Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in Asia Pacific - October 2016 - Working Paper - escap

 
Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in Asia Pacific - October 2016 - Working Paper - escap
Updated Analysis of the
Broadband Infrastructure
     in Asia Pacific
        October 2016

                       Working Paper

              1
Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in Asia Pacific - October 2016 - Working Paper - escap
The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) serves as the United Nations’ regional hub
promoting cooperation among countries to achieve inclusive and sustainable development. The largest regional
intergovernmental platform with 53 Member States and 9 associate members, ESCAP has emerged as a strong
regional think-tank offering countries sound analytical products that shed insight into the evolving economic, social
and environmental dynamics of the region. The Commission’s strategic focus is to deliver on the 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development, which it does by reinforcing and deepening regional cooperation and integration to
advance connectivity, financial cooperation and market integration. ESCAP’s research and analysis coupled with its
policy advisory services, capacity building and technical assistance to governments aims to support countries’
sustainable and inclusive development ambitions.

                        The shaded areas of the map indicate ESCAP members and associate members.

The cover:
Image source and copyrights: https://pixabay.com

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Disclaimer: The working papers of the Information and Communications Technology and Disaster Risk Reduction
Division should not be reported as representing the views of the United Nations. The views expressed herein are
those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations. Working papers describe research
in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. This paper has been issued
without formal editing and the designations employed and material presented do not imply the expression of any
opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country,
territory, city or area or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Correspondence
concerning this paper should be addressed to the e-mail: escap-ids@un.org.

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Acknowledgements
The working paper was prepared by Mr. Michael Ruddy, the Director of International Research at Terabit
Consulting for the Information and Communications Technology and Development Section (IDS) of the
Information and Communications Technology and Disaster Risk Reduction Division (IDD) of the United
Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).

October, 2016

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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................ 4
Acronyms ..................................................................................................................................... 10
I.         Executive summary .......................................................................................................... 13
II.        Country analysis: Afghanistan........................................................................................ 14
     Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 14
     International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 14
     International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 14
     Figure 1: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Afghanistan (Gbps), 2005-2026 16
III.       Country analysis: Azerbaijan ......................................................................................... 17
     Telecommunications Market Overview .................................................................................................. 17
     Mobile Telephony Market ...................................................................................................................... 17
     Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 17
     International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 17
     International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 17
     Figure 2: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Azerbaijan (Gbps), 2005-2026.. 18
IV.        Country analysis: Bangladesh ......................................................................................... 19
     Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 19
     International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 19
     International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 19
     Figure 3: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Bangladesh (Gbps), 2005-2026 20
V.         Country analysis: Bhutan ................................................................................................ 21
     Fixed Line Telephony Market .................................................................................................................. 21
     Mobile Telephony Market ...................................................................................................................... 21
     Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 21
     International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 21
     International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 21
     Figure 4: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Bhutan (Gbps), 2005-2026........ 22
VI.        Country analysis: Cambodia ........................................................................................... 23
     Fixed Line Telephony Market .................................................................................................................. 23
     Mobile Telephony Market ...................................................................................................................... 23
     Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 23
     Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 23
     International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 23
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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 23
   Figure 5: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Cambodia (Gbps), 2005-2026 ... 25
VII. Country analysis: India ................................................................................................... 26
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 26
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 26
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 26
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 26
   Figure 6: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in India (Gbps), 2005-2026 ........... 28
VIII. Country analysis: Indonesia ............................................................................................ 29
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 29
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 29
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 30
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 30
   Figure 7: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Indonesia (Gbps), 2005-2026 ... 31
IX.       Country analysis: the Islamic Republic of Iran............................................................. 32
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 32
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 32
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 32
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 32
   Figure 8: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in the Islamic Republic of Iran
   (Gbps), 2005-2026 ................................................................................................................................ 34
X.        Country analysis: Kazakhstan ........................................................................................ 35
   Telecommunications Market Overview .................................................................................................. 35
   Fixed Line Telephony Market .................................................................................................................. 35
   Mobile Telephony Market ...................................................................................................................... 35
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 35
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 35
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 36
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 36
   Figure 9: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Kazakhstan (Gbps), 2005-2026 37
XI.       Country analysis: the Kyrgyz Republic ......................................................................... 38
   Telecommunications Market Overview .................................................................................................. 38
   Mobile Telephony Market ...................................................................................................................... 38
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 38
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 38
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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 39
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 39
   Figure 10: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Kyrgyz Republic (Gbps), 2005-
   2026 ........................................................................................................................................................ 40
XII. Country analysis: Lao PDR ............................................................................................. 41
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 41
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 41
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 41
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 41
   Figure 11: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Lao PDR (Gbps), 2005-2026 ... 43
XIII. Country analysis: Malaysia ............................................................................................. 44
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 44
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 44
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 44
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 44
   Figure 12: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Malaysia (Gbps), 2005-2026 ... 46
XIV. Country analysis: Maldives ............................................................................................. 47
XV.       Country analysis: Mongolia ............................................................................................ 48
   Fixed Line Telephony Market .................................................................................................................. 48
   Mobile Telephony Market ...................................................................................................................... 48
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 48
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 48
   Figure 14: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Mongolia (Gbps), 2005-2026 .. 49
XVI. Country analysis: Myanmar ........................................................................................... 50
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 50
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 50
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 50
   Figure 15: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Myanmar (Gbps), 2005-2026 . 51
XVII. Country analysis: Nepal................................................................................................... 52
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 52
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 52
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 52
   Figure 16: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Nepal (Gbps), 2005-2026 ........ 53
XVIII.            Country analysis: Pakistan ...................................................................................... 54
   Fixed-Line Telephony Market ................................................................................................................. 54

