AVIAN MEDICINE: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION - ANATOMY OF THE UMBRELLA COCKATOO ACETATE OVERLAY STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

 
AVIAN MEDICINE: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION - ANATOMY OF THE UMBRELLA COCKATOO ACETATE OVERLAY STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
ANATOMY OF THE
     UMBRELLA COCKATOO

 ACETATE OVERLAY STRUCTURE
   IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
                 from

AVIAN MEDICINE:
PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION

  RITCHIE, HARRISON AND HARRISON

         © 1994 Wingers Publishing
         Lake Worth, Florida 33463
               800-946-4782
            FAX (407) 641-0234
AVIAN MEDICINE: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION - ANATOMY OF THE UMBRELLA COCKATOO ACETATE OVERLAY STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
Anatomy of the
  Umbrella Cockatoo
                                                                       Anatomic Illustrations by
                                                                       Lesley E. Sealing

       n artist’s concept of the lateral and ventrodorsal

 A       views of the anatomy of a cockatoo are presented
           in a clear overlay system. When two or more
  pages are viewed together, the drawings represent the
  relative position and relationship of important anatomic
  structures. By inserting white paper behind a page, that
  page can be viewed separately.
     This format is particularly useful as a reference to
  general anatomic sites during radiographic, endoscopic
  or necropsy evaluation of companion birds. Additionally,
  the format should provide an easy-to-visualize method
  for discussing a patient’s problem and management
  techniques with clients.
     Most of the illustrations were developed from dissec-
  tions and radiographs. The primary radiographic model
  was an average-sized female Umbrella Cockatoo. The
  bird was believed to be a normal, healthy individual
  based on clinical assessment, diet evaluation, hema-
  tologic and biochemical laboratory test values, radio-
  graphic interpretations and results of bacteriologic,
  parasitic, chlamydial and viral testing. Other illustra-
  tions, such as those of the central and peripheral nerv-
  ous systems, were adapted from the domestic fowl, and
  parameters for the cervicocephalic air sac system and
  sinuses were adapted from descriptions in the literature
  combined with dissections of cockatoos. Organ size and
  location should be expected to vary with the species as
  well as with the gender, age, reproductive status,
  prandial state and presence of disease condi-
  tions in individual birds. Additionally, artistic
  liberties were taken in order to depict the
  most logical representation of the sys-
  tems. To simplify the illustrations,
  some body parts are shown on
  only one side of the figure.

1.    Forehead                       16. Alular remiges
2.    Cere                           17. Ventral antebrachial
3.    Naris                              coverts
4.    Rhinotheca                     18. Ventral minor coverts
5.    Gnathotheca                    19. Ventral major coverts
6.    Lore                           20. Primary remiges (10)
7.    Crest                          21. Secondary remiges (12)
8.    Crown                          22. Thigh
9.    Postorbital region             23. Shank lateral region (leg)
10.   Maxillary and mandibular       24. Tarsometatarsus
      malar region (cheek)           25. Shoulder region
11.   Dorsal neck region             26. Dorsal major caudal coverts
12.   Submalar region (chin)         27. Prolatal region
13.   Ventral neck region (throat)   28. Shank anterior region
14.   Lateral neck region            29. Postventer region
15.   Proventer region (breast)      30. Tail, ventral region
                                     31. Rectrices
AVIAN MEDICINE: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION - ANATOMY OF THE UMBRELLA COCKATOO ACETATE OVERLAY STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
Lateral View

