DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation

 
DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation
P L A N
               T I O N
      S E A  C
N O I         3
        2
        9 0
          - 2
2   0 1              U LTA
                           T I O N – M
                                       AY 2018

             C O N S
   A F T FOR
DR
DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation
Page 2 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft   © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation
CONTENTS

1         Foreword. .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 5
2         Purpose and scope . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 7
3         Description of Heathrow Airport .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 11
4         Background to noise and regulation .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 15
5         Heathrow’s framework for noise management                                                                                                     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   25
6         Results of the 2016 Noise Mapping . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 35
7         Developing the Noise Action Plan . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 39
8         Our approach to managing noise (the Noise Action Plan) .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 41
9         Evaluating the implementation and the results of the Noise Action Plan .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 49
Figures
     Figure 4.1 Heathrow Airport’s aircraft noise regulation and controls .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 18
     Figure 5.1 Framework for noise management. .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 25
     Figure 5.2 Heathrow Airport’s noise management and control measures currently in place .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 26
Tables
     Table 4.1                             Strength of evidence for health and quality of life effects from environmental noise .  .  .  .  .  .  . 16
     Table 5.1                             Qualification criteria for noise categories .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 27
     Table 5.2                             Range of current operating procedures.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 28
     Table 5.3                             Range of schemes that Heathrow currently offers .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 29
     Table 5.4                             Heathrow’s stakeholder engagement forums and industry groups. .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 32
     Table 6.1                             Comparison of 2018 predictions with 2016 outcomes.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 36
     Table 6.2                             Highlights of noise outcomes after second Noise Action Plan.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 36 & 37

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                                                                                                                                        Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 3
DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation
Page 4 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft   © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation
1 FOREWORD

Heathrow brings huge economic benefits both              • Improved air conditioning facilities at our local
locally and nationally – as one of the largest             schools, building on from our window and
single-site employers in the UK, Heathrow is               Adobe building programmes.
proud to provide the workplace for over 76,000
                                                         Heathrow has long been at the forefront of
people, over half of whom live in Heathrow’s five
                                                         international efforts to address aircraft noise and we
local boroughs. Nationally, Heathrow is the UK’s
                                                         know we must continue to build on this. We are
global gateway and plays a big role in underpinning
                                                         proud of the fact that, despite the number of
the UK’s economic success, connecting regions
                                                         aircraft movements at the airport going up, our
across the country to over 180 destinations in
                                                         noise footprint has shrunk considerably over the past
85 countries.
                                                         few decades and is at the smallest it has ever been.
But for all the benefits that Heathrow delivers, we      To continue to drive improvements over the next
know that aircraft noise remains an issue for those      five years, here are some key actions we will be
living around the airport. That’s why we strive to       working with towards airlines, NATS and
work together with our airlines, NATS (our air traffic   community stakeholders:
controllers), the Government and the communities
                                                         • Implementation of our Quiet Night Charter
themselves to manage and reduce the effects of
aircraft noise. These measures are set out in our        • A review of our charging structure that provides
Noise Action Plan which we publish every five years.         incentives to our airlines and takes account of
                                                             CAA recommendations in this area
The plan which follows is now the third Noise Action
                                                         • A new noise insulation strategy
Plan Heathrow has produced. It demonstrates the
progress we’ve made striving to remain a global          • Supporting and encouraging independent
leader in noise management and delivering against            research that will enhance our understanding of
initiatives which reduce the impact of aircraft noise.       how aviation affects and can improve quality of
                                                             life and health outcomes near our airport
Since our last action plan in 2013, we have made
                                                         • New methods of detecting and communicating
solid progress against the actions we have been
                                                             changes to operations that might impact
working towards in the last five years. This includes:
                                                             residents.
• The launch of our Fly Quiet and Green league
    table in 2013 which has been incentivising           This plan goes beyond the requirements of
    airlines to use their quietest aircraft and best     European legislation by considering actions which
    operational practices                                will manage ground and air noise for affected
                                                         communities. It includes new commitments which
• The noisiest Chapter 3 aircraft on the verge of
                                                         are part of our sustainability leadership plan
    no longer being in operation at Heathrow and
                                                         ‘Heathrow 2.0’ and will see us continue to deliver
    Chapter 14, the quietest aircraft category has
                                                         progress in this key area.
    already reached 60.8%
• A considerable effort that has seen the reduction      We look forward to working closely with our local
    in the number of late running departures             communities, airlines, NATS and policy makers to
                                                         deliver our new Noise Action Plan that continues to
• An investment in 52 new noise monitors with a
                                                         build on our efforts to reduce the impact of noise
    direct data feed to the WebTrak flight
                                                         from our operations.
    information website
• The new xPlane web tool, a world first, which
    allows community members to analyse overhead
    flights, including aircraft type, movement type
    and height
• The new features in WebTrak including a rainfall
    map layer and the introduction of Noise
    Preferential Routes to improve transparency on
    disruptions and flight performance
• Trials of steeper climbs, slightly steeper             John Holland-Kaye
    approaches and the detection of landing              Chief Executive, Heathrow Airport Limited
    gear deployment

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                          Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 5
DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation
Page 6 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft   © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation
2 PURPOSE AND SCOPE