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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

   Mobile Telephony Market ...................................................................................................................... 54
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 54
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 54
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 54
   Figure 17: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Pakistan (Gbps), 2005-2026 ... 55
XIX. Country analysis: the Philippines ................................................................................... 56
   Telecommunications Market Overview .................................................................................................. 56
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 56
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 56
   Figure 18: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in the Philippines (Gbps), 2005-
   2026 ........................................................................................................................................................ 58
XX.       Country analysis: the Russian Federation ..................................................................... 59
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 59
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 59
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 59
   Figure 19: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in the Russian Federation (Gbps),
   2005-2026.............................................................................................................................................. 60
XXI. Country analysis: Singapore ........................................................................................... 61
   Fixed Line Telephony Market .................................................................................................................. 61
   Mobile Telephony Market ...................................................................................................................... 61
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 61
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 61
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 61
   Figure 20: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Singapore (Gbps), 2005-2026. 63
XXII. Country analysis: Sri Lanka ........................................................................................... 64
   Fixed Line Telephony Market .................................................................................................................. 64
   Mobile Telephony Market ...................................................................................................................... 64
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 64
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 64
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 64
   Figure 21: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Sri Lanka (Gbps), 2005-2026 .. 65
XXIII.            Country analysis: Tajikistan .................................................................................... 66
   Regulation and Government Intervention .............................................................................................. 66
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 66
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 66

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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 66
   Figure 22: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Tajikistan (Gbps), 2005-2026 . 67
XXIV.             Country analysis: Thailand ...................................................................................... 68
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 68
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 68
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 68
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 68
   Figure 23: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Thailand (Gbps), 2005-2026... 70
XXV. Country analysis: Turkey ................................................................................................ 71
   Fixed Line Telephony Market .................................................................................................................. 71
   Mobile Telephony Market ...................................................................................................................... 71
   Internet and Broadband Market ............................................................................................................. 71
   Domestic Network Connectivity ............................................................................................................. 71
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 71
   Figure 24: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Turkey (Gbps), 2005-2026 ..... 72
XXVI.             Country analysis: Turkmenistan ............................................................................. 73
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 73
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 73
   Figure 25: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Turkmenistan (Gbps), 2005-2026
   ................................................................................................................................................................. 74
XXVII.            Country analysis: Uzbekistan .................................................................................. 75
   Regulation and Government Intervention .............................................................................................. 75
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 75
   Figure 26: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Uzbekistan (Gbps), 2005-202676
XXVIII. Country analysis: Vietnam....................................................................................... 77
   International Internet Bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 77
   International Network Connectivity ....................................................................................................... 77
   Figure 27: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Vietnam (Gbps), 2005-2026 ... 78

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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

Acronyms
 Third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology     3G
 Fourth generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology    4G
 Africa-Asia-Europe cable                                              AAE cable
 Asia Africa Europe-1 cable                                            AAE-1 cable
 Asia Africa Europe-1 system                                           AAE-1 system
 Asia-America Gateway system                                           AAG system
 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line                                    ADSL
 Asia-Pacific Cable Network 2                                          APCN-2
 Asia-Pacific Gateway                                                  APG
 Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao                                  ARMM
 Asia Submarine-cable Express cable                                    ASE cable
 Asia Submarine-cable Express system                                   ASE system
 Bay of Bengal Gateway cable                                           BBG cable
 Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal                                      BBIN
 Bharat Broadband Network Ltd.                                         BBNL
 Batam-Dumai-Melaka                                                    BDM
 Bangladeshi taka                                                      BDT
 BIMP-EAGA Submarine Terrestrial cable                                 BEST cable
 Business process outsourcing                                          BPO
 Batam-Rengit Cable System                                             BRCS
 Batam-Singapore Cable System                                          BSCS
 Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited                                          BSNL
 Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company Ltd                                BSSCL
 Bangladesh Telecommunications Company Ltd                             BTCL
 China United Network Communications Group Company Limited             China Unicom
 China Mobile International Limited                                    CMI
 Cross-Peninsular Cable System                                         CPCS
 China Telecom Global Limited                                          CTG
 Digital broadband network in Central and South Asia                   Digital CASA
 Dumai-Melaka Cable System                                             DMCS
 Diverse Route for European and Asian Markets                          DREAM
 Digital Subscriber Line                                               DSL
 Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company                        du
 East Asia Crossing City-to-City cable                                 EAC-C2C cable
 Electricite du Laos                                                   EDL
 Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand                          EGAT
 Enterprise of Telecommunications Lao                                  ETL
 Evolution-Data Optimized                                              EvDO
 Fiber-to-the-home                                                     FTTH
 Fiber-to-the-premises                                                 FTTP
 Gigabyte                                                              GB
 Gigabyte per second                                                   Gbps
 Global Cloud Xchange                                                  GCX
 Gross Domestic Product                                                GDP
 Teleguam Holdings                                                     GTA
 Hybrid fiber coax                                                     HFC
 High Speed Broadband                                                  HSBB

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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

