Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent

Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent

Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 1 Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report E&E3/AQ/PR00031 Produced for: P/2010/01452 Received 9/12/2010

Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 2 CLIENT AND CONSULTANT CONTACT DETAILS Client Details Client Tesco Stores Ltd Address PO Box 400, Cirrus building, Shire Park, Welwyn Garden City, AL7 1ZR Project Manager Dave Burkey Tel +44 (0)1707 360401 Email dave.burkey@uk.tesco.com Air Quality Consultant Details Address 1 Export House, Cawsey Way, Woking, Surrey, GU21 6QX Address 2 1 Waterhouse Square, 138-142 Holborn, London, EC1N 2ST Address 3 St.

Johns House, Queen Street, Manchester, M2 5JB Project Manager Mark Chapman Tel +44 (0)1483 731 378 Fax +44 (0)1483 731 006 Email mark.chapman@mouchel.com Technical Manager Ana Grossinho Tel +44 (0)1483 731 510 Fax +44 (0)1483 731 006 Email ana.grossinho@mouchel.com Project Team Chloe Smith, Fergus Boughton, Thomas Wright, Mark Chapman, Ana Grossinho Principal Author(s) Chloe Smith DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET Document Information Project Name Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Project Number 1032252-001-001 File Name Tesco_Hawkins_Lane_AQA_Final_021210_Compressed

Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 3 Record of Issue Issue Status Description Prepared by: Name/Dated Approved and Authorised by: Signed/Dated 1 Final v1 First report issued to client Chloe Smith 02/12/10 Ana Grossinho 02/12/10 Mark Chapman 02/12/10 Distribution Organisation Contact Copies Mark Chapman Mouchel electronic Ana Grossinho Mouchel electronic David Burkey TESCO electronic Mark Aylward DPP electronic

Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 4 Disclaimer This Report is presented to Tesco Stores Ltd (the Client) and may not be used or relied on by any other person or by the Client in relation to any other matters not covered specifically by the scope of this Report. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the Report, Mouchel is obliged to exercise reasonable skill, care and diligence in the performance of the services required by the Client and shall not be liable except to the extent that it has failed to exercise reasonable skill, care and diligence, and this Report shall be read and construed accordingly.

This Report is based on and incorporates information and data from information preceding Mouchel’s involvement and Mouchel is unable to defend any inaccuracies within this information. This Report has been prepared by Mouchel Limited. No individual is personally liable in connection with the preparation of this document. By receiving this Report and acting on it, the Client or any other person accepts that no individual is personally liable whether in contract, tort, for breach of statutory duty or otherwise. Any questions or matters arising from this report should be addressed in the first instance to the Project Manager.

Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 5 Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ___ 9
1 Introduction ___ 10
1.1 Objectives ___ 10
1.2 Description of the Proposed Development ___ 11
1.3 Study Area ___ 11
2 Legislative Background and Guidance ___ 13
2.1 Air Quality (England) Regulations 2000 and Air Quality (England) Amendment Regulations 2002 ___ 13
2.2 Planning Policy Statement 23 (PPS23): Planning and Pollution Control ___ 14
2.3 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA ___ 15
2.4 Best Practice Guidance: Control of Dust Emissions from Construction Activities16 3 Assessment Methodology ___ 17
3.1 Analysis of Traffic Data ___ 17
3.2 Definition of the Study Area ___ 17
3.3 Identification of Relevant Receptors of Public Exposure ___ 17
3.4 Characterisation of Baseline Conditions ___ 18
3.5 Identification of Hot-spot Locations ___ 19
3.6 Background Data ___ 19
3.7 Monitoring Data ___ 19
3.8 Construction Impacts on Local Air Quality .

Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 6 3.9 Operation Impacts on Local Air Quality ___ 28
4 Baseline Conditions ___ 32
4.1 Selected Relevant Receptors of Public Exposure ___ 32
4.2 Local Air Quality Management Findings ___ 34
4.3 Background Concentrations ___ 36
4.4 Local Air Quality Monitored Concentrations ___ 36
5 Results ___ 39
5.1 Construction Phase ___ 39
5.2 Construction Site Proposed Mitigation Measures ___ 42
5.3 Operation Phase ___ 49
6 Conclusions ___ 58
6.1 Construction Phase ___ 58
6.2 Operation Phase ___ 58
6.3 Overall Impacts on Local Air Quality ___ 59
7 References ___ 60
8 Appendices ___ 62
8.1 Appendix A - Summary of Health Effects of NO2 and PM10 ___ 62
8.2 Appendix B - Meteorological Data ___ 63
8.3 Appendix C - Detailed Modelling Procedures .