Purpose                                                 Scope
The purpose of this Noise Action Plan is to comply      In accordance with the requirements of the EU
with the requirements of the European Union (EU)        Noise Directive 2002/49/EC, this action plan makes
Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END)          reference to Lden noise contours calculated on a
and associated UK government regulations.               decibel (dB) scale for 2016 operations. They were
                                                        produced by the Environment Research Consultancy
The airport operator is deemed the competent
                                                        Department (ERCD), part of the CAA using the UK
authority for drawing up the Noise Action Plan,
                                                        civil aviation noise model ANCON (version 2.3) and
which for Heathrow airport, is Heathrow Airport
                                                        were published for Heathrow airport in 2017.
Limited (HAL). The final adoption and approval of
                                                        The contours are shown in Annex 11.
the Noise Action Plan is undertaken by the
Secretary of State for the Department of Food           Through the actions set out in this plan, we will
and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). Government guidance          seek to manage aircraft noise from Heathrow’s
states that noise action plans are “designed to         operation. It is important to note that this
manage noise issues and effects arising from            Noise Action Plan only includes actions related
aircraft departing from and arriving at the airport”,   to developments for which the airport has
“including noise reduction if necessary”. (See legal    been granted planning permission and intends
context page 17.)                                       to take forward at the time of publication.
                                                        The scope of this Noise Action Plan does not
Heathrow has made significant progress in
                                                        include a mitigation strategy or specific actions to
addressing the noise challenge but recognises that
                                                        deal with any new infrastructure or planned and
Heathrow’s operations do result in noise impacts for
                                                        permanent airspace changes.
our local communities. This document sets out how
we plan to manage and where possible reduce the         Specifically, this means that this Noise Action Plan
impact of aircraft noise. However, in some cases        applies only to operations within the current
responsibilities for noise management fall to the       480,000 annual movement limit on the existing
DfT, NATS, CAA or Local Planning Authorities, so in     two-runway system. It does not cover any
those cases we are committed to recommending            expansion at Heathrow. As we consider major
and seeking to influence proposed changes.              changes or development proposals that will affect
                                                        the noise environment, we will review our plan with
Our first Noise Action Plan covered the period 2010
                                                        input from the Heathrow Community Engagement
to 2015 and our second, 2013 to 2018. This is our
                                                        Board (HCEB), Heathrow Strategic Noise Advisory
third Noise Action Plan and will cover 2019 to
                                                        Group (HSNAG), the Heathrow Community Noise
2023. It has been compiled in line with DEFRA’s
                                                        Forum (HCNF) and other relevant stakeholders.
2017 guidance (see Annex 2) and the main actions
(Section 8) have been developed in dialogue with        The legal requirement is for Heathrow Airport
various groups including the Heathrow Community         Limited to consider noise issues within the 55dB Lden
Noise Forum (HCNF).                                     and 50dB Lnight noise contours. These contours take
                                                        into account aircraft noise during take-off, landing
                                                        and ground roll.
                                                        We have extended the scope of this plan by giving
                                                        consideration to actions which seek to address the
                                                        impacts of aircraft noise in areas beyond the
                                                        specified contours as well as noise created by
                                                        taxiing aircraft and engine testing carried out within
                                                        the airport perimeter.

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                         Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 7
DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation
As part of our Quiet Night Charter, by 2022
                                                                               we will seek to at least halve the number
                                                                               of flights on non-disrupted days that
                                                                               operate late after 23:30

                                                                               Airside ultra-low emissions zone by 2025
                                                                               to improve quality of life through cleaner air

                                                                               50% airport passenger journeys made by
                                                                               public and sustainable transport by 2030,
                                                                               supporting no more airport-related cars on the
                                                                               road, so local areas can thrive without
                                                                               increased congestion

The Noise Action Plan also aligns with Heathrow                          The Noise Action Plan does not include noise from
2.0, our sustainability leadership plan which was                        airport construction activities or noise from road
launched in 2017 and sets out a clear sustainability                     and rail traffic associated with the airport.
vision and goals for Heathrow. Within the pillar                         Action plans for noise associated with major road
“A Great Place to Live”, Section 4 is called “Respite                    and rail routes are dealt with separately under
for Residents – A place that is getting quieter” and                     government legislation and do not fall within the
contains three headline goals that broadly reflect                       responsibility of airport operators.
the five groups of actions in this plan.
                                                                         For information, please see
• Encourage the use of the quietest aircraft                             www.noisemapping.defra.gov.uk
    available, operated with the least noise impact
    practicable, within an agreed noise envelope.                        New noise from these sources associated with any
                                                                         expansion of the airport would also be addressed
• Influence national and international policy and
                                                                         through the planning and consenting process.
    engage with local planning authorities to ensure
    more effective land planning processes in noise
    affected areas, and to improve our noise
    mitigation.
• Continue to improve the relationship with our
    local community by working more transparently
    and collaboratively to develop noise action
    plans, as well as improving our communications,
    monitoring and research capability.

Page 8 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft                                    © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation
Brexit
In June 2016, the UK voted to leave the European
Union and in March 2017, the UK triggered
Article 50.

PLACEHOLDER:
Update on developments up to Dec 2018

                                                               Evaluation of Directive
                                                             2002/49/EC Relating to the
                                                            Assessment and Management
                                                               of Environmental Noise

                                                                                                Final Report

                                                          The Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services LLP
                                                          August – 2016

                                                   It should be noted that Heathrow when developing
                                                   its Noise Action Plan strives to exceed the minimum
                                                   requirements of the Environmental Noise Directive
                                                   (END). For example, since 2009 we have calculated
                                                   and published Lden and Lnight noise contours annually,
                                                   rather than only every five years. In addition, given
                                                   its importance to local residents, we have included
                                                   the management of ground-based noise sources in
                                                   our plan.
                                                   Regardless of the status of the UK’s position in
                                                   relation to EU Directives in the coming years,
                                                   Heathrow is supportive of the Noise Action Plan
                                                   process and the concept of a single strategic
                                                   document collating aircraft noise management
                                                   commitments and initiatives. As a result of this
                                                   support Heathrow is committed to continuing to
                                                   coordinate the management of aircraft noise in
                                                   this way.

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                    Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 9
DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION - MAY 2018 - Heathrow Consultation
Page 10 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft   © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
3 DESCRIPTION OF HEATHROW AIRPORT

Heathrow has two runways, four passenger               Heathrow Expansion
terminals and one cargo terminal with two aprons.
The airport is located approximately 21 km             In July 2015, the Airports Commission issued its
(13 miles) west of the city of London and borders      report recommending a new north-west runway
suburban housing, business premises and mixed          at Heathrow to secure the UK’s status as an
use open land to the north and south; suburban         international aviation hub. In October 2016, the
housing and business premises to the east; and         Government announced that a north-west runway
three large reservoirs, mixed use open land, housing   at Heathrow is its preferred scheme and location
and business premises to the west. In 2017, there      for expanding airport capacity in the South East.
were just under 476,000 movements handling             In February 2017, the Government published the
around 78 million passengers.                          draft Airports National Policy Statement (ANPS) for
                                                       consultation. A revised draft ANPS was published in
Planned development                                    October 2017 for further consultation and a
                                                       parliamentary vote is expected in summer 2018.
2019 – 2023 and beyond
Outlined below are development and expansion
activities planned during the lifetime of this Noise
Action Plan.

