Teaching Network Security in a Virtual Learning Environment - Core

 
Teaching Network Security in a Virtual Learning Environment - Core
Journal of Information Technology Education                                                   Volume 3, 2004

  Teaching Network Security in a Virtual Learning
                  Environment
             Laura Bergström, Kaj J. Grahn, Krister Karlström,
                     Göran Pulkkis, and Peik Åström
                   Arcada Polytechnic, Espoo, Finland

                  laura.bergstrom@arcada.fi kaj.grahn@arcada.fi
                            krister.karlstrom@arcada.fi
                  goran.pulkkis@arcada.fi peik.astrom@arcada.fi

                                       Executive Summary
This article presents a virtual course with the topic network security. The course has been pro-
duced by Arcada Polytechnic as a part of the production team Computer Networks, Telecommu-
nication and Telecommunication Systems in the Finnish Virtual Polytechnic.
The article begins with an introduction to the evolution of the information security requirements,
the different areas and uses for cryptography and to the need of an active network security ad-
ministration.
The structure of the Finnish educational system is presented together with the strategy, goals and
structure of the Finnish Virtual Polytechnic. The course development process is described in de-
tail together with the software tools used to produce the course material.
The contents in each chapter of the virtual course are also presented in this article. The seven
course chapters are: Introduction, Network Security Administration, Antivirus Protection, Fire-
walls, Cryptography and Network Security, Network Security Software and Security of Wireless
and Mobile Networks. All animations and exercises are described in their context.
The didactical approach of the virtual course is a guided excursion to which students enroll. The
task sets, consisting of exercises and study directives, that the course teacher assigns each week to
the students are introduced and explained in detail. The concept of step-by-step skill assimilation,
which lies behind the student guidance process, is outlined together with descriptions of the dif-
ferent user skill levels.
The background to the graphical design of the learning platform is illustrated and motivated. Both
the communicating dimension, the interface, and the esthetical dimension, the layout, of the
                                                            course graphical design are explained
                                                            and analyzed in depth.
 Material published as part of this journal, either on-line or in
 print, is copyrighted by the publisher of the Journal of Informa-      The IT infrastructure needed to im-
 tion Technology Education. Permission to make digital or paper         plement and use the learning platform
 copy of part or all of these works for personal or classroom use is
 granted without fee provided that the copies are not made or dis-
                                                                        of the course is described and as-
 tributed for profit or commercial advantage AND that copies 1)         sessed. Issues like how the students
 bear this notice in full and 2) give the full citation on the first    are registered and authenticated to the
 page. It is permissible to abstract these works so long as credit is   course are presented together with the
 given. To copy in all other cases or to republish or to post on a      tools for communication and interac-
 server or to redistribute to lists requires specific permission and
 payment of a fee. Contact Editor@JITE.org to request redistribu-       tion between student and teacher.
 tion permission.                                                       General IT requirements together with

The original version of this paper was published as one of the 24 “best” papers in the proceedings
of the 2003 Informing Science and IT Education Conference in Pori, Finland http://2003.insite.nu
Teaching Network Security in a Virtual Learning Environment - Core
Teaching Network Security in a Virtual Learning Environment

specific both server (course provider) and client (student) side IT requirements are presented.
Teaching and learning experiences, gathered from assessment forms and interviews, are pre-
sented. General experiences and experiences from doing and supervising exercises during a test
course held in spring 2003 are presented both from student and teacher perspective. Changes
made on the course contents after the test course are presented together with planned future de-
velopment of the course.
Production of a virtual course has proved to be a demanding task where experts, like graphical
designers, have to be included in the production team. Important issues in producing a virtual
course are the proper choice of computer software and IT technology and a sufficient and realistic
budget.

                                       Introduction
The requirements of information security have undergone three major changes in the last decades.
The first major change was the introduction of the computer. The need for protecting files and
information became evident. Collection of tools and procedures designed to protect data and to
control access to computing resources has the generic name computer security. The second major
change was the introduction of distributed systems, networks, and facilities for data communica-
tion. Network security measures are needed
            to protect data during transmission and storage
            to control access to networks and network nodes.
The third change is the current, rapid development of wireless networks and mobile communica-
tions. Wireless security is therefore of high priority today.
Network security implies restrictions such as
            network traffic filtering with firewall technology
            defense against distribution of malicious programs like viruses
            prevention, detection and management of intrusion
            prevention of unwanted data communication like email spamming.
Cryptography is needed for
            reliable authentication
            integrity of information content
            confidentiality
            nonrepudiation
in data processing, in data communication, and in the storing of data (Stallings, 2002). Reliable
authentication means that network resource users and communication partners can be unambigu-
ously identified. Integrity of information content requires reliable methods to check that trans-
mitted and stored information remains unchanged. Confidentiality means that the originator of
information can determine who has (have) the right to read the information content. Nonrepudia-
tion means that the authenticated information exchange can afterwards be unambiguously proved
to have happened. Nonrepudiation is achieved by attaching to information records cryptographic
digital signatures, which can be verified at any future moment of time. The importance of cryp-
tography and the number of application areas are steadily growing.

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Network security requires active administration. Security policies, standards and administrative
procedures must be worked out, implemented and followed up.
Network security skills are thus needed by practically any user of a computer connected to a net-
work. Presently there is a growing demand for network security professionals for
    security administration of data and IT infrastructures
    development of network security technology and methodology
    delivery of support and training to network user in security related issues.
A virtual, survey oriented Network Security course, available to students of all polytechnics in a
country, encourages individual polytechnics to concentrate their educational resources on highly
needed, specialized, and also custom designed network security education.

