion                                                           1980s-2000s     Indirectly                                           –0.28%                                                                                                        Asia-Pacific Region
                                                                             in mangrove area         classification
                                                                             CMIP3 wind speed
                                                                                                      CMIP3 evaluation
       McInnes et al. 2011     Coastal degradation   Coastal erosion         exhibit low skill over                            1981–2100                                                                                                                                                                          Global
                                                                                                      wind speed, SRES
                                                                             land areas
                                                                             Wave heights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Global (rise in wave
                                                                             increase in future       GCM combined with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  height in midlatitudes
       Mori et al. 2010        Coastal degradation   Coastal erosion         climates across          a wave model under       1979–2099
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and southern ocean,
                                                                             mid-latitudes and        SRES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  decrease in tropics)
                                                                             the Antarctic Ocean
                                                                             Increases in             Stakeholder
       Savard et al. 2009      Coastal degradation   Coastal erosion                                                           2005–2007                                                                                                                                                                          Canada
                                                                             coastal erosion          discussions
                                                                             Poleward shift in the
                                                                             genesis latitude and
       Tamarin-Brodsky and                                                   increased latitudinal    Storm tracking
                               Coastal degradation   Tropical cyclones                                                         1980–2099                                                                                                                                                                          Midlatitudes
       Kaspi 2017                                                            displacement of          algorithm to CMIP5
                                                                             tropical cyclones
                                                                             under global warming
                                                                             Increases in wave
                                                                             height (and period),
                                                                             increasing the
                                                                                                      Simple total water
       Ruggiero 2013           Coastal degradation   Total water level       probability of coastal                            1965–2010                                                                                                                                                                          U.S. Pacific Northwest
                                                                                                      level model
                                                                             flooding/erosion
                                                                             more than sea level
                                                                             rise alone
                                                                             Nexus of climate
                                                                             change and increasing    Review, mostly
       Elliott et al. 2014     Coastal degradation   Nexus                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Global
                                                                             concentration            qualitatively
                                                                             of people
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