      Muscular System                 60. A. and V. metatarsalis               105. Ulnar artery                    166. Lumbar plexus
                                          dorsalis                             106. Left thyroid gland              167. Sacral plexus
1.    M. orbicularis palpebrarum      61. M. gastrocnemius pars later-         107. Left parathyroid gland          168. Pudendal plexus
2.    Sclerotic ossicle                   alis                                 108. Left ultimobranchial gland      169. Caudal plexus
3.    M. adductor mandibulae                                                   109. Right brachiocephalic trunk     170. Ischiatic nerve (branches to
                                      ■ Inset: Infraorbital Sinus              110. Area of pectoralis muscle            fibular and tibial nerves)
      externus
4.    External ear canal                and Cervicocephalic Air                111. Left cranial vena cava          171. Intestines
5.    M. branchiomandibularis           Sac                                    112. Pulmonary trunk                 172. Pancreas
6.    M. intermandibularis ven-       62. Nares                                113. Auricle of left atrium          173. Obturator nerve
      tralis (mylohyoideus)           63. Rostral diverticulum of in-          114. Left pulmonary veins            174. Femoral nerve
7.    Zygomatic arch                      fraorbital sinus (IS)                115. Left pulmonary arteries
                                                                               116. Right hepatic portal veins      ■ Inset: Cut-away of Skull
8.    M. rectus capitis ventralis     64. Maxillary chamber of IS
      pars lateralis                  65. Preorbital diverticulum of IS        117. Left lobe of liver              175. Cranial nerve III
9.    M. rectus capitis ventralis     66. Infraorbital diverticulum of IS      118. Thoracic aorta                  176. Cranial nerve IV
      pars medialis                   67. Suborbital chamber of IS             119. Left pectoral artery and vein   177. Cranial nerve V
10.   M. longus colli ventralis       68. Postorbital diverticulum of IS       120. Intercostal arteries            178. Cranial nerve VI
11.   M. sternohyoideus               69. Preauditory diverticulum of IS       121. Celiac artery                   179. Cranial nerve VII
12.   M. biventor cervicis            70. Mandibular diverticulum of IS        122. Cranial mesenteric artery       180. Cranial nerve IX
13.   M. tensor propatagialis         71. Cranial portion                      123. Caudal vena cava                181. Cranial nerve X
14.   M. flexor alulae                    cervicocephalic air sac              124. Left external iliac artery      182. Cranial nerve XI
15.   M. abductor alulae              72. Cervical portion                     125. Left femoral artery             183. Cranial nerve XII
16.   M. adductor alulae                  cervicocephalic air sac              126. Left internal iliac artery      184. Supraorbital nerve
17.   Radius                                                                   127. Median caudal artery            185. Lacrimal gland nerve
18.   M. flexor digitorum                                                      128. Left external iliac vein        186. Sphenopalatine ganglion
                                            Respiratory System                 129. Left ischiatic vein             187. Chorda tympani
      superficialis
19.   M. flexor digitorum                                                      130. Left ischiatic artery           188. Nasopalatine nerve
                                      73.   Larynx
      profundus                                                                131. Left internal iliac vein
                                      74.   Laryngeal mound
20.   Ulna                            75.   Cervical air sac
                                                                               132. Left caudal tibial artery           Skeletal
21.   M. interosseus ventralis                                                 133. Left cranial tibial artery          and Urogenital System
                                      76.   Trachea
22.   Fascial plane overlying M.                                               134. Left dorsal metatarsal artery
                                      77.   Pneumatic diverticulum of
      flexor digiti minoris                 clavicular air sac into clavicle   ■ Inset: Digestive                   189. Vertebral canal
23.   M. ulnometacarpalis dorsalis    78.   Pneumatic diverticulum of                                               190. Cervical vertebra
24.   M. ulnometacarpalis ventralis                                              Portion of Head
                                            clavicular air sac into scapula                                         191. Clavicle
25.   M. extensor longus digiti ma-                                            135. Palatine salivary glands (me-   192. Radial carpal bone
                                      79.   Pneumatic diverticulum of
      joris                                                                         dial)                           193. Alular digit
                                            clavicular air sac into coracoid
26.   M. extensor metacarpi ra-                                                136. Angularis oris salivary         194. Major metacarpal bone
                                      80.   Pneumatic diverticulum of
      dialis                                                                        glands                          195. Minor metacarpal bone
                                            clavicular air sac into
27.   M. pronator profundus                                                    137. Maxillary salivary glands       196. Major digit
                                            humerus (light blue)
28.   M. pronator superficialis                                                138. Roof of oropharynx              197. P1