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 7 Figures Figure 1 - Location of the Proposed Development ___ 12
Figure 2 - Location of the Diffusion Tubes Used for Model Verification (ESBC Survey ___ 23
Figure 3 - Location of the Diffusion Tubes Within the Vicinity of the Site (ESBC Survey ___ 24
Figure 4 - Location of Public Exposure Receptors (including Sensitive Receptors ___ 33
Figure 5 - Location of AQMAs and Proposed Development Site ___ 35
Figure 6 - Construction Phase Estimated Impact Magnitude Bands (Pre Mitigation Controls ___ 41
Figure 7 - Construction Phase Estimated Impact Magnitude Bands (Post Mitigation Controls ___ 48
Figure 8 - Do-Minimum NO2 Concentrations ___ 50
Figure 9 - Do-Something NO2 Concentrations ___ 51
Figure 10 - Operation Phase Change in NO2 Concentrations ___ 52
Figure 11 - Do-Minimum PM10 Concentrations ___ 54
Figure 12 - Do-Something PM10 Concentrations ___ 55
Figure 13 - Operation Phase Change in PM10 Concentrations ___ 56
Figure 14 - 2009 Wind Rose for East Midlands Airport Meteorological Station .

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 8 Tables Table 1 - Relevant Air Quality Objectives/ EU Limit Values ___ 13
Table 2 - Description of Local Authorithy Monitoring Sites Considered for Model Verification in the Current Assessment ___ 20
Table 3 - Best Practice Guidance Construction Dust Risk Classification ___ 26
Table 4 - Construction Impact Magnitude Categories (Source: Mouchel ___ 28
Table 5 - Average Background Concentrations across the Study Area (µg/m 3 ___ 36
Table 6 - Annual Mean NO2 Concentrations (µg/m 3 ) Measured at Continuous Monitors ___ 36
Table 7 - Annual Mean PM10 Concentrations (µg/m 3 ) Measured at Continuous Monitors ___ 37
Table 8 - Diffusion Tube Monitoring - Annual Mean NO2 Concentrations Measured by ESBC ___ 37
Table 9 - Relevant Receptors Sensitive to Dust Deposition ___ 40
Table 10 - Diffusion Tube Monitoring - Annual Mean NO2 Concentrations Measured by ESBC ___ 62
Table 11 - Summary of Traffic Characteristics Data ___ 66
Table 12 - Summary of Model Conditions for CHP ___ 68
Table 13 - Summary of Car Park Accumulation Data (Friday ___ 68
Table 14 - Summary of Car Park Accumulation Data (Saturday ___ 69
Table 15 – Three Stage Model Adjustment Factors .

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 9 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Mouchel Limited was commissioned by Tesco Stores Ltd to undertake an Air Quality Assessment in support of their planning application for the re-development of land at Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent. The current report evaluates the air quality conditions registered in the baseline year (2009) and estimates the likely contributions of the proposed development to local air quality in the opening year (2013) in association with both the construction and operation phases of the development.

The proposed development is located within close proximity to two Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs). Therefore the assessment has also considered the impact of the development on these AQMAs. The main sources of local pollution associated with the construction phase of the development are those of fugitive dust emissions arising from demolition, excavation and materials storing and handling activities. The main sources of pollution arising from the operation phase of the development are those of road traffic emissions associated with changes in the local network traffic characteristics, those arising from vehicles parking at the site, and from the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) unit which is to be installed as part of the development.

The construction site was classified as a high risk site with relevant receptors identified as being exposed to major magnitude impacts at the pre mitigation stage. Therefore, a series of hard and soft control measures are recommended to reduce the magnitude of these impacts. Once such mitigation controls are implemented it is estimated that the majority of the receptors will fall under either the minor or negligible magnitude impact categories. Advanced air dispersion modelling was used in the assessment undertaken, taking into account the effects of the car park, the CHP plant and likely changes in traffic characteristics associated with the proposed development.

Available local diffusion tube monitoring data provided by East Staffordshire Borough Council (ESBC) were analysed and used for model verification purposes.

Analysis of the modelled results indicates that exceedences of the Annual Mean Air Quality Objective for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10) for both the Do-Minimum and Do-Something Scenarios in the opening year (2013) are unlikely. Overall, this Air Quality Assessment concluded that the proposed development is likely to be compliant with the national and European Air Quality Objectives and Limit Values and, as such, there are no air quality reasons to prevent the local planning authority from granting planning permission.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 10 1 Introduction 1.1 Objectives Mouchel Limited was commissioned by Tesco Stores Ltd to undertake an Air Quality Assessment in support of their planning application for the re-development of land at Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent.