                               Course Development
The Finnish Virtual Polytechnic
The Finnish educational system in a nutshell is illustrated in Figure 1. Compulsory basic educa-
tion at comprehensive schools is given to all children between the ages of 7 and 16. Education is
voluntary after completing the comprehensive school. Students may go to upper secondary school
providing three years of general education, or to vocational education lasting from two to five
years. Both of these give a general qualification for polytechnic and university studies (“The Fin-
nish educational system,” 2002), see Figure 1.
The action plan of the Ministry of Education in Finland for years 2000 – 2004 includes Virtual
School, Virtual Polytechnic and Virtual University. Briefly the strategy and goals for the Finnish

                             Figure 1. The Finnish educational system

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Virtual Polytechnic are: (The Virtual Polytechnic of Finland, 2002):
      The Finnish Virtual Polytechnic is common for all Finnish Polytechnics
      It produces and provides high level learning services
      The Finnish Virtual Polytechnic uses modern information and communication technology
      The Finnish Virtual Polytechnic uses modern pedagogical solutions in networks
      Increase co-operation between polytechnics and the knowledge of virtual learning
      Build up a common portal for all students in Finnish polytechnics
      Co-operation with other local and international projects
      Quality assurance
      Copyright questions (teacher – institution – outer world)
      Support for teachers who are producing material
      Standardization including learning platforms, material modules meta data, student administra-
      tion and economical aspects
The main result of the Finnish Virtual Polytechnic will be more cooperation between different
polytechnics. Teacher education must cover new skills like coaching students through learning
environments on a net platform. Virtual learning in the information society in Finland will cross
borders not only between polytechnics but also to other schools and to other nations. The Finnish
Virtual Polytechnic will also support the following vital interests of the student: more personal
studies, many study options, a broader curriculum, and a new didactic approach.

Content production teams
The Finnish Virtual Polytechnic has 31 polytechnics as members and a potential of 120000 stu-
dents and 6000 teachers. Content production is being done in 28 production teams, in year 2003.
The aim is to have virtual courses of more than 200 credit units. The network security course has
been produced in the production team Computer Networks, Telecommunication and Telecommu-
nication Systems. The total amount of credit units in this production circle is 11.

Course development process
Text and table based information has been produced by teachers and students. Figures, anima-
tions, and other graphical material production have been supported by other expertise within the
polytechnic. The production team consists of 2 IT teachers, 3 IT students and 1 graphical de-
signer. The effort needed to develop the course:
      both IT teachers have worked 4-5 hours/month during about 10 months to plan the course,
      with content production, and to supervise the 3 IT students and the graphical designer
      two IT students have worked about 20 hours/month during 6 months with content production
      for the course.
      one IT student worked 6 hours/week as course assistant, when the course was given as a test
      course in January-May 2003.
      the graphical designer has worked full time during about 6 months with
      o   the web based learning environment

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    o   the Flash animations
    o   picture design for the course content.
Course development continues during the study process of an accepted group of course students:
    weekly tasks and given exercises are integrated in the web based learning environment
    the course schedule is updated every week
    feedback and comments from course participants as well as response of the course teacher to
    this feedback is promptly published on the learning environment
    course content is updated and revised based on the experiences from the ongoing course.
For this work a graphical designer is needed about 10-16 hours/week to support the course
teacher.

Course material
Course material is produced using:
    word processing (.doc), FrontPage or Netscape Composer (.html) for text
    Adobe PhotoShop and Macromedia Flash 5 for pictures (.gif, .jpeg)
    Macromedia Flash 5 for animations (.swf)
The course material has been organized in modules. Course testing and evaluation will be done
by the production team, by IT teachers, and by students who will use the course material. Acces-
sibility and navigation will be tested using IE and Netscape browsers.

                                     Course Content
The course is divided into seven chapters that make up the course material. These chapters can be
found from a navigational menu on the course portal. In the menu there are also links to the
course index, all the exercises and the weekly topics.
The first chapter of the course is an introduction to the course material. The topics of the other
chapters are:
            Network Security Administration
            Antivirus Protection
            Firewalls
            Cryptography and Network Security
            Network Security Software
            Security of Wireless and Mobile Networks
The course material published on the web has been developed to be used in parallel with the
course book (Stallings, 2002). The course content structure, developed by the course production
team, is different from the chapter division of the course book. All of the course topics are not
treated in the course book and all of the course book topics are not covered by the course.

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Chapter 1 - Introduction
The “Introduction” chapter gives the student a short and illustrative introduction to the basic con-
cepts of network security. The chapter consists of four sections
            Main Introduction
            Taxonomy Diagram
            Network Security Threats
            Features of Secure Networks.
The “Main Introduction” section summarizes the main network security concepts and important
information needed in the following course chapters.
The “Taxonomy Diagram” section shows the fundamental properties of network security - integ-
rity, protection, and security administration – as an interactive, animated Network Security tree
(see Figure 2). The main branches of this tree are Integrity and Protection. Both man branches
have many sub-branches, which represent the variety of the fundamental properties. The leaves
covering the whole tree visualize Security Administration, which is needed everywhere.

                    Figure 2. The interactive animated Network Security tree.

The “Network Security Threats” section shows a classification consisting of three network secu-
rity threats, damage, eavesdropping, and intrusion. The section is implemented by an interactive
audio-visual animation (see Figure 3). By activating different sectors of the animation the user
gets advice how to manage these threats.