                                      81.   Clavicular air sac (blue)
29.   M. flexor carpi ulnaris                                                  139. Tongue                          198. P2
                                      82.   Pneumatic diverticulum of
30.   M. brachialis                                                            140. Rostral mandibular salivary     199. Minor digit
                                            clavicular air sac into
31.   A. radialis                                                                   glands                          200. Ulnar carpal bone
                                            sternum (light blue)
32.   A. ulnaris                                                               141. Lingual salivary glands         201. Humerus (partially shown)
                                      83.   Cranial thoracic air sac (stri-
33.   V. basilica                                                              142. Caudal mandibulary sali-        202. Thoracic vertebra
                                            ated)
34.   M. triceps brachii                                                            vary glands                     203. Synsacrum
                                      84.   Caudal thoracic air sac
35.   M. biceps brachii                                                        143. Choanae (not seen)              204. Cranial division of kidney
                                            (light blue)
36.   Medianoulnaris nerve                                                     144. Sphenopterygoid salivary        205. Middle division of kidney
                                      85.   Ventral hepatic peritoneal
37.   Clavicle (furcula)                                                            glands                          206. Caudal division of kidney
                                            cavity (stippled)
38.   M. pectoralis superficialis                                              145. Esophageal opening              207. Vertebral ribs
                                      86.   Pneumatic diverticulum of
39.   Keel projecting from ster-                                               146. Cricoarytenoid salivary         208. Uncinate process
                                            abdominal air sac into fe-
      num                                                                           glands                          209. Sternal ribs
                                            mur (light blue)
40.   M. serratus superficialis                                                147. Esophagus                       210. Caudal vertebrae
                                      87.   Abdominal air sac (blue)
41.   M. intercostales externi        88.   Lung (impression of 6th rib)                                            211. Pygostyle
42.   M. latissimus dorsi             89.   Syrinx                                 Central Nervous System           212. Cloaca
43.   M. expansor secundariorum                                                    and Digestive System             213. Rectum
44.   M. iliofibularis                ■ Inset: Cut-away of Skull                                                    214. Left adrenal gland
45.   M. levator caudae               90.   Cere                               148. Cerebral hemisphere             215. Left testicle
46.   M. flexor cruris medialis       91.   Nasal cavity                       149. Optic lobe                      216. Ductus deferens
47.   M. depressor caudae             92.   M. genioglossus                    150. Cerebellum                      217. Cranial cnemial crest
48.   M. iliotibialis cranialis       93.   Cranial nerve II (optic)           151. Medulla oblongata               218. Ischium
49.   M. iliotibialis lateralis       94.   Antevestibular recess              152. Cranial nerve I                 219. Fibula
50.   M. pubo-ischio-femoralis                                                 153. Pituitary gland                 220. Tibiotarsus
      pars lateralis                                                                                                221. Pubis
51.   M. tibialis cranialis
                                            Circulatory System                 154. Spinal cord
                                                                               155. Cervical spinal nerve           222. Tarsometatarsal 2,3,4
52.   M. fibularis longus             95. Left internal carotid artery         156. Cervical esophagus              223. P1
53.   M. flexor perforans et perfo-   96. Left external carotid artery         157. Crop                            224. P2
      ratus digiti III                97. Left jugular vein                    158. Brachial plexus                 225. P3
54.   M. flexor perforans et perfo-   98. Left brachiocephalic trunk           159. N. radialis                     226. P4
      ratus digiti II                 99. Left subclavian artery               160. Thoracic esophagus              227. P5
55.   M. extensor digitorum longus    100. Left axillary artery and vein       161. Intercostal spinal nerve
56.   Digit 1                         101. Brachial artery                     162. Proventriculus
57.   Digit 2                         102. Superficial ulnar artery            163. Isthmus
58.   Digit 3                         103. Radial artery                       164. Ventriculus
59.   Digit 4                         104. Recurrent ulnar artery              165. Medianoulnar nerve
AVIAN MEDICINE: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION - ANATOMY OF THE UMBRELLA COCKATOO ACETATE OVERLAY STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
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AVIAN MEDICINE: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION - ANATOMY OF THE UMBRELLA COCKATOO ACETATE OVERLAY STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
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Ventrodorsal View