This assessment will be undertaken in accordance with the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs’ (Defra) current Technical Guidance on Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) (Defra, 2009) and will cover air quality impacts associated with both the construction and operation phases of the proposed development.

It is considered that the proposed development may have a temporary effect on local air quality during construction, with demolition activities, earth-moving works and the storage of aggregates at the Hawkins Lane Site (hereafter referred to as the Site) posing the highest risk with respect to the occurrence of ‘nuisance dust’. These activities are likely to increase the risk of dust entrainment and possible nuisance occurrence from increased deposition to surrounding surfaces. The assessment of construction phase impacts will focus on likely impacts of airborne and deposited particulate matter in the vicinity of the Site.

Potential control measures will be evaluated and recommended to mitigate any estimated risks associated with this phase of the development.

Changes in local traffic characteristics resulting from the operation of the proposed development may have an impact on air quality. Vehicle exhaust gases contain a number of air pollutants. The quantities of each pollutant emitted depend upon the type and quantity of fuel used, engine size, speed of the vehicle and the type of emissions abatement equipment fitted. Therefore changes in traffic characteristics (as a result of the proposed development) may result in changes in pollutant concentrations at properties near to roads relevant. These will be addressed in the current assessment.

The operation of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) natural gas-fired power unit will result in emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour (H2O), oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2, generally referred to as NOx), oxides of sulphur (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbons (UHC), and particulate matter (PM10).

However, NOx is likely to be the main emission and its impact on local air quality (NO2 concentrations) will be assessed in the current exercise. Finally, the operation of a new car park may have an impact on local air quality and its associated emissions will equally be considered.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 11 The pollutants NOx/NO2 and PM10/PM2.5 are the main pollutants associated with this development with relevance for local air quality and will be evaluated in the current assessment. The potential impact of the development on local air quality will be assessed on the basis of the findings of advanced dispersion modelling (ADMS-Roads) calculations, which will be undertaken in the context of relevant national and European Air Quality Objectives and Limit values (described in Section 2) and relevant guidance.

1.2 Description of the Proposed Development The proposed Site works will be undertaken at the existing Alumasc Grundy Site, Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent. These will consist of the construction of a new Tesco store with CHP and associated car park, along with vehicle access on this former Brownfield site.

The proposed development lies within East Staffordshire Borough Council (ESBC) and will comprise a gross building area of 10,570 m2 and a net sales area of 7,669 m2 with associated car parking and a CHP unit. The re-development of the site is proposed for B1 (Business), B2 (General Industry) and B8 (Storage and Distribution) use, with trade facilities and the construction of a new vehicular access. 1.3 Study Area The Site is situated on a vacant Brownfield site, which is located approximately 0.7 km to the north west of the centre of Burton-on-Trent and to the west of the River Trent. The site is bound by Hawkins Lane to the east and Horninglow Street to the south, with the major trunk road (A38) located approximately 1.2 km to the north of the site.

The nearest bus stop to the Site is located along Horninglow Street to the west. This bus stop is served regularly by services from across the area. There are also proposals in place for a hopper bus service associated with the development. Figure 1 presents the location of the proposed development in Burton-on-Trent.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 12 LEGEND Design CS 10/09/2010 Client: Tesco Stores Ltd Description: Location of the Proposed Development Drawn CS 10/09/2010 Checked MIC 01/12/2010 Figure 1 Rev: A Description: FINAL Project: Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Google Earth © 2010 Tele Atlas © 2010 Infoterra Ltd & Bluesky Approved AG 01/12/2010 Scale Not to Scale Figure 1 - Location of the Proposed Development

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 13 2 Legislative Background and Guidance 2.1 Air Quality (England) Regulations 2000 and Air Quality (England) Amendment Regulations 2002 The UK Government and the devolved administrations published the latest Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland in July 2007 (Defra, 2007a) defining both the standards and objectives for each of a range of air pollutants.

The ‘standards’ are set as concentrations below which health effects are unlikely even in sensitive population groups, or below which risks to public health would be exceedingly small. They are based purely upon the scientific and medical evidence of the effects of a particular pollutant. The ‘objectives’ set out the extent to which the Government expects the standards to be achieved by a certain date. They take account of the costs, benefits, feasibility and practicality of achieving the standards. The objectives are prescribed within The Air Quality (England) Regulations 2000 (Stationery Office, 2000) and The Air Quality (England) (Amendment) Regulations 2002 (Stationery Office, 2002) (termed the ‘Regulations’).