Capital investment plan
PLACEHOLDER
                                                           Revised Draft Airports National Policy
Content on infrastructure plans within existing
permissions will be provided here
                                                           Statement: new runway capacity and
                                                           infrastructure at airports in the South
                                                           East of England

                                                           Presented to Parliament pursuant to Section 9(2) of the
                                                           Planning Act 2008

                                                           Moving Britain Ahead

                                                           October 2017

                                                       PLACEHOLDER
                                                          January 2017
                                                       Add 2017 outcomes re vote and designation
                                                       To get permission for the expansion of Heathrow,
                                                       we have started the process of obtaining a
                                                       Development Consent Order (DCO) under the
                                                       Planning Act 2008. The first consultation,
                                                       Consultation 1, ran from January to March 2018
                                                       and set out the project’s emerging proposals and
                                                       options. A second consultation on our preferred
                                                       scheme and airspace design envelopes is planned
                                                       for early 2019. It is anticipated that the DCO
                                                       application will be submitted in 2020 and, if it is
                                                       approved in 2021, construction can start to allow
                                                       operations on the new runway from 2026.

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                        Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 11
As an interim measure we are considering an                               Airspace change and
option to raise the 480,000 ATM limit by 25,000 as
part of the DCO application. Furthermore, the DCO                         future airspace strategy
application will include plans for modifying the                          Much of the UK’s airspace has barely changed since
taxiways of the existing northern runway to enable                        the 1960s, yet we have twice as many aircraft in
full easterly alternation following the ending of the                     the skies. The airspace was designed for an age
Cranford Agreement1.                                                      when aircraft were fewer and less efficient, and
As explained on page 7, this plan does not cover                          navigation was much less sophisticated. For these
the proposed expansion of the airport, the                                reasons, the UK’s entire airspace needs to be
proposed raising of the ATM limit or the                                  brought up to date – that is why the Government
modification of taxiways on the existing northern                         has embarked on its “Future Airspace Strategy”
runway to enable easterly alternation.                                    (FAS) to modernise the UK’s airspace.
                                                                          The aim of the strategy is to make the airspace
                                                                          more efficient; improve punctuality; cut CO2
                                                                          emissions; reduce noise from less aircraft-holding at
                                                                          low levels; and to ensure there is capacity to meet
                                                                          future demand. The FAS will require all UK airports
                                                                          to modernise, as well as the network that sits above
                                                                          these airports which is known as en-route airspace.
                                                                          FAS is also part of a Europe-wide modernisation
                                                                          project, called the Single European Sky, to make the
                                                                          skies above Europe more efficient.
                                                                          Even without a new runway, a redesigned airspace
                                                                          at Heathrow is required to accommodate new
                                                                          satellite-based Performance Based Navigation (PBN)
                                                                          as well as changes required for the efficient
                                                                          operation of a two-runway Heathrow.

1   https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/588390/17-02-01_DL_IR_Heathrow_
    Hillingdon_2225774.pdf

Page 12 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft                                       © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
For any airspace change the appropriate sponsor
must follow the process in CAP1616 Airspace
Design: Guidance on the regulatory process for
changing airspace design including community
engagement requirements.
In the event of approval of any major development
occurring which affects the existing noise situation,
this Noise Action Plan would be reviewed and
reissued to take any new noise mitigation measures
into account.

Long-term noise strategy
Heathrow’s long-term noise strategy has been
fundamentally the same for many years now and
is essentially based on ICAO’s Balanced Approach
with the addition of a “Working with
Communities” pillar. This approach is not expected
to change in the long-term. Section 4 of this
document sets out the regulatory regime under
which Heathrow manages noise and Section 5 sets
out in a little more detail Heathrow’s noise
management framework.
Our sustainability leadership plan, Heathrow 2.0,
mentioned in Section 2, sets out Heathrow’s              • Clear and transparent engagement with
ambition towards a future of sustainable aviation.         community groups and industry stakeholders to
At the heart of our ambition within Heathrow 2.0 is        achieve collaborative and beneficial
our commitment to manage and where possible                improvements.
reduce our noise impacts. We expect a number of          • Promotion of a research agenda that enhances
key areas of activity to be central to not only this       our understanding of the impacts of aviation
Noise Action Plan but future iterations. These include     and the effectiveness of the interventions used
the following:                                             to reduce noise impacts.
• On-going modernisation of the fleet and
    incentives to use aircraft with the newest noise
    reduction technologies.
• Investigation and appropriate implementation of
    effective noise abatement procedures.
• Airspace design and management to minimise
    adverse noise impacts and, where appropriate,
    to maximise respite for residents.
• Provision of a comprehensive sound insulation
    scheme for the most affected houses and
    schools.
• Continual improvement of voluntary measures
    especially for reducing the impacts of night
    operations.
• Enhanced monitoring, reporting and
    management of all ground- and air-based
    noise sources.

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                          Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 13
Page 14 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft   © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
4	BACKGROUND TO NOISE AND
   REGULATION