      Muscular System                 ■ Inset: Gastrointestinal Tract       107. Left ischiatic artery and vein   ■ Inset: Mature Ovary
                                      58.   Thoracic esophagus              108. Caudal mesenteric artery         163. Immature follicles
1.    M. orbicularis palpebrarum      59.   Right lobe of liver                  and vein                         164. Mature follicle
2.    Sclerotic ossicle               60.   Left lobe of liver              109. Left internal iliac artery       165. Post-ovulatory follicle (calix)
3.    M. adductor mandibulae          61.   Proventriculus                  110. Median caudal artery             166. Infundibulum
      externus                        62.   Isthmus                         111. Rectum                           167. Stigma
4.    M. intermandibularis (mylo-     63.   Ventriculus                     112. Cloaca                           168. Magnum
      hyoideus)                       64.   Descending duodenum                                                   169. Dorsal ligament of oviduct
5.    Zygomatic arch                  65.   Ascending duodenum                  Circulatory and Central           170. Oviductal blood vessels
6.    M. sternohyoideus               66.   Pancreas                            Nervous System                    171. Isthmus
7.    Coracoid                        67.   Ascending loop of colon                                               172. Ventral ligament of oviduct
8.    Clavicle (furcula)                                                    113. Cerebral hemisphere              173. Uterus
9.    M. tensor propatagialis                                               114. Cranial nerve II                 174. Vagina
10.   M. flexor alulae                      Respiratory System
                                                                            115. Optic chiasm                     175. Sphincter vaginae
11.   M. abductor alulae                                                    116. Pituitary gland
12.   M. adductor alulae              68. Preorbital diverticulum of in-
                                          fraorbital sinus (IS)             117. Cerebellum                           Digestive System
13.   Radius                                                                118. Optic lobe
14.   M. flexor digitorum profundus   69. Infraorbital diverticulum of IS
                                      70. Rostral diverticulum of IS        119. Spinal cord                      176. Tongue
15.   M. flexor digitorum                                                   120. Mandible
      superficialis                   71. Nares                                                                   177. Cervical esophagus
                                      72. Maxillary chamber of IS           121. Hyoid bone                       178. Ingluvies (crop)
16.   M. extensor longus digiti ma-                                         122. Right internal carotid artery
      joris                           73. Larynx                                                                  179. Supraduodenal loop
                                      74. Mandibular diverticulum of        123. Left internal carotid artery
17.   M. interosseus ventralis
                                          IS                                124. Right jugular vein               ■ Inset: Immature Ovary
18.   M. ulnometacarpalis dorsalis                                          125. Left jugular vein                180. Ovary
19.   M. ulnometacarpalis ventralis   75. Cervical portion of cervico-
                                          cephalic air sac (light blue)     126. Right thyroid gland              181. Oviduct
20.   M. extensor metacarpi ra-                                             127. Left thyroid gland               182. Coprodeum
      dialis                          76. Trachea
                                      77. Cervical air sac (blue)           128. Right parathyroid gland          183. Urodeum
21.   Tensor propatagialis pars                                             129. Left subclavian artery and       184. Proctodeum
      brevis tendon                   78. Clavicular air sac (blue)
                                      79. Pneumatic diverticulum of              vein
22.   Tensor propatagialis pars                                             130. A. and V. axillaris
      longus tendon                       clavicular air sac into clav-                                               Skeletal and
                                          icle (dashed outline)             131. A. collateralis radialis
23.   M. pronator profundus                                                 132. A. and V. radialis                   Urogenital Systems
24.   M. pronator superficialis       80. Pneumatic diverticula of cla-
                                          vicular air sac into the cora-    133. A. and V. ulnaris
25.   M. flexor carpi ulnaris                                                                                     185. Cervical vertebra
                                          coid (dashed outline)             134. A. and V. recurrent ulnaris
26.   M. brachialis                                                                                               186. Syrinx
                                      81. Right cranial thoracic air        135. V. collateralis ulnaris
27.   A. radialis                                                                                                 187. Scapula
                                          sac (striated)                    136. A. pectoralis
28.   A. ulnaris                                                                                                  188. Primary bronchus
                                      82. Left cranial thoracic air sac     137. Area of pectoral muscles
29.   V. basilica                                                                                                 189. Left humerus
                                          (striated)                             (dashed outline)
30.   Medianoulnar nerve                                                                                          190. Radial carpal bone
                                      83. Right caudal thoracic air sac     138. Auricle of left atrium
31.   M. triceps brachii                                                                                          191. Ulna
                                          (light blue)                      139. Right lobe of liver
32.   M. biceps brachii                                                                                           192. Minor metacarpal bone
                                      84. Left caudal thoracic air sac      140. Left lobe of liver
33.   M. pectoralis superficialis                                                                                 193. Major metacarpal bone
                                          (light blue)                      141. Left popliteal artery and vein
34.   M. supracoracoideus                                                                                         194. Major digit
                                      85. Pneumatic diverticula of cla-     142. Left cranial tibial artery and
35.   M. ambiens                                                                                                  195. P1
                                          vicular air sac into the               vein
36.   M. femorotibialis internus                                                                                  196. P2
                                          humerus (dashed outline)          143. Left caudal tibial artery and
37.   M. iliotibialis cranialis                                                                                   197. Minor digit
                                      86. Right ventral hepatic perito-          vein
38.   Area of M. ulnometacarpus                                                                                   198. Ulnar carpal bone