Air Quality Objectives included in the Regulations and current legislation (CAFE Directive) which are relevant to the current study (NO2 and PM10) are outlined in Table 1.

Table 1 - Relevant Air Quality Objectives/ EU Limit Values Air Quality Objective/EU Limit Value To be achieved by: Pollutant Concentration Measured as Regulation EU Limit Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 200 µg/m3 , not to be exceeded more than 18 times a year 1 Hour Mean 31 December 2005 All UK 40 µg/m 3 Annual Mean 31 December 2005 2010 Particulate Matter (PM10) (gravimetric) 50 µg/m3 , not to be exceeded more than 35 times a year 24 Hour Mean 31 December 2004 All UK 40 µg/m 3 Annual Mean 31 December 2004 Particulate Matter (PM2.5) (gravimetric)* 25 µg/m 3 (target) Annual Mean 2020 All UK 15% cut in urban background exposure Annual Mean 2010 - 2020 Note: * Not included in Regulations at present.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 14 Appendix A provides a brief summary of the health effects of NO2 and PM10. The Air Quality Objectives only apply where members of the public are likely to be regularly present for the averaging time of the objective (i.e. where people will be exposed to pollutants). The annual mean objectives apply to all locations where members of the public might be regularly exposed; these include building façades of residential properties, schools, hospitals, care homes etc.

The 24 hour mean objective applies to all locations where the annual mean objective would apply, together with hotels and gardens of residential properties1 . The 1 hour mean objective also applies at these locations as well as at any outdoor location where a member of the public might reasonably be expected to stay for 1 hour or more, such as shopping streets, parks and sports grounds, as well as bus stations and railway stations that are not fully enclosed.

Measurements across the UK have shown that the 1 hour mean NO2 objective is unlikely to be exceeded unless the annual mean NO2 concentration is greater than 60 µg/m3 (Laxen and Marner, 2003). Thus exceedences of 60 µg/m3 as an annual mean NO2 concentration are used as an indicator of potential exceedences of the 1 hour mean NO2 objective. Similarly, studies (Defra, 2003) have also established a relationship between the annual mean PM10 concentration and number of exceedences of the 24 hour mean objective: those areas where the annual mean concentrations is greater than 32 µg/m3 were demonstrated to be at risk of exceeding the 24 hour mean objective.

Thus exceedences of 32 µg/m3 as an annual mean PM10 concentration are used as an indicator of potential exceedences of the 24 hour mean PM10 objective. 2.2 Planning Policy Statement 23 (PPS23): Planning and Pollution Control PPS23 is guidance which covers planning and pollution control and new development in England. PPS23 advises on the policies and practices that should be taken into account by those involved in the planning of any development that has the potential to cause pollution. Annex 1, Paragraph 1.48 states... “planning conditions could be used in respect of [...] impacts such as noise, vibrations, odour, air pollutants and dust from certain phases of the development such as demolition and construction”.

1 Such locations should represent parts of the garden where relevant public exposure is likely, for example where there are seating or play areas. It is unlikely that relevant public exposure would occur at the extremities of the garden boundary, or in front gardens, although local judgement should always be applied.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 15 (ODPM, 2004) 2.3 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA) Dust and air pollution, can cause nuisance affecting properties and the public adjacent to a construction site and can also adversely affect other environmental receptors including watercourses and ecological receptors.

In addition, there are statutory objectives in relation to NO2 and PM10 which have known health impacts. The EPA (Section 79, Chapter 43, Part III - Statutory Nuisances and Inspections) contains a definition of what constitutes a ‘statutory nuisance’ with regard to dust, and places a duty of care on Local Authorities to detect any such nuisances within their area. Section 79 of the Act further defines “Best Practicable Means” (BPM) as... “reasonably practical having regard, among other things, to local conditions and circumstances, to the current state of technical knowledge and to the financial implications”.

(EPA, 1990) It also defines a number of factors relating to dust and air pollution which constitute a statutory nuisance. These include: i. smoke emitted from premises so as to be prejudicial to health or a nuisance; ii. fumes or gases emitted from premises so as to be prejudicial to health or a nuisance; iii. any dust, steam, smell or other effluvia arising on industrial, trade or business premises and being prejudicial to health or a nuisance; and iv. any accumulation or deposit which is prejudicial to health or a nuisance. Local Authorities have the power under Section 80, Chapter 43, Part III of the EPA (Summary Proceedings for Statutory Nuisances) to serve an abatement notice requiring the abatement of a nuisance or requiring works to be executed to prevent their occurrence.