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                    Figure 3. Interactive animation of network security threats.

The “Features of Secure Networks” section illustrates different technologies and methods needed
to build up secure networks. These technologies are needed for access to a private network from
other networks, from different segments of the same private network or from a computer con-
nected to Internet. The illustrated technologies are:
            SSH Tunneling
            VPN Access
            VPN Connection
The section describes also other important concepts related to the illustrated technologies, e.g.
Home User, Other LAN and ISP.
The section is implemented with an interactive graphical animation for highlighting network se-
curity architecture features (see Figure 4).

Chapter 2 – Network Security Administration
The “Network Security Administration” chapter presents important security related issues of the
broad concept of network administration together with information about user support and educa-
tion. The roles of Security Incident Response Teams and Standardization organizations are pre-
sented together with examples of important network security standards and security administra-
tion software. The chapter includes three exercises to help students understand the chapter con-
tents. The chapter is divided into the following sections:
            Introduction
            Security Policy
            Intrusion Detection
            Vulnerability Assessment

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                Figure 4. Interactive animation of a network security architecture.

            User Support and Education
            Security Incident Response Teams
            Network Security Standards.
            Security Administration Software
The importance of using a well-defined security policy, managed by a security team, as the basis
for network security administration is presented in the “Security Policy” section. A security pol-
icy defines the network security goals and responsibilities as well as the administrative proce-
dures and methods needed to achieve these goals. The section includes an exercise (“Security
Policy”) where the course student is asked to outline a Security Policy.
The concept of intrusion detection and the software needed for intrusion detection is presented in
the “Intrusion Detection” section. The use of intrusion detection software is vital for the identifi-
cation of security breaches in the network.
Vulnerability Assessment Systems that are used as a complement to intrusion detection are pre-
sented in the “Vulnerability Assessment” section. Security vulnerabilities like configuration er-
rors and system problems can be found using vulnerability assessment software. The section in-
cludes an exercise (“Vulnerability Assessment”) where the course student uses a port scanner and
a password cracker to find network security vulnerabilities.
The need for user support and user training to achieve certain user skill levels is presented in the
“User Support and Education” section. User training and user support are both important in net-
work operation and are therefore needed to maintain network security. The absence of education
and support could lead to serious security hazards caused by human errors.
Fundamental information about Security Incident Response Teams is presented together with ex-
amples of such teams in the “Security Incident Response Team” section. These teams register

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different network security problems, find solution to these problems and make the solutions pub-
licly available.
Both international and national standardization organizations are presented in the “Network Secu-
rity Standards” section. The section describes a wide range of different network security stan-
dards and recommendations by organizations like, IETF (IETF, 2002), ISO (ISO, 2002), IEC
(IEC, 2002), RSA Security Inc. (RSA Security Inc., 2002) and FINEID (FINEID, 2002). The
concept of network security standards is a very broad subject, stretching from physical network
components to software and protocols. The section includes an exercise (“Network Security
Standards Quiz”), a quiz with several short questions concerning network security standards.
The “Security Administration Software” section summarizes software already presented earlier in
the sections “Intrusion Detection” and “Vulnerability Assessment” together with management
software used to centrally manage the use of other network security software.

Chapter 3 – Antivirus Protection
This chapter describes different types of malicious programs, often called viruses, with emphasis
on how they behave and how they are propagated. Viruses are classified by the way they propa-
gate and behave together with explanations about the different activity phases of viruses. The his-
torical development of antivirus protection is presented starting from simple scanners to advanced
modern methods. The antivirus protection levels needed for optimal network wide antivirus pro-
tection are outlined and illustrated with examples. The importance of an antivirus strategy is
pointed out together with the necessity of regularly updating the virus definitions. The chapter
includes an exercise (“Antivirus Protection Quiz”), a quiz with several short questions about anti-
virus protection.
The “Antivirus Protection” chapter is implemented as an interactive animation with text and hy-
pertext features (see Figure 5). The Firewall chapter animation consists of six sections:

                      Figure 5. Interactive animation of antivirus protection.

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            Introduction
            Characteristics of Viruses
            Classification of Virus Types
            Antivirus Protection Methods
            Antivirus Software
The definition for a virus is presented in the “Characteristics of Viruses” section where also dif-
ferent ways of grouping viruses is discussed. The section describes the different activity phases of
viruses together with information about how viruses propagate.
The classification of viruses is presented in the “Classification of Virus Types” section. The sec-
tion includes basic information about the classified virus types (Memory-Resident, Parasitic, Boot
Sector, Macro, Script, Stealth and Polymorphic).
The “Antivirus Protection Methods” section describes how antivirus protection should be set up
to give the best practical protection against viruses. The section also presents the different anti-
virus software generation.
The section “Antivirus Software” introduces the different levels of antivirus protection that can
be achieved using modern antivirus software together with examples of such software. The im-
portance of combining the different levels of antivirus protection is pointed out as well as the
need to update the virus definition databases.

Chapter 4 – Firewalls
The Firewalls chapter provides the user with basic knowledge about firewalls. Firewalls should
prevent intrusion into private networks. Many programs used in a typical network are vulnerable.
This is one important reason to include a network access controlling firewall in the gateway to a

          Figure 6. A screen from the Flash implementation of the “Firewalls” chapter.