                                          neal cavity (stippled)            144. Left dorsal metatarsal ar-
      ventralis                                                                                                   199. Ostium for caudal thoracic
                                      87. Left ventral hepatic perito-           tery and vein
39.   M. pubo-ischio-femoralis                                                                                         air sac
                                          neal cavity (stippled)            145. Left cranial vena cava
      pars medialis                                                                                               200. Synsacrum
                                      88. Right abdominal air sac           146. Aorta
40.   M. tibialis cranialis                                                                                       201. Ischium
                                          (blue)                            147. Pulmonary trunk
41.   M. fibularis brevis                                                                                         202. Pygostyle
                                      89. Left abdominal air sac (blue)     148. Pulmonary artery and vein
42.   M. fibularis longus                                                                                         203. Coccygeal vertebrae
                                      90. Pneumatic diverticula of ab-      149. Right cranial vena cava
43.   M. flexor perforans et perfo-                                                                               204. Femur
                                          dominal air sacs into the fe-     150. Auricle of right atrium
      ratus digiti III                                                                                            205. Patella
                                          mur (dashed outline)              151. Right ventricle
44.   M. extensor digitorum lon-                                                                                  206. Fibula
                                                                            152. Left ventricle
      gus                             ■ Inset: Male Urogenital System                                             207. Tibiotarsus
                                                                            153. Coronary arteries and veins
45.   Digit 1                                                                                                     208. Tarsometatarsus 2,3,4
                                      91. Lung                              154. Right femoral artery and
46.   Digit 2                                                                                                     209. P1
                                      92. Rib 7                                  vein
47.   Digit 3                                                                                                     210. P2
                                      93. Caudal vena cava                  155. Right external iliac artery
48.   Digit 4                                                                                                     211. P3
                                      94. Aorta                                  and vein
49.   A. and V. metatarsalis dor-                                                                                 212. P4
                                      95. Left testicle                     156. Right ischiatic artery and
      salis                                                                                                       213. P5
                                      96. Left adrenal gland                     vein
50.   M. gastrocnemius (medial                                                                                    214. Pubic bone
                                      97. Cranial division of kidney        157. Right ultimobranchial gland
      head)                                                                                                       215. Alular digit
                                      98. Middle division of kidney         158. Right and left brachio-
51.   Vent                                                                                                        216. Rostrum mandibulare
                                      99. Caudal division of kidney              cephalic trunks
52.   Extensor retinaculum                                                                                             (gnathotheca)
                                      100. Left common iliac vein           159. Left fibular artery
53.   M. rectus abdominis                                                                                         217. Rostrum maxillare (rhino-
                                      101. Left external iliac artery       160. Left internal iliac artery
54.   M. obliquus abdominis exter-                                                                                     theca)
                                           and vein                         161. Caudal mesenteric artery
      nus                                                                                                         218. Miniature lateral perspec-
                                      102. Right caudal renal vein               and vein
55.   M. flexor cruris medialis                                                                                        tive of ventrodorsal model.
                                      103. Right ureter                     162. Right caudal renal vein
56.   Sternum                         104. Right vas deferens
57.   Rib 8 (dotted area = ribs and   105. Left femoral artery and vein
      sternum)                        106. Ilioishiatic foramen
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Lateral View
Muscular System The muscles of the trunk, neck, head          tion of the pectoralis muscle is indicated with dotted
and appendages are displayed. The vessels of the great-       lines for comparative purposes. Other dotted areas indi-
est clinical importance and their relationship to the         cate that vessels are passing under or into anatomic
muscles and bones are also shown. Stubs of the rachis         structures.
from the primary and secondary flight feathers are de-            The digestive portion of the head is depicted in the
picted from their origin on the dorsal surface of the wing.   inset, including the tongue, palate, esophagus and sali-
   The inset shows a composite drawing of information         vary glands.
available concerning the sinuses and cervicocephalic air      Digestive System and CNS The lateral orientation of the
sac system of psittacine birds.                               digestive system and portions of the central nervous
Respiratory System A composite drawing provides the           system are depicted. The humerus is represented with
clinician with insight into the avian respiratory system.     a dotted line for orientation purposes.
The ventral hepatic peritoneal cavity is also represented         The inset shows an enlargement of a representation
in this view. This layer has been specially designed so       of the orientation of the nerves with respect to the bones
that all underlying structures are clearly visible. The       of the head and neck. Note the location and degree of
individual layer can be segregated for study by placing       innervation in the beak.
a sheet of white paper under the acetate.                     Skeletal, Urogenital Systems The skeletal and urogenital
   The relationship of the bones of the head and sinuses      systems are superimposed over the exterior of the bird.
in an Umbrella Cockatoo are shown in the inset.               The lateral body wall has been darkened to enhance the
Circulatory System This layer depicts the clinically rele-    color of overlying anatomic structures. The bird has been
vant portions of the circulatory system, along with the       transected sagittally to allow visualization of the spinal
liver, thyroid and parathyroid glands. The relative posi-     cord and kidneys.