Generally, if something is unreasonable to an average person, a court may decide that it is a nuisance. A typical example of statutory nuisance is dust produced by construction activities.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 16 2.4 Best Practice Guidance: Control of Dust Emissions from Construction Activities The Greater London Authority and London Councils published this Best Practice Guidance document in November 2006 (London Councils, 2006). While it is specifically aimed at developments in London, it is the most comprehensive guidance document available, and the Environment Agency (EA) and others are encouraging its use across the country.

The basic principles to be applied in the selected approach are the targeted prevention, suppression and containment of emissions. This document is used in line with Annex 1 of the Minerals Policy Statement (OPDM, 2005) which gives examples of reducing and controlling dust, and outlines good practice in dust assessment.

These documents together with Mouchel’s professional judgement were used to localise and evaluate the potential construction impacts associated with the proposed development.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 17 3 Assessment Methodology 3.1 Analysis of Traffic Data Data were provided by Transport Planning Associates (TPA) and included daily flows, speed information and composition.

These data were analysed and processed for the baseline (2009) and opening year (2013) for the Do-Minimum (DM) and Do-Something (DS) scenarios. The data included: i. annual average daily traffic flows (AADT, combined - vehicle/day) for relevant links; ii. the percentage of Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs) (vehicles > 3.5t Gross Vehicle Weight) on each of the roads for each year modelled; iii. the daily average speed (kph) on the relevant roads for each year modelled; and iv. road type. 3.2 Definition of the Study Area To ensure consistency with the Local Authority LAQM modelling approach and to make sure the AQMAs were addressed suitably in the current exercise, the full extent of the study area was determined by the roads considered in ESBCs Further Assessment report (ESBC, 2008).

These roads were considered to be relevant for the current Air Quality Assessment and all relevant receptors within 200m of these links were selected and included in the model.

This procedure defined the study area for local air quality purposes. 3.3 Identification of Relevant Receptors of Public Exposure The Regulations require that likely exceedences of Air Quality Objectives are assessed in relation to: “...the quality of the air at locations which are situated outside of buildings or other natural or man-made structures, above or below ground, and where members of the public are regularly present...”. (Stationery Office, 2000 and 2002) Existing and planned properties where people might experience a change in local air quality within 200m of the relevant roads were identified.

This included a clear identification of properties hosting susceptible groups of the public (establishment of

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 18 locations of any receptors that may be sensitive to changes in air quality during the construction and operation phases of the development - e.g. schools, hospitals, homes for the elderly, residential properties, etc.). Representative receptors of such locations were subsequently selected and used in the model.

Overall 7,302 relevant receptors (including sensitive locations such as nurseries and schools) were identified using MasterMap Address Layer 2 data and mapped onto the Ordnance Survey base map using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and then modelled to ascertain annual mean concentrations of NO2 and PM10.

These relevant receptor locations were considered site representative of locations where members of the public are exposed for a period of time appropriate to the averaging period of the objective.

3.4 Characterisation of Baseline Conditions The identification of baseline air quality conditions in and around the proposed development included: i. review of LAQM information:  evaluation of the most readily available LAQM Assessment Reports to ascertain the existence, location and extent of any AQMAs and ascertain air quality trends in the study area; ii. analysis of local air quality monitoring data:  this entailed obtaining and reviewing local pollutant monitoring data held by the Local Authority. Local Authority and National AURN (Automatic Urban and Rural Network) monitoring data for NO2 and PM10 were analysed for location and type of station, pollutant measured, data capture, validity and values recorded; and iii.

background concentrations:  this comprised a review of estimated Annual Mean background pollutant concentrations (available online at the UK National Air Quality Information Archive (NAQIA)2 ). Estimated background pollution concentrations were derived from the national maps (1 km x 1 km spatial resolution) and used in the assessment for the baseline year 2009 and opening year 2013.

2 http://www.airquality.co.uk/archive/index.php - Accessed 19/08/10

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 19 3.5 Identification of Hot-spot Locations Areas likely to experience higher-than-average pollution concentrations, such as roundabouts and junctions, were identified and assessed accordingly. 3.6 Background Data Background concentrations of NO2 and PM10 within the study area for the baseline and opening years have been derived from national maps (1 km x 1 km spatial resolution) of Annual Mean background concentrations available from the NAQIA (Defra, 2007b).

Total background concentrations from Defra were disaggregated to provide relative contributions from different sources. The contributions of emissions from trunk ‘A’ roads and primary ‘A’ roads have been excluded from total background concentrations used in the assessment as these have been explicitly modelled in the current exercise. Where industrial sources have also been explicitly modelled as part of the DS scenario, these have also been removed from the total. Contributions from the ‘Out grid’ component were left within the total backgrounds. Due to the large model study area and the need for receptor specific concentrations, ArcGIS 9.3 was used to select the nearest background to the relevant receptor.