 Indonesia Broadband Plan                                              IBP
 Information and communications technology                             ICT
 Internet protocol                                                     IP
 Internet service provider                                             ISP
 Kilobyte per second                                                   Kbps
 Kyrgyzstan Som                                                        KGS
 Kazakhstan Temir Zholy                                                KZT
 Local area networks                                                   LAN
 Luwuk Tutuyan Cable System                                            LTCS
 Long-Term Evolution                                                   LTE
 Megabyte per second                                                   Mbps
 Malaysia-Cambodia-Thailand cable                                      MCT Cable
 Malaysia-Cambodia-Thailand cable                                      MCT cable
 Megahertz                                                             MHz
 Mobile TeleSystems                                                    MTS
 Myanmar Posts and Telecommunications                                  MPT
 Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited                                     MTNL
 Malaysian Internet Exchange                                           MyIX
 National Optical Fibre Network                                        NOFN
 Optical Fiber Cable Ring                                              OFC
 Optical ground wire                                                   OPGW
 Philippines Long Distance Telephone Company                           PLDT
 Pishgaman Oman-Iran cable                                             POI cable
 Russian Optical Trans-Arctic Cable System                             ROTACS
 RAM Telecom International                                             RTI
 South Asian Subregional Economic Cooperation                          SASEC
 South Atlantic 3/South Africa Far East                                SAT-3/SAFE
 South-East Asia - Middle East - Western Europe 3                      Sea-Me-We-3
 South-East Asia - Middle East - Western Europe 4                      Sea-Me-We-4
 South-East Asia - Middle East - Western Europe 5                      Sea-Me-We-5
 South-East Asia – United States cable                                 SEA-US cable
 South-East Asia – United States consortium                            SEA-US consortium
 Singapore Telecommunications Limited                                  Singtel
 Sistem Kabel Rakyat 1Malaysia cable                                   SKR1M cable
 Sri Lanka Telecom PLC                                                 SLT
 Sulawesi Maluku Papua Cable System                                    SMPCS
 Short Message Service                                                 SMS
 Silk Route Gateway cable                                              SRG-1 cable
 Saudi Telecom Company                                                 STC
 Star Telecom Lao                                                      STL
 Synchronous Transport Module 45                                       STM-45
 Synchronous Transport Module 64                                       STM-64
 Iran Power Generation Transmission & Distribution Management
 Company                                                               TAVANIR
 Terabyte per second                                                   Tbps
 Telecommunication Company of Iran                                     TCI
 Egypt Telecom                                                         TE
 Trans-Eurasia Information Network                                     TEIN
 PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia International                             Telin
 Telecom Italia Sparkle                                                TI Sparkle
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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

 Telecommunications Infrastructure Company                             TIC
 Telekom Malaysia Berhad                                               TM
 Turk Telekom International                                            TTI
 Trans World Associates Limited                                        TWA
 United states dollar                                                  USD
 Voice over IP                                                         VoIP
 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access                       WiMax
 World Trade Organization                                              WTO

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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

    I.           Executive summary
This working paper aims to provide data and update analysis1 on broadband connectivity, specifically in the
area of broadband and telephony markets, domestic and international Internet connectivity as well as
international bandwidth among 27 ESCAP member countries, namely Afghanistan, Azerbaijan,
Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Lao PDR, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Russian
Federation, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Viet Nam.
In addition, historical trends and projected requirements for international bandwidth for voice, corporate
data as well as the international Internet are presented for each country.

This study was conducted in support of the Asia-Pacific Information Superhighway (AP-IS), a regional
broadband connectivity initiative2. The AP-IS is designed around four pillars of 1) developing physical ICT
infrastructure, 2) improving Internet traffic and network management, 3) enhancing e-resilience and 4)
promoting digital inclusion. The AP-IS initiative aims to be a catalyst to develop seamless regional
broadband networks which improve affordability, reliance, resilience and coverage and thereby narrow the
digital divide, develop the Internet ecosystem, support the implementation of the Sustainable Development
Goals (SDG) and stimulate digital economy in Asia and the Pacific.

In recognition of the need for concerted regional efforts to address the disparities and develop broadband
connectivity for the achievement of SDGs, the inaugural session of the Committee on Information and
Communications Technology, Science, Technology and Innovation3, held from 5-7 October 2016 in
Bangkok, endorsed the AP-IS Master Plan4 and Regional Cooperation Framework Document5.

This report was developed in support of the AP-IS Pillars on developing physical ICT infrastructure as well
as improving Internet traffic and network management. The findings point to disparities within the Asia-
Pacific region in terms of available international bandwidth, affordability and physical ICT infrastructure.

The report aims to stimulate discussions among policy and decision makers, private sector, academia and
think tanks on how regional broadband connectivity could be shaped for inclusive broadband and digital
economy for the achievement of SDGs and to promote concrete policy and regulatory updates, financing
and investment requirements and implementation modalities to pave the way to realize the vision of the
AP-IS.