   Ventrodorsal View
   The ventrodorsal view illustrates a live bird in nor-      Circulatory System The complex system of vessels has
mal perching position (the femur, tibiotarsus, tarsus         been simplified in order to facilitate identification of
and metatarsus have been foreshortened); therefore, the       those structures that are most clinically applicable for
drawing does not represent radiographic positioning of        venipuncture, cannulation and surgery.
the legs. The primary emphasis is on the torso.                  The position of the lungs and pectoral muscles are
Muscular System The superficial pectoralis muscle has         represented by dotted lines. This layer includes the
been removed from the left side of the bird to expose part    liver, thyroid glands, parathyroid glands and ultimo-
of the coracoid bone and the clavicle. The tendon of the      branchial glands (for position only, as the parathyroid
supercoracoidius is barely visible. The left portion of the   and ultimobranchial glands are difficult to visualize. A
abdominal muscle has also been removed. It should be          transected view of the brain, skull, mandible and hyoid
noted that the pectoralis muscle fills the space between      bones are visible in this view.
the coracoids, holding the crop centrally and away from        The position of the mature ovary and oviduct are illus-
the bones. The cranial extension of this muscle is clear      trated in the inset.
in photographs, but has not been accurately depicted in       Digestive System The esophagus and crop are shown as
many previous drawings of Psittaciformes. The rachis of       solid structures for clarity. In reality, these organs are
the transected primary and secondary feathers are de-         thin, translucent membranes. The break in the thoracic
picted from their origin on the dorsal surface of the wing.   esophagus indicates the point where the organ courses
   The inset is an enlargement of the abdominal cavity        dorsally to the syrinx and primary bronchi.
depicting the relationship of the liver, thoracic esopha-        The inset shows a view of the urogenital system of a
gus, proventriculus, ventriculus and intestines.              developing female. The cloaca is opened ventrally to
Respiratory System The lungs were not included in the         reveal the positions of the rectum, ureters and oviduct.
ventrodorsal drawing of the respiratory system so that        Skeletal, Urogenital Systems Shown are the skeleton and
the relative position of the air sacs could be clearly        dorsal body wall of a female cockatoo with the heart,
depicted. For clarity purposes, the trachea is depicted in    liver and gastrointestinal tract removed. An end-on view
an unnatural position lying over the esophagus and crop.      of the ribs is provided for reference purposes. Note the
The artist’s concept of a composite of information on         melanistic ovary, which is common in cockatoos.
pneumatized avian bones is also provided. The ventral
hepatic peritoneal cavity and cranial thoracic air sacs
have been visually enhanced with textures for improved
visualization.
                                                                Nomenclature References
   A transection of a male cockatoo is shown in the inset.
                                                              Baumel JJ (ed): Nomina Anatomica Avium. New York, Academic
The liver and gastrointestinal tract have been removed          Press, 1979.
to reveal the organs associated with the dorsal body          King AS, McLelland J: Form and Function in Birds. Vols 1-4.
wall. Note the melanistic testicles, which commonly             New York, Academic Press, 1979, 1981, 1985, 1989.
occur in cockatoos.
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