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network. The chapter includes an exercise (“Firewall Rules with IPTables”) where the student is
asked to explain firewall functionality and design iptables rules.
The “Firewalls” chapter is implemented as an interactive animation with text and hypertext fea-
tures (see Figure 6). The Firewall chapter animation consists of six sections:
            Design Goals
            Access Control Methods
            Firewall Types
            Firewall Configurations
            Firewall Platforms
            Firewall Software
The “Design Goals” section describes the reasons to use a firewall and the general operational
principles of a firewall. The importance of a secure firewall is underlined because a network is
just as secure as the firewall protecting it.
The “Access Control Methods” section gives a basic understanding of the basic four network traf-
fic filtering techniques used to implement access control. These techniques are:
            Service control
            Direction control
            User control
            Behavior control
The operation principles and security features of three classified firewall types are described in
the “Firewall Types” section. These firewalls types are:
            Packet Filtering Router
            Application Level Gateway
            Circuit Level Gateway
Four fundamental configurations are presented in the “Firewall Configuration” section:
            Screened Host
            Single Homed Bastion
            Dual Homed Bastion
            Screened Subnet
Screening is used in all these configurations. Some configurations combine screening with bas-
tion hosts, one of them even uses double screening hosts. The concept “bastion host” and the
properties of the different firewall configuration types are described.
The “Firewall Platforms” section presents different physical firewall implementation platforms
and the “Firewall Software” section presents examples of available firewall software.

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Chapter 5 - Cryptography and Network Security
This chapter presents the theoretical foundations of cryptography as well as information about
fundamental cryptographic algorithms and protocols. The chapter includes fourteen exercises and
consists of seven sections:
            Introduction to Cryptography
            Theoretical Foundations
            Cryptographic Algorithms
            Cryptographic Protocols
            Encryption Key Management
            Cryptographic Hardware
            Cryptographic Software
The section “Introduction to Cryptography” describes the basic concepts of cryptography using
an audiovisual slideshow.
The “Theoretical Foundations” section presents the theoretical background of present cryptogra-
phy: information theory, complexity theory, number theory (modulo arithmetic’s, finite (Galois)
fields, factoring, prime number generation, elliptic curve arithmetic’s and secure random number
generation). The section includes two exercises. In the first exercise (“Basic math of cryptogra-
phy I”) the student is asked to perform basic calculations and answer to questions related to com-
plexity theory and modular arithmetic. In the second exercise (“Basic math of cryptography II”)
the student is asked to perform basic calculations and answer to questions related to finite (Ga-
lois) fields and elliptic curve arithmetic’s.
The “Cryptographic Algorithms” section contains presentation of the essential features of crypto-
graphic algorithms and a detailed characterization of the fundamental cryptographic algorithms,
the secret key algorithms (symmetric), the public key algorithms (asymmetric), and the hash algo-
rithms. The section includes two exercises; the first exercise (“RSA algorithm”) is about the gen-
eral purpose asymmetric RSA algorithm and the second exercise (“Diffie-Hellman Key Agree-
ment”) is about the asymmetric Diffie-Hellman key agreement algorithm. The section also in-
cludes an animation that visualizes the data flow logistics of the cryptographic protocol that uses
the Diffie-Hellman key agreement algorithm.
In the “Cryptographic Protocols” section the fundamental cryptographic protocol types, the digi-
tal signature protocols, the secret key agreement protocols, and the authentication protocols are
presented. The functionality of the Kerberos authentication protocol is visualized by an audiovis-
ual animation included in the section.
The “Encryption Key Management” section explains how symmetric and asymmetric encryption
keys are generated, stored, distributed, revoked and destroyed. Also the significance of trusted
public key ownership of and principles of standardized Public Key Infrastructures (PKI) are pre-
sented. PKI is also visualized by an audiovisual animation of the sending and the reception of a
signed email message. The section includes two exercises; the first exercise (“Cryptographic Key
Management Quiz”) is a quiz about cryptographic key management and the second exercise
(“Security Token Quiz”) is a quiz about private key protection with security tokens.
The “Cryptographic Hardware” section covers different types of cryptographic hardware used for
generation, protection and use of sensitive cryptographic data structures, e.g. cryptographic keys
and irreproducible random numbers, and for acceleration purposes. Examples of such hardware
are:

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            smart card chips,
            USB tokens,
            PC Card cryptographic tokens,
            True Random Number Generator (TRNG) and
            cryptographic processors/acceleration chips.
The “Cryptographic Software” section surveys software and applications for network security.
VPN solutions based on the IPSec standard implement network level security. Application level
security can be achieved using software and application based on the SSL/TLS standard or by
using custom designed security software. The software used for accessing smart card based cryp-
tographic tokens is also covered. The section includes the following exercises:
    “IPSec Quiz” – Quiz about IPSec concepts
    “VPN configuration with FreeS/WAN” – Configuration of a VPN connection
     “Public Key user authentication in OpenSSH” – Creation of a RSA or DSA authentication
string
    “Protected Email Communication to a Mailbox” – Use of the SSL protected IMAP protocol
    “Secure email with S/MIME” – Signed and Encrypted email communication with S/MIME
    “Setting up use of PGP for secure electronic mail” – PGP configuration and use
    “Secure Remote Browsing of an Intranet” – Setting up an SSH tunnel
    “Cryptographic Software Quiz” – Quiz about cryptographic software

Chapter 6 – Network Security Software
This chapter includes information related to software used in different parts of the broad subject
of Network Security. It contains the following seven sections:
            Introduction
            Security Administration Software
            Antivirus Software
            Firewall Software
            Cryptographic Software
            Security Software Development
            Design of Security Software
The “Introduction” section gives a short introduction to the topic of Network Security Software
and the contents of the chapter.
The following four sections (“Security Administration Software”, “Antivirus Software”, “Fire-
wall Software” and “Cryptographic Software”) are also included in other chapters, of the course,
devoted to field of the software category. The section “Security Administration Software” is also
reachable from chapter “Network Security Administration”, the section “Antivirus Software”
from chapter “Antivirus Protection”, the section “Firewall Software” from chapter “Firewalls”
and the section “Cryptographic Software” from chapter “Cryptography and Network Security”.