1
  The findings of this study builds on previous ESCAP studies, including ESCAP (2015), “An In-Depth Study on the Broadband
Infrastructure in Afghanistan and Mongolia”, available from http://www.unescap.org/resources/depth-study-broadband-
infrastructure-afghanistan-and-mongolia-0; ESCAP (2015), “An in-depth study on the broadband infrastructure in South and
West Asia”, available from http://www.unescap.org/resources/depth-study-broadband-infrastructure-south-and-west-asia-0; and
ESCAP (2015), “An In-Depth Study on the Broadband Infrastructure in Afghanistan and Mongolia”, available from
http://www.unescap.org/resources/depth-study-broadband-infrastructure-afghanistan-and-mongolia
2
  ESCAP, "Asia-Pacific Information Superhighway". Available from http://www.unescap.org/our-work/ict-disaster-risk-
reduction/asia-pacific-information-superhighway/about.
3
  http://www.unescap.org/events/committee-information-and-communications-technology-science-technology-and-innovation-
first
4
  http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/pre-ods/CICTSTI1_2E_rev1.pdf
5
  http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/pre-ods/CICTSTI1_3E_rev1.pdf
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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

    II.         Country analysis: Afghanistan
Domestic Network Connectivity

As of 2015, Afghanistan’s OFC Backbone Ring project had connected 21 provincial capitals: Kabul;
Jalalabad; Laghman, Logar, Paktia, Khost, Paktika, Ghazni, Maidan Wardak, Qalat, Kandahar, Lashkargah,
Heraat, Maimana, Sheberghan, Mazaar-e-sharief, Aibak, Pulekhumri, Kundoz, Parwan, and Takhar

In 2016, four additional provinces were expected to be connected: Bamiyan, Badakshan, Kapisa, and
Kunar.

Many domestic connectivity projects have been delayed due to security issues. Due to such concerns,
construction of the OFC Backbone Ring between Heraat and Maimana has yet to be completed; domestic
connectivity is provided via an international connection through Turkmenistan which currently operates at
a capacity of two STM-4s (1.244 Gbps), with an expected upgrade to STM-64 (10 Gbps).

Nine provinces remain unconnected: Farah, Panjsheer, Sarepul, Qalaienow, Zaranj, Daikundi, Chagcharan,
Tarinkot, and Nuristan. The cost of connecting these provinces is USD$40 million.

There is reportedly some effort underway to ensure that the Afghan Ministry of Public Works provide for
infrastructure sharing that would include the installation of new fiber optic duct during road construction
and upgrading projects.

International Internet Bandwidth

Afghanistan’s international IP bandwidth (including private traffic) was approximately 15 Gbps as of year-
end 2014, and between 24 and 27 Gbps as of year-end 2015.

The price of Afghan IP transit capacity as of 2016 was as low as $20-$25 per Mbps per month via Pakistan,
while capacity purchased through other countries (e.g. Uzbekistan) cost as much as $170.

International Network Connectivity

International connectivity as of 2015 included two connections to Pakistan (at Turkham and Spin Boldak);
one connection to Tajikistan (at Sherkhan Bandar); one connection to Uzbekistan (at Hayratan); two
connections to Turkmenistan (at Aqina and Turghundi), and one connection to Iran (at Islam Qala).

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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

As of 2015, capacity on the international links was as follows:

                    Table 1. Overview of capacity on the international links by city
                                                                           Design      Utilized
                        City                                Border
                                                                          Capacity     Capacity

         Torkham                                     Peshawar, Pakistan   50 Gbps      18 Gbps

         Sher Khan Bandar                                  Tajikistan     2.5 Gbps     6 Mbps

         Hayratan (Mazar i Sharif)                        Uzbekistan      5 Gbps       3 Gbps

         Aqinah                                         Turkmenistan      2.5 Gbps     1.9 Gbps

         Torghundi                                      Turkmenistan      2.5 Gbps     1.2 Gbps

         Islam Qala                                             Iran      2.5 Gbps   624 Mbps

         Spin Boldak                                   Quetta, Pakistan   20 Gbps      8.7 Gbps
        Source: Author’s estimation based on field survey information.

Proposed international connectivity includes a planned 480-kilometer link to China from Faizabad,
Badakshan via the Wakhan Corridor. The first 44 kilometers of the project, from Faizabad to
Baharak, were under construction as of mid-2015. From Baharak to Broghel via Ishkashim and
Khondood, installation along a mostly gravel road was being considered. For the final 117 kilometers
of the link, installation would be along a mountainous track between Broghel and the Chinese border.

In late-2015 the World Bank Group commissioned a study to determine the feasibility of the Digital
CASA project, which would connect Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan, with the potential
for interconnection and/or future expansion to Iran, Kazakhstan, China, and other neighboring
countries.

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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

                                Figure 1: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Afghanistan (Gbps), 2005-2026
                                                              2005           2006           2007       2008              2009            2010             2011                2012           2013            2014             2015
International Internet                                        0.3            0.5            0.8            1               1.5              2                 2.8              3.8            6.7            13.4             22.0
International Corporate Data                                  0.1            0.2            0.2            0.3             0.5            0.6                 0.8              1.1            1.3             1.6              2.0
International Switched Voice                                  0.1            0.1            0.1            0.1             0.2            0.2                 0.2              0.2            0.4             0.4              0.4
Total International Bandwidth                                 0.5            0.8            1.1            1.4             2.2            2.8                 3.8              5.1            8.4            15.4             24.4
CAGR (2005-2015)                                                                                                                         48%
                                                              2016           2017           2018       2019              2020            2021             2022                2023           2024            2025             2026
International Internet                                        35             61             104        189                321             530             778                 1,106          1,555         2,162             2,945
International Corporate Data                                   3              5               8            13                  21          34                 54               86            137              220             352
International Switched Voice                                   1              1               1            1                   1            1                 1                1               2                  2             2
Total International Bandwidth                                 39             67             113        203                343             565             833                 1,193          1,694         2,384             3,299
CAGR (2016-2026)                                                                                                                         56%
             30                                                                                                                3,500