This ensured that the background concentrations were selected for the actual grid square where the receptors were located.

3.7 Monitoring Data 3.7.1 Continuous Monitoring Data ESBC has two automatic monitoring stations located at St. Peters Bridge and Derby Turn monitoring NOx/NO2 and PM10. The Derby Turn monitoring station is located approximately 195m of the north west to the site and the St. Peters Bridge monitoring station is located approximately 1.4 km to the south-east of the Site. Monitored concentrations were analysed and evaluated for suitability for both model verification and indication of local conditions in this assessment.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 20 3.7.2 Passive Monitoring Data ESBC currently manages a network of diffusion tubes measuring NO2 concentrations across their area of jurisdiction.

Thirty eight (38) of these locations were evaluated and considered suitable for model verification purposes in the current assessment in terms of location, data quality and capture. These were within close proximity to the Site and the modelled road network. Table 2 provides a description of these sites. Table 2 - Description of Local Authorithy Monitoring Sites Considered for Model Verification in the Current Assessment Site Number Site Description Site Type X (m) Y (m) 1 and 2 Trent Bridge Duplicates Roadside 425362 323339 3 and 4 St Peters Bridge Duplicates Roadside 425575 322028 7 Horninglow Croft Roadside 424367 324781 11, 12 Wellington Street Kerbside 423953 323280 13 Horninglow Street Roadside 424796 323624 14 Derby Turn Roadside 424632 324043 15 Derby Turn Kerbside 424636 324037 21 Horninglow Road - approaching A38 flyover Kerbside 424404 324481 22 Horninglow Road / Parker St Junction Roadside 424537 324228 23 Derby Street - nr to Derby Turn Kerbside 424581 323963 25 Derby Street / Byrkley St junction Roadside 424212 323473 26 A444 - Stapenhill - Approaching junction with Violet Way Kerbside 425706 321902 27 Princess Way Roundabout Roadside 425235 324854 28 Derby Road - Approaching Princess Way Roundabout Roadside 425161 324737 29 Derby Road/ Eton Road junction Roadside 425107 324668 30 Sydney Street - nr.

Junction with Derby Rd Roadside 424970 324505 31 Derby Road - Approaching Derby Turn Roadside 424709 324140

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 21 Site Number Site Description Site Type X (m) Y (m) 32 Derby Street - Approaching Derby Turn Roadside 424547 323940 34 Derby Street - Maltings Court Roadside 424351 323660 35 Albert St - nr. Junction with Derby St Roadside 424322 323674 36 Derby Street - Appr Little Burton West Roadside 424453 323794 37 Byrkley St - nr Princess St Roadside 424194 323508 38 Waterloo Street - Approaching junction with Byrkley Street Kerbside 424116 323483 39 Derby Street - opposite Midland Grain Warehouse Roadside 424149 323344 40 Wellington Street - Crossing Roadside 423993 323308 41 Curzon Street - nr.

Junction with Wellington Street Roadside 423951 323216 42 Wellington Street - roundabout Roadside 423812 323077 43 Wellington Street - Approaching roundabout Roadside 423807 323115 44 Wellington Street - roundabout Roadside 423784 323099 46 Rolleston Road - nr junction with Horninglow Road Roadside 424113 325209 49 Shakespeare Road - nr junction with Horninglow Road Roadside 424417 324579 50 Goodman Street - nr Junction Horninglow Road Roadside 424621 324142 52 Horninglow Street - Bridge Roadside 424752 323748 53 Horninglow Street - nr junction with Wetmore Road Roadside 425270 323346 54 Horninglow Street - nr junction with High Street Roadside 425275 323327 55 Bridge Street - nr Old Bridge Roadside 425345 323321 58 Belvedere Rd - A38 flyover Roadside 423834 324316 59 Shobnall Rd - A38 flyover Roadside 422908 323540

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 22 Figures 2 and 3 show the location of these monitoring sites across the study area and in the vicinity of the site respectively.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 23 LEGEND Design CS 28/09/2010 Client: Tesco Stores Ltd Description: Location of the Diffusion Tubes Used for Model Verification (ESBC Survey) Drawn CS 28/09/2010 Checked MIC 02/12/2010 Figure 2 Rev: A Description: FINAL Project: Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent This map is reproduced from Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Crown Copyright. Licence number 100020449 Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Approved AG 02/12/2010 Scale Not to Scale Figure 2 - Location of the Diffusion Tubes Used for Model Verification (ESBC Survey)