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The last two sections, “Security Software Development” and “Design of Secure Software”, are
reachable only from this chapter. The section “Security Software Development” introduces avail-
able software libraries and tools for development of secure network applications and for integrat-
ing security features in all types of software. The section includes an exercise (“OpenSSL pro-
gramming example”) where the student is asked to set up SSL protected communication using
OpenSSL. The section “Design of Secure Software” covers the different security requirements of
network software and how to take them into consideration while designing network software. The
section includes an exercise (“Secure Software Design Quiz”), a quiz about the section contents.

Chapter 7 – Security of Wireless and Mobile Networks
This chapter gives a topical overview of wireless and mobile network security aspects. Security
measures taken depend on the protocols, standards, techniques and systems available. A survey of
security protocols, standards and corresponding technologies is given. The chapter focuses on 2G,
2.5G, 3G and wireless local area networks. Standards, like WAP (“What is WAP?”, 2002), IEEE
802.11 (IEEE 802.11, 2002), HomeRF (HomeRF, 2002), HIPERLAN/2 (ETSI Hiperlan/2 stan-
dard, 2002), IPSec (IP Security Protocol (ipsec), 2002), and Bluetooth (Bluetooth, 2001) are pre-
sented. The chapter include an exercises (“Wireless and mobile security Quiz”), a quiz where the
student is asked to answer short questions concerning the chapter contents.

                                Didactical Approach
The chosen didactical approach is a guided excursion to which students from different polytech-
nics enroll. A team consisting of a responsible teacher, a course assistant, and a graphical de-
signer, the maintainer of the web based learning environment, provides the guidance.

Guidance
The guidance is based on step-by-step skill assimilation, starting from user level skills. The fol-
lowing skill levels are the network administrator level and application development level. Skill
assimilation will proceed to a point from which course students can continue with advanced fol-
low up courses leading to scientific network security skills.

Course Book
The newest edition of the rewarded network security textbook authored by Stallings (Stallings,
2002) has been chosen as course book to be used in parallel with the course material published on
the web.

Weekly Task Sets
The course proceeds with task sets distributed weekly to the course participants using the course
mailing list and the web based course portal. The weekly task sets consist of configuration, instal-
lation, calculation, testing or programming exercises or topical quizzes and of study directives.
Each weekly task set has a deadline.
The exercises assigned in the weekly task sets are included in the course material. The first four
exercises have a special function. They act as an authentication “gateway” that needs to be passed
before access to parts of the learning environment and to the rest of the exercises is obtained.

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User Level Skills
Every user of computers and computer networks needs certain network security skills. This
means in practice, that fundamental security policy issues control all computer use. Examples of
these issues are:
   awareness of the significance of antivirus protection and skills to perform virus scans with
   installed antivirus protection software
   familiarity with the basic principles of firewalls, skills to install and use firewall software for
   protection of a workstation connected to a public TCP/IP network
   basic security patching skills like updating operating system environments, www browsers
   and other network applications with published security patches
   ability to manage settings of network security software embedded for example in web brows-
   ers and remote access software like SSH.
   familiarity with the basic principles of PKI. This covers understanding of security certificates,
   protected web page browsing skills like management of certificate stores and other security
   settings in web browsers (see Figure 7), email protection skills like email message signing and
   signature verification (see Figure 8).

                   Figure 7. Security settings in Netscape Communicator v4.79.

      Figure 8. Inspection of the signature of a signed email message in Netscape Messenger v4.79.

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Administrator Level Skills
The next level of network security skills is the network administrator level, which should in-
clude
   skills to install, configure and update network security software (see Figure 9) and hardware
   security policy outlining skills
   network user support and training skills in security related issues.
Education of IT engineers and other IT professionals should provide network administrator skills
in network security.

 Figure 9. SSL variables in the configuration file of a web server configured for
                     HTTPS – the secure HTTP protocol.

Application Development Level Skills
The highest level of network security skills in polytechnic education is the application develop-
ment level. On this level advanced programming and hardware design skills are combined with a
profound and detailed knowledge of
   behavior of viruses and other malicious programs
   TCP/IP and other network protocols
   cryptographic algorithms, protocols and standards.
For example, the knowledge and skills needed for development of PKI client software based on
the PKCS#11 standard (RSA Laboratories, 2002) are based on advanced C programming in com-
bination with a profound knowledge about accessing software and hardware implementations of
cryptographic tokens. Education of software and programming professionals should provide net-
work security technology development skills.

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Network Security Skills on a Scientific Level
The highest level of network security skills in university education is the scientific network se-
curity level. This level covers knowledge and skills
   to propose new protection methods against viruses and other malicious programs
   to propose new firewall types and configurations
   to further develop the mathematics of cryptography and
   to propose new cryptographic algorithms, protocols and standards.
It should be possible to acquire this skill level in postgraduate IT education in universities.