             25                                                                                                                3,000

                                                                                                                               2,500
             20
                                                                                                                               2,000
    (Gbps)

                                                                                                                      (Gbps)
                                                                                                   Voice                                                                                                                     Voice
             15
                                                                                                   Corporate                   1,500                                                                                         Corporate
                                                                                                   Data                                                                                                                      Data
             10
                                                                                                   Internet                    1,000                                                                                         Internet

             5
                                                                                                                                   500

             0                                                                                                                       0
                  2005

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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

    III.        Country analysis: Azerbaijan
Telecommunications Market Overview

In the near-term, the Azerbaijani telecommunications market is expected to be negatively
impacted by weak prices for petroleum, which accounts for more than 40 percent of gross
domestic product and almost three-fourths of government revenue. Over the course of 2015, the
Azerbaijani manat lost half its value, most acutely in December of 2015 when the Azerbaijani
government adopted a floating currency regime. However, the ICT sector has been positioned as
a cornerstone of the government’s economic diversification plan and will likely benefit from
regulatory reform, promotion of competition, and government intervention in the form of the
National Broadband Development Plan, which is focused largely on fiber-to-the-home (FTTH)
technology and increased rural penetration.

Mobile Telephony Market

The mobile telephony market has leveled off at approximately 10 million subscribers, well over
100 percent of the population. The fixed-line market also remains relatively constant, although it
continues to add a modest 15,000 lines per year.

Internet and Broadband Market

ADSL subscribership increased 20 percent to 477,000 while the total number of fixed Internet
connections grew to 710,000; mobile broadband subscribership totaled 883,000.

International Internet Bandwidth

The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan reported in its core indicators on
ICT infrastructure that the country’s international Internet bandwidth was 35.1 Kbps per capita
as of 2014, implying a total of 340 Gbps. IP transit capacity was priced at approximately $20 per
Mbps per month as of 2015.

The price of wholesale Internet bandwidth, as well as consumer Internet service, has fallen
significantly over the last six to seven years, with the country’s leading wholesale provider, Delta
Telecom, procuring relatively inexpensive bandwidth via Russian providers TTK and
Rostelecom, as well as the Turkish incumbent operator Turk Telekom.

International Network Connectivity

In March of 2015 the Government of Turkmenistan indicated that it would move forward with
plans to construct a submarine cable between Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan and Baku,
Azerbaijan, as part of the Trans-Eurasian Information Superhighway (TASIM) project.

                                                     17
Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

                                Figure 2: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Azerbaijan (Gbps), 2005-2026
                                                             2005           2006           2007        2008                    2009       2010             2011                2012            2013            2014             2015
International Internet                                       0.3            0.8             2.5            5.0                 10.0       40.0           100.0                 200.0          260.0          340.0             390.0
International Corporate Data                                 0.0            0.1             0.4            0.8                 1.5         6.0             15.0                30.0            39.0            51.0             58.5
International Switched Voice                                 0.1            0.1             0.1            0.1                 0.1         0.1                 0.2              0.2            0.2              0.2              0.3
Total International Bandwidth                                0.4            1.0             3.0            5.9                 11.6       46.1           115.2                 230.2          299.2          391.2             448.8
CAGR (2005-2015)                                                                                                                          101%
                                                             2016           2017           2018        2019                    2020       2021             2022                2023            2024            2025             2026
International Internet                                       550            800            1,160      1,680               2,440           3,540          5,130                 7,440          10,790         15,650            22,690
International Corporate Data                                 70             100            150         230                     350         530             800                 1,200          1,800          2,700             4,050
International Switched Voice                                  0              0               1             1                    1            1                 1                1                1                  1             2
Total International Bandwidth                                620            900            1,311      1,911               2,791           4,071          5,931                 8,641          12,591         18,351            26,742
CAGR (2016-2026)                                                                                                                          46%
            500                                                                                                                30,000

            450
                                                                                                                               25,000
            400

            350
                                                                                                                               20,000
            300
   (Gbps)

                                                                                                                      (Gbps)
                                                                                                   Voice                                                                                                                       Voice
            250                                                                                                                15,000

            200                                                                                    Corporate                                                                                                                   Corporate
                                                                                                   Data                                                                                                                        Data
                                                                                                                               10,000
            150                                                                                    Internet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Internet
            100
                                                                                                                                5,000
             50

              0                                                                                                                       0
                  2005

                         2006

                                 2007

                                        2008

                                               2009

                                                      2010

                                                              2011

                                                                     2012

                                                                             2013

                                                                                    2014

                                                                                           2015

                                                                                                                                          2016

                                                                                                                                                 2017

                                                                                                                                                        2018

                                                                                                                                                                 2019

                                                                                                                                                                        2020

                                                                                                                                                                                2021

                                                                                                                                                                                       2022

                                                                                                                                                                                               2023

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2024

                                                                                                                                                                                                             2025

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2026
                                                                                                                 18
Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

    IV.         Country analysis: Bangladesh
Internet and Broadband Market

In February of 2016, BTCL reduced the prices of its BCube ADSL service; at the same time, it
announced that it would eliminate volume-based packages with data limits.