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 24 LEGEND Design CS 28/09/2010 Client: Tesco Stores Ltd Description: Location of the Diffusion Tubes Within the Vicinity of the Site (ESBC Survey) Drawn CS 28/09/2010 Checked MIC 02/12/2010 Figure 3 Rev: A Description: FINAL Project: Tesco Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent This map is reproduced from Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Crown Copyright. Licence number 100020449 Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Approved AG 02/12/2010 Scale Not to Scale Figure 3 - Location of the Diffusion Tubes Within the Vicinity of the Site (ESBC Survey)

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 25 3.8 Construction Impacts on Local Air Quality During the construction phase, there will be a number of activities undertaken that have the potential to generate and/or re-suspend dust and PM10/PM2.5.

At the time of assessment the exact activities to be undertaken during construction are unknown. In order to evaluate the magnitude and extent of potential adverse impacts likely to result from the proposed development, the following construction activities have therefore been assumed: i. site clearance and preparation; ii. storage of materials; iii. laying of hard surfaces; and iv. landscaping.

The magnitude of potential impacts of a construction site on air quality is mainly determined by its size, the range of activities undertaken across the site, proximity to sensitive receptors, prevailing wind direction, complexity of terrain and any barriers between sources and receptors. These are addressed in turn in the following subsections. 3.8.1 Risk of the Site Best Practice guidance issued by the London Councils (2006) provides guidelines that allow the evaluation of potential risk of air quality impacts occurring during the demolition or construction of a site. A summary of these details is presented in Table 3.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 26 Table 3 - Best Practice Guidance Construction Dust Risk Classification Risk Category Criteria Development of up to 1,000 square metres of land; or Development of one property and up to a maximum of ten; or Low Risk Site (Small Developments) Potential for emissions and dust to have an infrequent impact on sensitive receptors.

Development of between 1,000 and 15,000 square metres of land; or Development of between ten and 150 properties; or Medium Risk Site (Medium Sized Developments) Potential for emissions and dust to have an intermittent or likely impact on sensitive receptors.

Development of greater than 15,000 square metres of land; or Development of greater than 150 properties; or Major development referred to Central Government; or Major development as defined by the Local Planning Authority; or High Risk Site (Large Developments or Developments of Strategic Importance) Potential for emissions and dust to have a significant impact on sensitive receptors.

These guidelines were designed to be applied in London, which is very densely built and often has multiple construction sites in close proximity. As such, professional judgment was applied to these criteria in order to ensure that the risk evaluation reflected site specific characteristics. 3.8.2 Analysis of Distance from Source to Near-by Receptors Distance bands were created from the boundaries of the site to account for likelihood of levels of dust and PM10/PM2.5 originated by construction related activities. The distance classes considered were 0-50m, 50-100m, 100-200 and greater than 200m.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 27 These distance bands were then combined with the magnitude of construction risks and the prevailing wind conditions of the site to ascertain the order of impact of the estimated impacts associated with the construction activities of the proposed development. 3.8.3 Prevailing Wind Conditions Meteorological data for 2009 from East Midlands Airport meteorological station were assumed representative of the study area and analysed for wind speed and direction.

A wind rose was produced to ascertain the likelihood of receptors to be affected by dust resulting from construction activities and is shown in Appendix B. These data were also used in the dispersion modelling exercise.

3.8.4 Barriers between Emission Sources and Receptors The existence and location of any barriers between emission sources and receptors was ascertained and evaluated. This enabled the evaluation of risk of nuisance associated with downwind emissions and the selection of suitable mitigation measures wherever such need was identified. 3.8.5 Estimation of Magnitude of Impacts Based on the London Councils’ guidance and the spatial extent of effects, the Impact Criteria detailed in Table 4 have been developed by Mouchel for assessment of construction phase impacts.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 28 Table 4 - Construction Impact Magnitude Categories (Source: Mouchel) Risk from Development Low Medium High >200m Outside zone of influence Outside zone of influence Outside zone of influence 100 - 200m Negligible Minor Moderate 50 - 100m Minor Moderate Major Distance to Receptors 0 - 50m Moderate Major Major The 200 m distance criteria is based on the distance beyond which no significant impacts are expected from road traffic and construction dust (HA, 1993).

The 100 m distance criteria is based on guidance which identifies that the majority of dust is deposited within 100 m of the emission source (ODPM, 2005). The 50 m criteria are based on a study showing that half of people living beside construction works were bothered by nuisance (HA, 1993).