Aircraft noise                                            Leq metric because, based on current research, it has
                                                          proven to have the best correlation with associated
Noise is created by aircraft approaching or taking        health outcomes such as annoyance and sleep
off from airports and by taxiing aircraft and engine      disturbance. See Table 4.1 below.
testing within the airport perimeter.
                                                          In the UK, daytime aircraft noise is typically measured
Airframe noise results when air passes over               by calculating this average noise level in decibels (dB)
the aircraft’s body (the fuselage) and its wings.         over 16 hours (07:00-23:00) over the summer period
This causes friction and turbulence, which make           to give a single daily figure. As these Leq 16hr
noise. The amount of noise created varies according       contours have been used in the UK for over 30 years,
to the way the plane is flown, even for identical         they allow historic trends to be monitored.
aircraft. Aircraft land with their flaps extended and
this creates more friction (and produces more noise)      In 2002 the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END)
than a plane with its flaps up.                           provided a standardised means for mapping and
                                                          assessing road, rail and air transport noise across
Engine noise is created by the sound from the             Europe. Member states are required to develop
moving parts of the engine and by the sound of the        strategic noise maps every five years based on the
air being expelled at high speed once it has passed       metric Lden and submit Noise Action Plans detailing
through the engine. Most of the engine noise              how the identified noise problems are to be
comes from the exhaust or jet behind the engine as        managed and mitigated over the five-year period.
it mixes with the air around it, although fan and         Like Leq, the noise metric Lden is also a time-averaged
combustor noise from the front of the engine can          noise metric with penalty weightings for noise in
also be audible on the ground.                            the evening (19:00-23:00) and night
Aircraft manufactured today are much quieter than         (23:00-07:00) periods.
they were 30 or even 20 years ago and this trend is       Noting that research on health impacts is usually
expected to continue as even quieter aircraft are         based on Leq metrics, we acknowledge, however,
introduced in the future. As a result, even though        that most people struggle to understand how the
the number of aircraft movements over the past            concept of ‘average noise over a day’ relates to
decade has been relatively stable, the airport noise      their own individual experience. We have been
contours have continued to reduce in area.                working for a number of years, and most recently
                                                          through the HCNF, to expand the use of
Measuring and reporting noise                             supplementary and event-based metrics that better
For many communities, aircraft noise is a series of       reflect individual experiences of noise following
discrete noise events of no longer than one to two        feedback from community members.
minutes duration, varying in noise level and              The outcomes of this work can be seen in our
frequency of occurrence, and spaced out over a            recent annual noise contours reports (2016) which
part or all of a day, with daily, weekly and monthly      present data with a wide range of historic and new
variation. Consequently, measuring noise,                 metrics, as well as our Community Noise
describing its impacts and describing change are          Information Reports from the new noise monitors
inherently complex. Any attempt to define and             located in community areas.
measure noise and change has its limitations and          These reports include the longstanding average
cannot fully capture the spectrum of personal             noise level metrics but are supplemented by other
experiences of noise. Furthermore, there are many         noise metrics that reflect the number of aircraft
subjective effects such as perception, attitude, visual   noise events above a specific sound level (e.g.
impact – collectively these are sometimes labelled        65dBA Lmax), as well as westerly and easterly only
“non-acoustic factors”. Nevertheless, seeking to          contours, and other information such as overflight
quantify noise with objective metrics is essential for    maps and flight path usage statistics. The noise
any efforts to manage the noise challenge.                contours report can be found at https://www.
There are a range of metrics which are used to            heathrow.com/file_source/HeathrowNoise/Static/
describe aircraft noise and inform policy. The most       Heathrow_NAP_Contours_2016_and_Summer_
common international measure of noise is the LAeq         Contours_2016.pdf
(often shortened to Leq). It means ‘equivalent
continuous noise level.’ Most policy is based on the

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                           Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 15
4	BACKGROUND TO NOISE AND
   REGULATION

Presented in a format developed in conjunction                            sources including aircraft, road traffic, railways,
with the HCNF in 2017, the Community Noise                                construction and cumulative/combined noise.
Information Reports presents data from new noise                          The key health and quality of life effects considered
monitors located in community locations and                               are summarised in Table 4.1, along with the
include time-averaged and event-based noise                               strength of evidence for that effect associated with
metrics. The reports are available at https://www.                        aircraft noise. It can be noted that whilst noise
heathrow.com/noise/reports-and-statistics/reports/                        might negatively impact on some health outcomes
community-noise-reports.                                                  and determinants, Government policy also
                                                                          acknowledges the potential health benefits of
Effects of noise                                                          aviation, such as the impact of aviation on the
Noise can have a significant and disruptive effect on                     health determinants of employment, income and
everyday life. There are many different effects and                       education in the population.
sources of noise and individuals experience each of                       The Government continues to research on the
them to varying degrees.                                                  effects of noise on human health and Heathrow
Heathrow has conducted a literature review of                             supports the desire to understand these effects
published, peer-reviewed scientific papers that have                      better. We recognise that human response to noise
been written by recognised experts in noise and its                       is extremely complex and varies between people
effects on health and quality of life from across the                     and places and is influenced by many non-acoustic
world. This review evaluated the strength of                              factors. We will continue to monitor government
evidence for noise effects from different noise                           research in these areas.

                                                                                                                     CURRENT
                                                                                              KEY METRICS            STRENGTH
 EFFECT                                    SPECIFIC OUTCOMES                                  USED                   OF THE EVIDENCE

                                           Hypertension
                                                                                              Lden, Leq16hr
                                           Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
 Cardiovascular                                                                               and                    Sufficient
                                           Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)
                                                                                              Leq 24hr
                                           Stroke

 Self-reported sleep                       Interference with falling asleep
                                                                                              Lnight and Lmax        Sufficient
 disturbance                               Awakening/Interference with staying asleep

 Objective sleep disturbance               Awakenings                                         Lnight and Lmax        Sufficient

                                                                                              Leq, Lden and,
                                           Reading
 Cognitive development                                                                        for a few              Sufficient
                                           Standardised test scores
                                                                                              studies, Lmax

                                           Bothered, disturbed or annoyed by noise at         Leq 24hr, Lden
 Annoyance                                                                                                           Sufficient
                                           home                                               and Ldn