The price of its 256-Kbps service was reduced from 450 BDT (USD $5.75) to 300 BDT
(USD$3.75); its 512-Kbps service was reduced from 700 BDT ($9.00) to 500 BDT ($6.50); and
its 1.5 Mbps package was reduced from 1,600 BDT (USD$20.50) to 1,000 BDT ($12.75).

International Internet Bandwidth

Bangladesh’s international Internet bandwidth was 91 Gbps as of year-end 2014.

In September of 2015, the Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company Ltd. (BSCCL) announced a
42 percent reduction in the price of IP transit at international gateways, from 1,068 BDT
(USD$14) per Mbps per month to 625 BDT (USD$8). The price applied to wholesale volume
purchases at 10 Gbps or greater.

BSCCL has announced several deals to sell what it considers to be surplus capacity on the Sea-
Me-We-4 cable to foreign clientele, including an agreement in June of 2015 with BSNL to lease
10 Gbps of bandwidth at a reported price of approximately $100,000 per month, as well as a
long-term transaction in August of 2015 with Telecom Italia Sparkle for 90 Gbps of bandwidth.
The latter transaction attracted criticism for what was reported to be an extremely low price, but
BSCCL officials defended the sale, claiming that much of the company’s Sea-Me-We-4 capacity
was unused, and that the BSCCL investment had been profitable. The company said that
Bangladesh faced no shortage of bandwidth, given BSCCL’s 1.3 Tbps of capacity in the planned
Sea-Me-We-5 cable, due to enter service in 2016.

International Network Connectivity

In April of 2015 the Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company Ltd. confirmed its participation in
the Sea-Me-We-5 project, with a total investment of $73 million, funded in part through a $44
million loan from the Islamic Development Bank. As of early-2016 the 24-Tbps, three-fiber-pair
cable had been landed in France, Djibouti, Malaysia, and Singapore, and was expected to be
fully-completed later in the year.

In late-2015 fiber connectivity was installed between Panchagarh and Banglabandha, a distance
of 58 kilometers, in anticipation of a BBIN (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal) fiber network
within the aegis of the South Asian Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Information
Superhighway. It was expected that the network would be used to export BSCCL’s excess
submarine cable capacity to neighboring countries.

                                                     19
Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

                                Figure 3: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Bangladesh (Gbps), 2005-2026
                                                             2005           2006           2007       2008                   2009       2010             2011               2012           2013            2014             2015
International Internet                                        0              0               1            3                   6           10                 18              35             50                  91          150
International Corporate Data                                  0              0               0            0                   1            1                 3               5               7                  15           26
International Switched Voice                                  1              1               2            2                   2            3                 3               4               4                  5             6
Total International Bandwidth                                 1              1               3            5                   9           14                 24              44             61              111             182
CAGR (2005-2015)                                                                                                                        68%
                                                             2016           2017           2018       2019                   2020       2021             2022               2023           2024            2025             2026
International Internet                                       250            380            570        850               1,270           1,900          2,800                4,200          6,300         9,300             13,500
International Corporate Data                                 38             55              80        117                    169         245             356                516            748           1,084             1,572
International Switched Voice                                  7              9              10            12                 14           17                 20              23             27                  32           37
Total International Bandwidth                                295            444            660        979               1,453           2,162          3,176                4,739          7,075         10,416            15,109
CAGR (2016-2026)                                                                                                                        48%
            200                                                                                                              16,000

            180
                                                                                                                             14,000
            160
                                                                                                                             12,000
            140
                                                                                                                             10,000
            120
   (Gbps)

                                                                                                                    (Gbps)
                                                                                                  Voice                                                                                                                    Voice
            100                                                                                                               8,000

             80                                                                                   Corporate                                                                                                                Corporate
                                                                                                  Data                        6,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Data
             60                                                                                   Internet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Internet
                                                                                                                              4,000
             40
                                                                                                                              2,000
             20

              0                                                                                                                     0
                  2005

                         2006

                                 2007

                                        2008

                                               2009

                                                      2010

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                                                                                    2014

                                                                                           2015

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                                                                                                                                                              2019

                                                                                                                                                                     2020

                                                                                                                                                                             2021

                                                                                                                                                                                    2022

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2026
                                                                                                               20
Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

    V.          Country analysis: Bhutan
Fixed Line Telephony Market

Bhutan’s fixed-line market continued to shrink, with only 21,811 subscribers, consisting mostly
of government, institutional, and corporate customers.

Mobile Telephony Market

Bhutan’s mobile telephony penetration rate was 87 percent as of year-end 2015. Bhutan Telecom
had 486,228 mobile subscribers and a 72 percent market share, while Tashi Cell had 190,200
subscribers and a 28 percent share.

Bhutan Telecom’s share of the 3G market was 78 percent, while Tashi InfoComm had a 22
percent share. Bhutan Telecom launched 4G in Thimphu in 2013, while Tashi InfoComm was
expected to launch in 2016.

Internet and Broadband Market

The Bhutan Infocomm and Media Authority reported Internet subscribership to be 482,068, or
64 percent of the population, as of year-end 2015. Most subscribers (94 percent) used 3G
wireless service, while fixed-line accounted for only 6 percent of subscribers. There were 500 4G
subscribers.