     The Graphical Design of the Learning Environment
Background and Presentation
The design of the learning environment has been primarily motivated by the aim of the course
(learning) and its target group (students of computer and telecommunication engineering). The
starting point of the design for the web course ‘Network Security’ is that a high bandwidth Inter-
net connection is available to users. Therefore it was decided to add elements like animations and
sound, since such elements stimulate the senses more than just plain static text. Nevertheless, the
static text is still the most important element of the course. The learning environment with the
material of the course is built on frames and HTML with some JavaScript files. All animations
are made with Flash 5, which means that users need a Flash 5 Plug-In, which can be downloaded
from Macromedia’s website (Macromedia – Flash MX, 2002). Some animations include an audio
part. A user without the possibility to listen to audio can find the spoken text written next to the
animation.
The graphical design has two dimensions, the communicating dimension and the esthetical di-
mension. The communicating dimension, the interface, describes the interaction between the user
and the learning environment. It has two parts, the informative part with the course material and
the interactive part with the information needed for communication between the student and the
teacher. The esthetical dimension, the layout, describes the visual style of the whole website, see
Figure 10. As communication goals are more easily achieved with a strong esthetical structure,
these two dimensions are very much dependent of each other and only together they make the
learning environment good.

The Interface
The interface of a product is about usability and comprehensibility of the product, and should
support the user to achieve the goal that is set for using the product. In this case the goal is to
learn, which makes the design of the interface even more important. The time to study and under-
stand the interface should be minimal, so that the user doesn’t have to use the time that is meant
for learning the contents of the course, to learn how to use the learning environment. This means
that the design should be carefully planned and the same throughout the whole website. The de-
scription of the interface consists of

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                   Figure 10. The layout of the learning environments’ home page.

      the usability of the website and
      the comprehensibility of the course.

The usability of the website
The usability of the website is the way the elements of the website are used separately and to-
gether. The three milestones of usability are
      the navigation on the website, designed both from the informative part and the interactive
      part,
      the elements of interaction between student and teacher and
      the index of the course and the whole website.
The index is included as the third part of the usability because it is one of the most important
elements of an interface for a learning platform. The user should find the index easily and fast,
without having to select many hyperlinks, as this page will probably be an often visited page of
the user.
The navigation on the website. The navigational system consists of two main parts, the informa-
tive part that is the navigation of the course and the interactive part that is the navigation of the
learning platform, which includes the informative part.
Since the website is built on frames, a user will always start his session at the homepage of the
learning environment. The homepage is composed of three frames: top, middle and bottom frame.
The user can find two menus on this page, which are also the main menus of the learning envi-

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ronment; one formed like a puzzle in the top frame and the other in the bottom frame. The top
menu is the course menu and thus the most important menu. It is placed on the top of the screen,
because this is the place where the eye normally goes first when a web page is opened. The form
of the menu is different and bigger compared to the bottom menu, so it is more noticeable and
awakes interest. The menu on the bottom of the screen is the menu for the interaction between the
student and the teacher. It has no elements linked to the actual course and no submenus unlike the
top menu, which contains of much more information. A page opened from either menu appears in
the middle frame and both main menus are always visible.
The top menu contains nine puzzle pieces describing the seven chapters of the course, the index,
the weekly topics and the exercise page where all the exercises of the course are gathered. All
chapters except Index contain a submenu. Some submenus have own submenus. The submenu of
the pages is placed on the left side of the middle frame except in Chapter 4, which is a flash ani-
mation and therefore has a different kind of structure. The navigational structure of Chapter 4
needs some studying before using, but some difference in-between the chapter’s internal compo-
sition is good for the user’s ability to remember (See Figure 6).
The chapters are all composed of a left frame and a right frame. The left frame is for the submenu
and the right for the contents of the submenu. A submenu of a chapter submenu, thus a sub-
submenu, is placed on the top of the right frame. Then all menus (the two main menus, the sub-
menu and the sub-submenu) of a chapter are always visible. The right frame is placed under the
main top menu, and has a marker on the top of the page pointing out to which chapter the con-
tents belongs. The path to the current page is also written in the heading of the contents page – for
example chapter 4 / submenu 3 / sub-submenu 2 / header of the page.
The start page of the course can be opened from the course logo on the left in the top frame and
from a hyperlink named ‘home’ in the bottom menu.
The elements of interaction between student and teacher. To become a course that can be used
independently on the web, the Network Security course needs a learning environment. This
means that the website needs elements for interaction between the student and the teacher. These
elements can be found in the bottom menu and on the home page of the learning platform, and
represent information widely used throughout the course. Before continuing it is necessary to
mention that the composition of the home page changes week after week, and is therefore one of
the active elements of the learning environment. In the beginning of the course, the home page
consists a big amount of information, information that the student will need less and maybe just
in the beginning the course. Some of it is later placed under the links of bottom menu. This start
information describes how the course is lead, how to use and understand the learning environ-
ment and which are its’ IT requirements. To avoid an unorganized and distracting design, the
amount information on home page is reduced to its minimum during the course. Just a short de-
scription of the course and the preconditions of the students, a link to a page with the topic of the
week and announcements of the week are necessary.
The six links in the bottom menu are.
    A link to the home page.
    A link to a page with the contact information of the teachers, assistants and other students.
    A link to information about the conferencing area, bulletin board and newsgroups of the
    course, and a list of IT requirements that need to be fulfilled to be able to follow the course.
    On this page is also explained the two menu system.
    A link to a calendar outlining the significant events of the course.