                                                                                              Leq 8hr
 Hearing impairment                        Loss in hearing                                    (individual            None at
Interdependencies                                         The legal context – regulation of
Noise & emissions                                         aircraft noise in the UK
There are interdependencies between the noise             There are three main tiers of regulation which
produced by aircraft, the emission of local air           govern aircraft noise in the UK: International,
pollutants from aircraft engines and the emission         European and National. Local controls could be
of carbon dioxide (CO2) from aircraft engines.            considered as a fourth tier. Figure 4.1 below
Finding the right balance can affect aircraft noise       demonstrates the hierarchy.
management strategies. Most of the technological
advances in aircraft design in the last twenty years      International regulation
have led to both a reduction in noise and CO2             The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)
emissions but a few cases have resulted in a less         is a specialised agency of the United Nations,
optimal performance in emissions of local air             created to promote the safe and orderly
pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOX).              development of international civil aviation
There are many factors that will influence the            throughout the world. It sets standards and
design of aircraft and engines and the challenge          recommended practices necessary for aviation
for the aviation industry is to address these issues      safety, security, efficiency and regularity, as well as
simultaneously.                                           for aviation environmental protection. After a
Operational controls also need to be balanced.            standard is adopted it is put into effect by each
For example, the adoption of a reduced thrust             ICAO member state in its own territories.
setting for an aircraft during take-off, can reduce       Noise certification standards
NOX emissions by 30% or more in some cases
compared to a full thrust setting. Many airlines          ICAO has set progressively tighter certification
already employ ‘reduced thrust’ as their standard         standards for noise emissions from civil aircraft.
operating procedure. Whilst this is beneficial in the     Aircraft operating in member states must conform
immediate vicinity of the airport, there can be a small   to these standards, which are known as ‘Chapters.’
increase in the noise experienced by those further        The Chapters set maximum acceptable noise levels
away from the airport under the departure flight          for different aircraft at three specific locations
path as the aircraft decreases its angle of ascent.       during landing and take-off.

We have long been aware of the interdependencies          The first aircraft noise standard, Chapter 2, was
between noise, local air quality and CO2 emissions        introduced in 1973 and aircraft in this category
and have undertaken a number of studies to help           have been banned from operating within the EU
quantify the exact balance that needs to be struck        since 1 April 2002, unless they are granted specific
for specific situations. The level of scientific          exemptions. Chapter 3, 4 and 14 categories were
understanding of interdependencies is however             introduced in the years 1977, 2001 and 2013,
constantly evolving and Heathrow continues to             respectively.
promote further research.                                 Since 2006, all new aircraft types have had to meet
Similarly, there can be more subtle noise distribution    the requirements of Chapter 4, which were set at
interdependencies. With steeper climb rates, aircraft     10 decibels below that of Chapter 3 (cumulative of
will be higher along their flight path and this can       the margins at the three assessment points).
reduce noise for communities further from the             The latest noise standard Chapter 14 was agreed in
airport, but it can increase noise for communities        2013. This increased stringency by 7 decibels
nearer to the airport. Furthermore, some                  (cumulative margin) relative to Chapter 4 levels and
procedures can increase noise directly below a flight     became effective (for large aircraft) from 31
track but increase noise received at sideline             December 2017. As with the Chapter 4 standard,
locations. At Heathrow, we are conducting a study         Heathrow supported efforts for an even more
on the effects of these steeper climbs and we have        stringent level, however we welcome the
deployed almost 20 new monitors to measure                continuous improvement the new standard secures.
centreline and sideline noise. This will inform
Heathrow’s future strategy on airspace design.            The vast majority of civil aircraft now operating fall
                                                          within Chapters 4 and 14. As yet, there is no

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                           Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 17
4	BACKGROUND TO NOISE AND
   REGULATION
 INTERNATIONAL

                              United Nations                                       International Civil Aviation Organisation

                                              Certification                         Balanced Approach

                              European Union                                       European Civil Aviation Conference
 EUROPEAN

                  European Commission Directive               Regulation (EU) ‘Operating             European Commission Directive
                   “Chapter 2 ban” 2006/93/EC                  Restrictions” No598/2014              “Environmental Noise” 2002/49

                                                               UK GOVERNMENT

                    UK Aviation        Planning Policy                          Acts of Parliament                   UK Aeronautical
                 Policy Framework                                                                                Information Publication
 NATIONAL

                                          Noise Policy         Civil Aviation     Aerodrome      Aerodrome
                                         Statement for           Act 1982,        Regulations    Regulations
                                            England              2006,2012           2003           1999

                                      National Planning         Environmental Noise        Airports Act 1986
                                      Policy Framework           Regulations 2006

                                          Local Plans                                    Planning Conditions
 LOCAL

                                                                                            Terminal 4 & 5

Figure 4.1 Heathrow Airport’s aircraft noise regulation and controls

internationally agreed date for the phase-out of                          With the goal of addressing the noise problem in
Chapter 3 aircraft, although Heathrow has set a                           the most cost-effective manner, ICAO has
voluntary target for all movements to be Chapter 4                        developed policies on each of these elements, as
or 14 compliant by 2020. (See Action 1.1)                                 well as on noise charges.
Balanced Approach                                                         This approach, together with our focus on improving
                                                                          communication and community engagement
In 2001 ICAO published the manual, A Balanced
                                                                          activities, forms the basis of our framework for noise
Approach to Aircraft Noise Management.
                                                                          management described in the next section.
Known as the Balanced Approach, it recommends
identifying the noise problem at an airport and then
analysing the various measures available to reduce
                                                                          European regulation
noise through the exploration of four principal                           The EU works to define a common aviation policy
elements, namely:                                                         in Europe. It has issued various regulations and
• reduction at source (quieter aircraft);                                 directives relating to the management and control
                                                                          of environmental issues and is increasingly
• land-use planning and management;                                       assuming responsibilityfor the regulation of
• noise abatement operational procedures                                  aircraft noise standards. Member States are
    (optimising how aircraft are flown and the routes                     obliged to comply with the requirements of the
    they follow to limit the noise impacts); and                          regulations and directives and incorporate them
• operating restrictions (preventing certain noisier                      into national legislation.
    types of aircraft from flying at certain times or at                  The regulations and directives of most relevance to
    any time).                                                            aircraft noise are:

Page 18 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft                                        © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
1 EC Directive 92/14/EEC replaced by EC Directive          Heathrow airport’s financial incentives is available
  2006/93/EC on the limitation of the operation            at http://www.heathrowairport.com/about-us/
  of aeroplanes covered by Part II, Chapter 2,             partners-and-suppliers/conditions-of-use
  Volume 1 of Annex 16 to the Convention on                The Act also permits airport operators to levy
  International Civil Aviation, second edition             financial penalties on aircraft operators who
  (1988) – This directive banned Chapter 2 aircraft        breach noise abatement requirements imposed
  from landing in the EU from 1 April 2002.                by the Secretary of State. A sum equal to the
2 Regulation (EU) No598/2014 of the European               penalties received must then be paid for the
  Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014           benefit of people who live in the vicinity of
  on the establishment of rules and procedures             the airport.
  regarding the introduction of noise-related              At Heathrow, we use this power to fine airlines.
  operating restrictions at union airports within a        This money has been used for projects in the
  Balanced Approach and repealing Directive                local community including environmental and
  2002/30/EC. This ensures that the Balanced               noise mitigation projects for local schools and
  Approach is adopted in respect of aircraft noise         community groups. In 2009 we launched a
  management. It also sets out the definition of           new large grants scheme for schools, charities
  marginally compliant aircraft and the process            and other local groups to bid for funds of
  to be followed in the implementation of an               up to £50,000 for community and
  operating restriction.                                   environmental projects.
3 EC Directive 2002/49EC (Environmental Noise              The Civil Aviation Act 2012 (the Act) was
  Directive or ‘END’) – This directive required            designed to modernise key elements of the
  Member States to create strategic noise maps             regulatory framework for civil aviation in the UK
  from all transport sources (road, rail and air) in       and offers a package of reforms to make
  urban areas every five years and to adopt action         regulation, and the sanctions which support it,
  plans to manage noise. The directive also aims           flexible, proportionate, targeted and effective.
  to harmonise methods for measuring noise
  across the EU. It is under this directive that       2 The Aerodromes (Noise Restrictions)
  Heathrow has produced this Noise Action Plan.          (Rules and Procedures) Regulations 2003
                                                         The Civil Aviation Act 2006 also confirms that the
Acts of Parliament and regulations                       Secretary of State and airport operators remain
                                                         subject to these regulations. These regulations
The UK Government also enacts Acts of Parliament         transposed the EC Directive 2002/30/EC into
and regulations which deal with aircraft noise.          UK law (see above). They apply to major airport
The relevant legislation is detailed below:              operators (i.e. above 50,000 aircraft movements
1 The Civil Aviation Acts 1982, 2006, 2012               of civil sub-sonic jet aeroplanes per year) and
   These Acts grant the government powers to             reflect the adoption of the ICAO Balanced
   introduce noise control measures to limit or          Approach to achieving noise objectives.
   mitigate the effect of noise and vibration            The regulations also set out the procedures which
   connected with taking off or landing aircraft         airports should follow when considering noise
   at designated airports (the Secretary of State        related operating restrictions. These include:
   has currently designated Heathrow, Gatwick            •	taking into account costs and benefits of
   and Stansted).                                            measures;
   These powers were widened by the Civil Aviation       •	being non-discriminatory on grounds of
   Act 2006. This Act also permits an airport                nationality or identity of air carrier or aircraft
   authority to charge aircraft operators for use of         manufacturer; and
   the airport based on noise and emissions.
                                                         •	being no more restrictive than necessary in
   Airport operators can thereby introduce
                                                             order to achieve the environmental
   differential charges to incentivise the use of
                                                             objectives for a specific airport;
   quieter and cleaner aircraft. We are the only
   airport worldwide at present that has                 •	ensuring any performance-based operating
   differentiated charges for aircraft within the            restrictions are based on the noise
   Chapter category. Information regarding                   performance of the aircraft as determined by
                                                             ICAO certification procedures.

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                        Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 19
4	BACKGROUND TO NOISE AND
   REGULATION

	Where possible, these Regulations will now have                         National regulation, controls
  to be applied in accordance with Regulation
  (EU) No598/2014 of the European Parliament                              and policy
  and of the Council of 16 April 2014 (see above)                         Noise Policy Statement for England (NPSE)
  which repealed EC Directive 2002/30/EC and
  also relates to noise related operating                                 The Noise Policy Statement for England (NPSE) was
  restrictions. Where there is a conflict, Regulation                     published by DEFRA in 2010 and is recognised
  (EU) No598/2014 will take precedence.                                   through UK aviation noise policy. Its policy vision is
                                                                          to “promote good health and a good quality of life
3 The Environmental Noise (England)                                       through the effective management of noise within
  Regulations 2006 – These regulations                                    the context of Government policy on sustainable
  transpose the requirements of EC directive                              development”. The vision is supported by three
  2002/49/EC (Environment Noise Directive –                               Noise Policy Aims:
  see above) into UK law. They place a duty on
  the Secretary of State to produce strategic noise                       “Through the effective management and control of
  maps and, under regulation 18, airport                                  environmental, neighbour and neighbourhood
  operators are obliged to produce Noise Action                           noise within the context of Government policy on
  Plans based on the strategic noise maps.                                sustainable development:
  Once prepared and adopted, the Noise Action                             • Aim 1: avoid significant adverse impacts on
  Plans must be reviewed and if necessary revised                            health and quality of life
  at least every five years and whenever a major                          • Aim 2: mitigate and minimise adverse impacts
  development occurs affecting the noise                                     on health and quality of life, and
  situation. The regulations were amended in                              • Aim 3: where possible to contribute to the
  both 2008 and 2009.                                                        improvement of health and quality of life.”
4 Airports Act 1986 – This Act gives power to                             The NPSE refers to the established concept of the
  the Secretary of State to make orders if it                             Lowest Observed Adverse Effect on health (LOAEL),
  appears that the existing runway capacity of                            which is the level above which adverse effects on
  the airport is not fully utilised for a substantial                     health and quality of life can be detected. The
  proportion of the time during which it is                               Statement then extends this concept to introduce
  available. It includes powers to limit the number                       the definition of the Significant Observed Adverse
  of occasions on which aircraft may land or                              Effect (SOAEL) as the level above which significant
  take off at an airport and schemes to allocate                          adverse effects on heath and quality of life occur.
  airport capacity.
                                                                          The NPSE does not stipulate the values of the LOAEL
5 Aeroplane Noise Regulations 1999                                        and SOAEL which can vary depending on noise
  These regulations set out the noise certificate                         source, receptor and time of day. This allows
  requirements for both propeller and jet                                 flexibility for different policy areas such as annoyance
  aeroplanes registered in the UK. It makes                               as opposed to impact on health indicators, and the
  provision to ensure that no aircraft can land or                        ability to adapt policy in line with recent research.
  take off in the UK without a noise certificate
  issued by its competent authority which meets                           Aviation Policy Framework (APF)
  at least equal requirements to those for UK                             The UK government has an important role in
  registered aircraft. The regulations make                               setting and developing the policy framework for
  reference to noise certification standards and                          aircraft noise control at UK airports. In March 2013
  noise limits issued by ICAO and also provides a                         the Government published its Aviation Policy
  list of aircraft that are exempt from the ICAO                          Framework (APF) which sets out that aviation needs
  noise certification.                                                    to grow delivering the benefits essential to our
                                                                          economic wellbeing, whilst respecting the
                                                                          environment and quality of life. It is underpinned by
                                                                          two core principles of collaboration and
                                                                          transparency. It aims for all stakeholders to work
                                                                          together to develop workable solutions based on
                                                                          clear and accessible information.