International Internet Bandwidth

Bhutan’s international Internet bandwidth was 5.7 Gbps as of year-end 2014. Bandwidth is
expected to increase significantly in 2017 when the government plans to implement a third
Internet link. A feasibility study was reportedly being procured for the project as of late-2015.

International Network Connectivity

Because Bhutan’s two international links both converge in Siliguri, India, as of 2015 Bhutan’s
government was reportedly exploring the purchase of an alternative route that would access
Bangladesh’s capacity on the Sea-Me-We-4 submarine cable.

                                                     21
Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

                                Figure 4: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Bhutan (Gbps), 2005-2026
                                                            2005           2006           2007       2008              2009            2010             2011                2012           2013            2014             2015
International Internet                                      0.0            0.0            0.0            0.0             0.2            0.3                 0.6             1.2            3.1              5.7              7.5
International Corporate Data                                0.0            0.0            0.0            0.0             0.1            0.1                 0.2             0.5            0.6              0.6              0.8
International Switched Voice                                0.1            0.1            0.1            0.1             0.1            0.1                 0.1             0.1            0.1              0.1              0.1
Total International Bandwidth                               0.1            0.1            0.1            0.1             0.3            0.5                 0.9             1.8            3.8              6.4              8.4
CAGR (2005-2015)                                                                                                                       61%
                                                            2016           2017           2018       2019              2020            2021             2022                2023           2024            2025             2026
International Internet                                      15             35              55            86             136             213             334                 525            800           1,200             1,650
International Corporate Data                                 1              2               3            5                   8           13                 21              30              50                  80          120
International Switched Voice                                 0              0               0            0                   0            0                 0                0               1                  1             1
Total International Bandwidth                               16             37              58            91             145             227             356                 555            851           1,281             1,771
CAGR (2016-2026)                                                                                                                       60%
              9                                                                                                              2,000

              8                                                                                                              1,800

              7                                                                                                              1,600

                                                                                                                             1,400
              6
                                                                                                                             1,200
              5
     (Gbps)

                                                                                                                    (Gbps)
                                                                                                 Voice                                                                                                                     Voice
                                                                                                                             1,000
              4                                                                                  Corporate                       800                                                                                       Corporate
                                                                                                 Data                                                                                                                      Data
              3
                                                                                                 Internet                        600                                                                                       Internet
              2                                                                                                                  400
              1                                                                                                                  200

              0                                                                                                                    0
                  2005

                         2006

                                2007

                                       2008

                                              2009

                                                     2010

                                                             2011

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Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

    VI.         Country analysis: Cambodia
Fixed Line Telephony Market

There were 284,000 fixed line subscribers as of year-end 2015.

Mobile Telephony Market

There were 21.7 million mobile subscribers as of year-end 2015.

Internet and Broadband Market

As of mid-2015 there were 6.2 million mobile Internet subscribers and 77,000 fixed Internet
subscribers in Cambodia.

For the period 2013 to 2018, Cambodia has adopted a five-year Broadband Strategic Action
Plan, which includes development of competition, reform of the country’s regulatory
environment, promotion of investment, community broadband access, availability and
affordability, increased consumer broadband penetration and increased broadband availability in
schools and universities, and e-Government initiatives.

Cambodia’s ICT Master Plan 2020 calls for increased investment in expanding ICT penetration,
training, and employment, as well as ICT usage in education and across e-government
applications. The plan also calls for increased investment in national backbone infrastructure
and network connectivity.

Typical consumer broadband pricing was as follows:
1. USD$8 per month + USD$8 deposit for 1 Mbps ADSL (Telecom Cambodia)
2. USD$40 per month for 1 Mbps ADSL or WiMax (Ezecom)

The cheapest 1 Mbps package cost:
$104 per year (Telecom Cambodia ADSL) / $1,200 nominal per-capita GDP = 8.7 percent of
nominal per-capita GDP

Domestic Network Connectivity

Domestically, three terrestrial fiber networks are in service: as of 2015, Viettel’s optical fiber
backbone had been expanded to 17,200 kilometers in length, the Cambodia Fiber Optic Cable
Network covered 7,611 kilometers, and Telecom Cambodia’s fiber network spanned
approximately 1,600 kilometers.

International Internet Bandwidth

Cambodia’s international Internet bandwidth was estimated to be 30 Gbps as of year-end 2014.

International Network Connectivity
                                                     23
Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

Three planned Cambodian submarine cable projects are currently under development or
consideration.

The supply contract for the planned Malaysia-Cambodia-Thailand (MCT) cable was awarded to
Huawei in May of 2015 and was reported to have come into force in September of 2015. The
$75 million, 1,300-kilometer system would connect Cherating, Malaysia to Rayong, Thailand,
with a branching unit to Sihanoukville, Cambodia. Its Cambodian investor is Ezecom, and the
other two parties are Symphony Communication of Thailand and Telekom Malaysia, will have a
design capacity of 30 Tbps and is expected to enter service in late-2016.

Cambodian ISP Chuan Wei was initially identified as an investor in the planned Asia Africa
Europe-1 (AAE-1) system, but as of 2015 the consortium indicated that Chuan Wei had been
replaced by Viettel subsidiary Metfone as the project’s Cambodian investor. The proposed AAE-
1 branch to Cambodia is not expected to be part of the system’s initial configuration, but may be
constructed in subsequent expansion phases.