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      A link to a questions page where all the questions and feedback that the students give during
      the course are gathered.
      A link to the sources of information.
On the very top of the page it is communicated when the learning environment was last updated.
This function is an important element of the interaction between the teacher and student as it con-
firms to the students the maintenance of the environment.
The index. The Index of the website is situated in the puzzle menu on the top, although it is an
element to serve the entire website. This was done because the importance of the course indexes.
The index consists of two parts; the course index, which is a JavaScript file, and the learning plat-
form index.
The use of the course index suffers from the frame structure of the website. A submenu or a sub-
submenu of a chapter cannot be opened directly. A chapter can only be entered from its start
page.

The comprehensibility of the course
To make the comprehensibility of the course and the entire website more clear and obvious for
the user, the website should communicate with the user. The elements need to give feedback for
any action made by the user. This means for example that if the user rolls over a link with the
mouse, the link ought to react in some way so that the user recognizes this as a link. The feedback
in the main menus and in the submenus is given using a blue rollover color. In the sub-submenus
the feedback is given by highlighting the graphic with red color. Already visited text hyperlinks
remain light red. Because the two main menus are graphics (not text), they leave no trace of vis-
ited links. But as the trace of a visited chapter is important, a visited link in the top menu is de-
signed in an alternative way: a line of blue dots below the puzzle piece of the visited chapter. This
JavaScript is supported only of Internet Explorer and the dots disappear when the page is re-
loaded.
For clarity all links to other pages in the Internet are opened in a new window. All animations,
which are independent of the body text, are opened in a new window. The animation is then seen
as a story of its own and can easily be managed. (See Figure 11)

The Layout
The goal of the communication between the user and the course website is more easily achieved
with a strong esthetical structure. It is important to make the user motivated and interested by us-
ing inviting colors, a sober font on a calm background, a clear and organized positioning of the
elements. The quality of the user interface is very important. The screen should always look like
an organized workspace. Of course the opinion of what is aesthetically beautiful is personal, but a
good rule is: simplicity is elegance. It is always good to remember the target group and the pur-
pose of a website. The three most important layout issues in the design of this learning platform
are:
      the visual structure
      the colors
      the font type

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                   Figure 11. The animations are opened in a separate window.

Visual structure
The unity of the pages and the design of the elements create an elegant website. The same font
style is kept throughout the learning platform, while the structure of the material however differs
some in the Flash implementations from the html-pages. Nevertheless, these implementations are
just a small part of the course, and are planned to stimulate the user. The major part of the learn-
ing environment has a coherent structure of the submenus, the sub-submenus, the headers and the
text.
Contrast enhances the difference between separate elements in one area and it creates clarity and
harmony in the entire layout. When the user opens a chapter, the text area differs from other ar-
eas. This makes reading the content easier than if there would be another text field visible on the
screen. Elements belonging together in relationship to the rest of the page layout are grouped to
balance the whole screen.
The last, but almost the most important element of a successful visual structure is space. Without
space the elements of the website do not get their earned attention. For example, if the two main
menus where placed close to each other, it would be difficult to comprehend these as two separate
and important elements of the communication between the user and the product. When designing
a visual structure it is good to remember not to mislead the user’s eyes to an unwanted place with
elements that draw attention.

Colors
When the colors to the interface were designed the goal was to use white as the main color. Calm
and non-disputable color combinations were chosen. To make the reading and concentrating eas-

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ier strong colors that irritate the eye were avoided. These factors are important when designing a
website to be used frequently by the same user.
Colors can have several effects on the user. They attract and create feelings, e.g. the bottom menu
that is in red color to make it more noticeable from its hidden position in the page layout. In the
top menu blue was chosen as the “mouse over” color since it is the contrast color of red, which is
used as the font color in the menu. All this awakes interest and attraction to this important feature
of communication. Colors can also help remembering, especially if they distinguish from the
group. In Chapter 4 (Firewalls) this is tried out, since the whole chapter has a different kind of
structure and more colors than the other chapters. The colors help grouping. For example, when a
page from the bottom menu is selected, then the page is combined with the menu and with red
lining of the page. The same applies to the pages opened from the top menu, with the exception
that these pages have a gray lining in conformance with the top menu, which also has a gray lin-
ing. The colors highlight hierarchy or path, and demonstrate that something is available or not
available. For example, the sub-submenu, which is not opened, is light gray and the one, which is
open, is strong purple.

The font type
The font type used on the html pages is Verdana (Arial). The normal text is dark gray and the size
is 11 points. This is a font without serifs (without end curves in the letters) and because of that it
has a better legibility on the computer screen. Also the font used in the graphics and in the pic-
tures is Verdana. When a word or a phrase is highlighted in a text, it is bolded instead of, for ex-
ample, underlined that should be explicitly used for hyperlinks or titles because of its strong con-
vention.
Long passages of unbroken text are avoided, because text on screen is tiring to read. The rule is
that the information of a page, which has no pictures, should fit the screen without scrolling, and
that one page only contains one heading. If this rule is followed the user experiences more variety
and change in between the different subjects. For a good legibility of the body text in the HTML
pages, the background color of the page is white.

          The IT Infrastructure of the Learning Platform
Registration to the Finnish Virtual Polytechnic
The registration process will be handled by the Finnish Virtual Polytechnic’s student office,
which will probably be an electronic online office. Once the users have registered, and received
their study place, the Finnish Virtual Polytechnic will create an account for them. There are two
choices of accessing this account; using standard username and password authentication or by
using a PKI certified cryptographic key pair. The private key of this key pair and the crypto-
graphic operations using this private key may be hosted on a smart card based electronic ID card.
If the student has an electronic ID card, the student’s SATU number will be registered and stored
in a LDAP directory. The SATU number is a unique public personal code in a Finnish electronic
ID card (FINEID, 2002).