Page 20 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft                                  © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
With respect to noise, the overall objective is to        location. At the heart of the NPPF is a presumption
limit and, where possible, reduce the number of           in favour of sustainable development.
people in the UK significantly affected by aircraft
                                                          On land-use the Aviation Policy Framework (APF)
noise. The APF also promotes cooperation with the
                                                          “recognises that land-use planning and
objective to encourage the aviation industry and
                                                          management is one of the elements of the ICAO
local stakeholders to strengthen and streamline the
                                                          Balanced Approach which should be explored
way in which they work together.
                                                          when addressing noise problems at an airport.
We fully support this framework and regard it as a        In line with the Government’s noise policy, the
foundation on which our actions can be based.             Government’s National Planning Policy Framework
We often go above and beyond the requirements             (NPPF) says that planning policies and decisions
set by Government, and are committed to working           should aim to avoid situations where noise gives
with them and with local communities to address           rise to significant adverse impacts on health and
the noise issue.                                          quality of life as a result of new development, and
                                                          to mitigate and reduce to a minimum, other
The APF is expected to apply, as amended in part by
                                                          adverse impacts on health and quality of life arising
the Consultation Response on UK Airspace Policy
                                                          from noise from new development, including
(Oct 2017), until Government publishes its Aviation
                                                          through the use of conditions.”
Strategy in early 2019 (see ‘Evolving Government
Policy’ below).                                           The term “avoid” can include allowing dwellings in
                                                          noise impacted areas that achieve suitable internal
Planning policy – National Policy Planning
                                                          design noise levels.
Framework (NPPF)
                                                          The principal mitigation measure for aircraft noise
Land-use planning can play an important role in
                                                          impacts for new developments is the provision of
reducing the impact of aircraft noise by restricting
                                                          acoustic insulation and can be required on a
certain types of developments near airports such as
                                                          statutory basis under section 79 of the Civil Aviation
houses and schools. The National Policy Planning
                                                          Act 1982 at Heathrow. In practice however, all of
Framework (NPPF) came into force in March 2012
                                                          the airport’s current noise insulation schemes are
and a new draft for consultation was published in
                                                          provided on a voluntary basis and meet the
March 2018.
                                                          expectations of the APF.
The NPPF sets out the Government’s planning
                                                          The 2013 APF and subsequent draft policy
policies for England and how these are expected to
                                                          modifications in the 2017 Consultation Response
be applied. It provides a framework within which
                                                          on UK Airspace Policy indicate that the Government
local plans can be developed which reflect
                                                          expects airport operators to;
community needs.
                                                          • offer households exposed to levels of noise of
The NPPF noise aims widely reflect those in the NPSE.        69dB Leq 16hr or more, assistance with the costs
In particular, the NPPF asks that planning policies and      of moving;
decisions should avoid noise which could give rise to
                                                          • to offer full insulation to be paid by the airport
significant adverse impacts of health and quality of
                                                             for homes within the 69dB Leq 16hr contour,
life as a result of a new development and mitigate
                                                             where the home owners do not want to move
and reduce to a minimum, other adverse impacts on
                                                             (added by 2017 draft policy);
health and quality of life.
                                                          • to offer acoustic insulation to noise-sensitive
This does not explicitly prevent the construction of         buildings, such as schools and hospitals,
new dwellings or conversion of existing buildings.           exposed to levels of noise of 63dB Leq 16hr
The NPPF also aims to identify and protect areas of          or more;
tranquillity. Of note, the NPPF sets out that both
                                                          • where acoustic insulation cannot provide an
new and existing development should be protected
                                                             appropriate or cost-effective solution, to offer
from contributing to or being put at unacceptable
                                                             alternative mitigation measures; and,
risk from, or being adversely affected by
unacceptable levels of soil, air, water or noise          • to offer financial assistance towards acoustic
pollution or land instability. It also asks to ensure        insulation to residential properties exposed to
that new development is appropriate for its                  levels of noise of 63dB Leq 16hr or more
                                                             (modified by 2017 draft policy).

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                           Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 21
4	BACKGROUND TO NOISE AND
   REGULATION