Chuan Wei announced in mid-2014 that it would serve as landing party for a Cambodian
extension of the existing Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE) cable, which connects Japan,
Philippines, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore. The branch would be constructed via a
submerged branching unit northeast of the Singaporean landing point. However, as of 2015
there had been no publicly-reported progress on its construction.

                                                     24
Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

                                Figure 5: Historical and Forecasted International Bandwidth in Cambodia (Gbps), 2005-2026
                                                             2005           2006           2007       2008              2009            2010             2011                2012           2013            2014             2015
International Internet                                       0.0            0.1            0.3            0.7             1.5            2.3                 6.0             11.0           17.9            29.3             50.0
International Corporate Data                                 0.0            0.0            0.0            0.1             0.2            0.3                 0.9              1.6            2.6             4.2              6.8
International Switched Voice                                 0.0            0.1            0.1            0.1             0.1            0.2                 0.2              0.3            0.3             0.4              0.5
Total International Bandwidth                                0.1            0.2            0.4            0.9             1.8            2.8                 7.1             12.8           20.8            33.9             57.4
CAGR (2005-2015)                                                                                                                        97%
                                                             2016           2017           2018       2019              2020            2021             2022                2023           2024            2025             2026
International Internet                                       78             116            173        257                384             572             852                 1,269          1,891         2,818             4,198
International Corporate Data                                 11             18              26            37                  52          73             104                 147            206              289             405
International Switched Voice                                  1              1               1            1                   2            2                 3                4               5                  7            10
Total International Bandwidth                                90             135            200        295                437             647             959                 1,420          2,103         3,114             4,613
CAGR (2016-2026)                                                                                                                        48%
             70                                                                                                               5,000

                                                                                                                              4,500
             60
                                                                                                                              4,000
             50                                                                                                               3,500

                                                                                                                              3,000
             40
    (Gbps)

                                                                                                                     (Gbps)
                                                                                                  Voice                                                                                                                     Voice
                                                                                                                              2,500
             30                                                                                   Corporate                                                                                                                 Corporate
                                                                                                                              2,000
                                                                                                  Data                                                                                                                      Data
             20                                                                                   Internet                    1,500                                                                                         Internet
                                                                                                                              1,000
             10
                                                                                                                                  500

             0                                                                                                                      0
                  2005

                         2006

                                 2007

                                        2008

                                               2009

                                                      2010

                                                              2011

                                                                     2012

                                                                             2013

                                                                                    2014

                                                                                           2015

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                                                                                                                                                      2018

                                                                                                                                                               2019

                                                                                                                                                                      2020

                                                                                                                                                                              2021

                                                                                                                                                                                     2022

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2026
                                                                                                                25
Updated Analysis of the Broadband Infrastructure in the ESCAP Region

    VII. Country analysis: India
Internet and Broadband Market

There were 15.75 million fixed-broadband subscribers and 69.99 million mobile broadband
subscribers, for a total of 85.74 million broadband subscribers. DSL was the country’s leading
fixed-broadband technology, with 13.0 million subscribers, while Ethernet/LAN connections
served 1.6 million subscribers, cable modem 920,000 subscribers, fiber-to-the-premises 110,000,
and leased lines 60,000.

In the fixed-broadband market, BSNL had a market share of 69.8 percent, Bharti 8.0 percent,
MTNL 6.0 percent, Atria Convergence Technology 3.2 percent, and You Broadband 2.3 percent.
In the mobile Internet market, Bharti had a 27.2 percent share, Vodafone 23.8 percent, Idea 13.8
percent, Reliance Communications 12.7 percent, and BSNL 8.2 percent.

Domestic Network Connectivity

In September of 2015, the Indian Department of Telecommunications said that it would submit
plans for its $11 billion BharatNet program to India’s cabinet before the end of the year. The
network would be developed by the special purpose vehicle Bharat Broadband Network Ltd.
(BBNL) and would greatly expand the mandate of India’s $3 billion National Optical Fibre
Network (NOFN) initiative, which aimed primarily to connect rural villages; BharatNet would
provide broadband connectivity in urban areas as well.

The construction of a cable project linking Chennai, India to the Andaman & Nicobar Islands,
with a landing point in Port Blair and additional connectivity to the Lakshadweep Islands, was
expected to be approved by the Indian government in late-2015. The project, which would
ultimately connect 22 islands in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands (including 18 islands with
populations of over 100 and four islands with facilities for police, forest camps, and/or tourists)
and 10 villages in the Lakshadweep Islands, would cost approximately $360 million. The
Andaman & Nicobar Islands are served by four operators (Airtel, BSNL, Reliance, and
Vodafone), while the Lakshadweep Islands are served by only two (Airtel and BSNL).

International Internet Bandwidth

India’s international Internet bandwidth was 1.864 Tbps as of year-end 2015. It was 1.295 Tbps
as of year-end 2014.

International Network Connectivity

In January of 2015, Global Cloud Xchange said that it had shortlisted three vendors for the
supply of its India Cloud Xchange cable, which it had previously announced in July of 2014 (at
that time, the ready-for-service date of the system was mid-2016). The 5,060-kilometer system
would link Mumbai and Singapore, with branches to Trivandrum and/or Chennai, and it would
comprise four fiber pairs, each supporting 80 wavelengths of 100 Gbps, for a total capacity of 32

                                                     26
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