Authentication
Once the course participants have successfully applied and registered to the Finnish Virtual Poly-
technic they will be authenticated and granted access to the learning environment of the network
security course, hosted by a web server, a news server, and SSH servers. Authentication is prefer-

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able achieved using a Finnish electronic ID card, a FINEID card (FINEID, 2002). Anyone per-
manently living in Finland can apply for a FINEID card. Any granted web server can look up the
access information stored in the LDAP directory, hosted by the Finnish Virtual Polytechnic.

Communication
In the real world, like in a class in any normal university or polytechnic, communication is a very
important part of the learning process. The students have to be able to interact with the teacher,
and with each other. Students need to exchange information by establishing a fruitful dialogue.
Therefore, it is important that an online course can provide these same conditions. Students need
to be able to exchange information with each other, even though they may be geographically scat-
tered over a big area. The communication described above will be established using three differ-
ent techniques: email, newsgroups and real time chat functionalities.

Email
The course will have a mailing list hosted by a majordomo server. When students register to the
course they will also be registered on a mailing list. This mailing list is used for sending out in-
formation to all course participants, for instance topical study directives, exercises, examination
dates, etc. It may also be used to distribute urgent information, since every student attending the
course will receive a copy of the emails sent to the list. Emails can of course also be used for di-
rect communication between student and teacher or between students.

Newsgroups
The course will have a newsgroup where the participating students can discuss topics related to
the course. This is the main forum for the students. The information sent to the newsgroup should
not be urgent, for urgent information it is preferable to use the mailing list.
An un-moderated newsgroup is very suitable for creating the communication environment men-
tioned earlier. Since the news system is threaded, it is very easy to navigate between the articles
found in the newsgroup. Each new subject will be a new top-post and all comments concerning
this subject will be added as a follow-up to that specific thread.
The message board of the course is another moderated newsgroup.
It is up to the student to check the newsgroup for new information independently. The students
will not be notified when there is new information available in the newsgroups.

Real time chat, IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
It can sometimes be hard to have a serious dialogue with someone using email or newsgroups. If
you need answers to your questions fast, and if you have resulting questions, it is preferable to
use real time communication. Especially when there are many people involved in a discussion, it
is much easier to have a real time chat. This real time chat functionality will be accomplished by
using the already existing IRC network, the Internet Relay Chat.
The IRC network consists of a number of servers scattered across the world (and Internet), men-
tioned here as IRC servers, connected to each other to form a network. They exchange informa-
tion in real time so that all users across the world can read the messages sent out by all users. The
user selects which messages to receive by joining a specific channel. One can then communicate
(in public or in private) in real time with all the other users currently online in the same channel.

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A possible use of a newsgroup is a weekly scheduled moment where an expert on the course
would be virtually present in the IRC channel answering to questions asked by the students. The
communication could be recorded so that it afterwards could be presented on the web for all par-
ticipating students.
Other alternatives to real time communication are the MSN messenger (.NET Messenger Service,
2002) and the ICQ network (ICQ.com 2002). These chat clients provide private communication
between two participants. They are both very similar and offer about the same services. The MSN
messenger is included in Windows XP while the ICQ client can be downloaded from Internet
(ICQ.com, 2002). The very popular IRC client, the mIRC, can be found and downloaded from the
Internet (mIRC, 2002).

IT-Requirements
The course is intended to be an online course. The start version of the web based course portal
can also be distributed on a CD instead of being hosted by a web server. For online viewing, a
permanent high bandwidth (or broadband) Internet connection is recommended. However, it is
possible to view the course using an ISDN line or even a modem dial-up connection. The parts of
the course containing flash animations will of course not load very fast on a dial-up connection.

Server side
The course is hosted by a web server, preferable by an Apache server (The Apache Software
Foundation, 2002), running on Linux, with integrated support for SSL (OpenSSL, 2002) and
smart card authentication. The Finish electronic identity card (FINEID) can be used to identify
users and to authenticate them. The access information has to be looked up in an LDAP directory
(OpenLDAP, 2002). If the authentication is successful, the user will be granted access to the web
server. The web server needs proper configuration for the PKI (or smart card based) authentica-
tion to work. However, old fashion password authentication is also possible to use.

Client side
The user needs a new version of a web browser with a Flash Player in order to correctly view the
course. Internet Explorer provides the best support for the course layout. To be able to hear the
audio in the animations, a standard sound card and loudspeakers are needed.
For communication purpose, the user needs an email client and additionally also an IRC-client (or
any other real time communication client) for real time communication. To read the conferencing
area and message board of the course a news client is needed. The news client is often integrated
in the email client. Access to the online course will only be given students registered at the Fin-
nish Virtual Polytechnic.

                  Teaching and Learning Experiences
This chapter presents test course experiences, from both student and teacher perspective, as well
as general experiences from the whole course development process. The student feedback is gath-
ered from an assessment form, which the students filled out at the end of the test course, and from
interviews with test course students. The teacher experiences are mainly gathered from interviews
with the test course teacher.
This chapter also presents course development experiences, changes already made to the course
and further course development planned based on the course experiences. This information is
gathered from the test course teacher and the course development team.

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