Further than 200m is generally considered to be outside of the zone of influence; however there is still the possibility that nuisance may occur during atypical meteorological conditions. The impact criteria were used to identify possible mitigation measures appropriate for dust management purposes during the construction phase of the proposed development. Allowance was made for the number of receptors per distance band and the prevailing wind direction when control or mitigation measures were being considered based on these impact criteria.

For receptors upwind of the site, and where physical barriers were identified between emission sources and potential receptors, the impact category was reduced by one level.

3.9 Operation Impacts on Local Air Quality The store proposals include the installation of a CHP plant to power the Store, new car parking facilities and a Petrol Filling Station (PFS). This assessment therefore considered the combined effect of the CHP plant and road traffic impacts (including the car park contributions and PFS access) on local air quality at relevant receptor locations representative of public exposure within 200m of the modelled road network.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 29 Following the 2009 Local Air Quality Management Technical Guidance (LAQM.TG(09)) guidance, there is no requirement to assess the impact of the PFS on concentrations of Benzene (C6H6) emissions, because from 1st January 2010 all new PFS with a petrol throughput of >500m3 /yr are to be fitted with Stage 2 recovery systems. The increase in traffic as part of the PFS will be assessed as part of the road traffic assessment.

3.9.1 Traffic Data 2009 and 2013 traffic flow data were used as input to the ADMS-Roads model for the baseline year and for the opening year DM and DS scenarios. Further information regarding the traffic data used in the current assessment is provided in Appendix C. 3.9.2 CHP The proposals include the installation of a CHP plant to power the Store. The plant is expected to provide an electricity output of 228 kW. The CHP plant will be fuelled by natural gas, and the main emissions modelled were NOx to estimate local air quality impacts on NO2 concentrations. The assessment therefore modelled the CHP plant emissions at relevant public exposure locations in close proximity to the store.

A technical data sheet for the proposed CHP plant was received providing input data for the modelling exercise. As the details of the CHP operation were not available, it was assumed that the plant will run at full load, continuously throughout the year. In reality, this is an unlikely scenario which provides an over-estimate of operational conditions and therefore a worst case scenario.

Furthermore, a source diameter of 0.2m has been assumed, as estimated from the design drawing provided by the Client for a similar store design. Further information on CHP input data used in the current assessment are provided in Appendix B. 3.9.3 Car Park The proposed development site will provide a total of 631 car parking spaces (this amount was updated after the car park assessment was carried out). The emissions associated with the proposed new store car park were modelled assuming the car park surface as an area source in the ADMS-Roads. Further information on car park input data used in the current assessment are provided in Appendix B.

Tesco – Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent Air Quality Assessment Report Mouchel Collaborator\Air Quality & Odour\Live Projects\Tesco - Hawkins Lane, Burton-on-Trent\09 Control of Documents \08 Reporting\Final Report © Mouchel 2010 30 3.9.4 Modelling Annual Mean concentrations of NO2 and PM10 during 2009 and 2013 have been modelled using the ADMS-Roads. ADMS-Roads is one of the dispersion models accepted for modelling within the Government’s Technical Guidance (Defra, 2009). The model has been run using a full year of meteorological data for 2009 from the East Midlands Airport meteorological station which is approximately 19 km east of Burtonon-Trent.

Appendix C presents the wind rose for the meteorological conditions modelled in the current assessment.

Concentrations were modelled for relevant locations of public exposure (including sensitive receptors). The modelling methodology, and the input data (traffic data, CHP and car park emissions) utilised are described in further detail in Appendix B. The model was verified against local diffusion tube measurements and its performance evaluated to ascertain whether an adjustment of the results obtained was required. 3.9.5 Data Uncertainty There is an element of uncertainty in all measured and modelled data. All values presented in this report are the best possible estimates given the data and tools available, but uncertainties in the results might cause over-predictions or underpredictions in the data.

All of the measurements presented in this report have an intrinsic margin of error. Defra (2009) suggest that this is of the order of plus or minus 20% for diffusion tube data and plus or minus 10% for automatic measurements. The model results rely on traffic count data, and predictions of future traffic flows, and thus any uncertainties inherent in these data sets will carry into this assessment. There will be additional uncertainties introduced because the modelling has simplified real-world processes into a series of algorithms. For example, it has been assumed that: i. during each year, the vehicle fleet within the study area will conform to the national (UK) average composition; ii.

the emissions per vehicle conform to the factors published in the Emissions Factor Toolkit Version 4.2.2; iii. wind conditions measured at the meteorological station during 2009 will occur throughout the study area during 2013; and iv. the subsequent dispersion of emitted pollutants will conform to a Gaussian distribution over flat terrain.

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