The APF document also confirms that any potential                         • Option analysis in airspace change
proposals for new nationally significant airport                          • New metrics and appraisal guidance to assess
development projects following any Government                               noise impacts
decision on future recommendation(s) from the
                                                                          • Use of a “tier” system for categorising airspace
Airports Commission would need to consider
                                                                            changes
tailored compensation schemes where appropriate,
which would be subject to separate consultation.                          This Airspace Consultation Response states that the
The APF explains that airports may wish to use                            Government intends to make changes to the noise
alternative criteria or have additional schemes                           compensation policies contained in the 2013 APF
based on night noise where night flights are an                           via the new Aviation Strategy which, as noted
issue. Airport consultative committees should be                          above, is still being developed.
involved in reviewing schemes and invited to give
                                                                          While the Airspace Consultation Response makes
views on the criteria to be used.
                                                                          clear that the Government will undertake additional
Evolving Government Policy                                                consideration of this issue in developing the
                                                                          Aviation Strategy, the 2013 APF and the Airspace
Over the course of 2017 the Government has been
                                                                          Consultation Response together indicate that the
consulting on aviation strategy, airspace policy and
                                                                          Government will expect airport operators to:
expansion in the South-East and this will have
implications on the APF. When policies are adopted                        • offer households exposed to levels of noise of
by the Government some sections of this Noise                                 69dB Leq 16hr or more, assistance with the costs
Action Plan may need to be updated. Our Action                                of moving;
5.17 envisages annual review and update of this                           • offer full insulation to be paid by the airport for
Noise Action Plan actions progress or Government                              homes within the 69dB Leq 16hr contour, where
policy changes.                                                               the home owners do not want to move (this is
                                                                              an additional requirement proposed in the 2017
Aviation Strategy
                                                                              draft Airspace Policy);
The Government is developing a new Aviation                               • offer acoustic insulation to noise-sensitive
Strategy for the UK, which will set out the long                              buildings, such as schools and hospitals, exposed
term direction for aviation policy making to 2050                             to levels of noise of 63dB Leq 16hr or more;
and beyond. The latest document “Beyond the
                                                                          • where acoustic insulation cannot provide an
Horizon – The Future of UK Aviation – Next steps
                                                                              appropriate or cost-effective solution, to offer
towards an Aviation Strategy” (April 2018) states
                                                                              alternative mitigation measures;
that Strategy will look at “whether the right
regulations, controls and incentives are in place to                      • offer financial assistance towards acoustic
ensure the sector continues to address noise                                  insulation to residential properties exposed to
impacts as well as tackling air quality concerns”.                            levels of noise of 63dB Leq 16hr or more
Detailed policy proposals are expected to be                                  regardless of the type (infrastructure or airspace)
published in a green paper in the autumn of 2018,                             or level of change (i.e. remove requirement for a
followed by a final Aviation Strategy in early 2019.                          minimum 3dB change) (as modified by the
                                                                              changes proposed in the 2017 draft Airspace
Airspace Policy                                                               Policy); and
In February 2017, the Government also consulted                           • consider compensation for significantly
on its draft Airspace Policy. In October 2017, it                             increased overflight as a result of the change,
published the document Consultation Response                                  based on appropriate metrics which could be
on UK Airspace Policy: A framework for balanced                               decided upon according to local circumstances
decisions on the design and use of airspace                                   and the economics of the change proposal (this
(the Airspace Consultation Response) which sets                               is an additional requirement proposed in the
out emerging government policy on related issues,                             2017 draft Airspace Policy);
including the following:
• Changes to the noise compensation policy
• The creation of an Independent Commission on
    Civil Aviation Noise (ICCAN)

Page 22 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft                                 © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
Airports National Policy Statement                      Night flight restrictions
Also in February and October 2017, the                  Following consultation in 2016, DfT published the
Government held two consultations on its Draft          night flight restrictions for the designated airports
Airports National Policy Statement (ANPS): new          (Heathrow, Gatwick & Stansted) for the period
runway capacity and infrastructure at airports in the   2017-2022. The environmental objective is to
South East of England. A parliamentary vote on this     “limit or reduce the number of people
ANPS is expected in the summer of 2018. This policy     significantly affected by aircraft noise at night,
(including its proposals in relation to noise and       including through encouraging the use of quieter
compensation) will apply to a relevant application      aircraft, while maintaining the existing benefits of
for development consent for expansion at Heathrow       night flights”.
Airport made under the Planning Act 2008.
                                                        The Government set out a number of indicators to
Heathrow is committed to working with the               assess how well the environmental objective will be
Government and Local Authorities to take into           measured which include:
account the principles of the NPSE, NPPF, the ICAO      • the area and number of people within the
Balanced Approach and other emerging aviation              48dB LAeq 6.5hr night contour;
policy when it is finalised. We also aim to work
                                                        • the WebTAG assessed sleep disturbance
closely with local authorities on the development of
                                                           impacts;
their Local Plans.
                                                        • the average quota count of aircraft each season;
Professional Practice Guidance on Planning                 and,
and Noise
                                                        • the number of movements in the night quota
In 2017 the Association of Noise Consultants               period.
(ANC), the Institute of Acoustics (IOA) and
                                                        From October 2018, a new QC/0.125 category was
Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (CIEH)
                                                        introduced to reduce the number of aircraft exempt
published a jointly-produced document,
                                                        from the noise quota and all aircraft now count
The Professional Practice Guidance on Planning &
                                                        toward the airport’s movement limits. Noise quota
Noise (ProPG).
                                                        limits at Heathrow were reduced from 5100 to
The new guidance is a blueprint for acoustic            2735 (summer) and from 4080 to 2415 (winter).
practitioners, council planners and developers and
                                                        For more detail see Annex 6 and the DfT Night
aims to protect home dwellers from noise by
                                                        flight restrictions at Heathrow, Gatwick and
putting good acoustic design at the heart of all new
                                                        Stansted, Decision Document.
residential development. The three organisations
say that if their recommendations are followed early    UK Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP)
in the planning process:
                                                        The UK AIP is designed to be a manual containing
1 good acoustic design will enable homes to be          thorough details of regulations, procedures and
    built in some areas previously considered           other information pertinent to flying aircraft in the
    unsuitable because of noise;                        UK. It covers aspects such as Continuous Descent
2 noisy sites where residential development will        Approaches (CDAs) and other noise abatement
    never be suitable can be quickly identified,        procedures. The full range of noise abatement
    saving developers time and unnecessary costs;       procedures in the UK AIP can be accessed at the
    and                                                 following link: http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com/
3 home building can be started much earlier on          public/index.php%3Foption=com_content&task=bl
    sites where noise is not an issue.                  ogcategory&id=94&Itemid=143.html

We are encouraged by this document and we
would support further work with planning
authorities to ensure the outcomes described.

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                         Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 23
Page 24 Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft   © Heathrow Airport Limited 2018
5	HEATHROW’S FRAMEWORK FOR NOISE
   MANAGEMENT

In this section, we set out Heathrow’s strategy for               Our first pillar, Quieter Planes, is based on the
managing aviation noise, describe the measures                    Reduction at Source element of the Balanced
currently in place and discuss the developments and               Approach. Our second pillar, Quieter Procedures,
outcomes as the end of Heathrow’s second Noise                    reflects the element of Noise Abatement
Action Plan approaches.                                           Operational Procedures. The third pillar is on
                                                                  Land-use Planning and Mitigation and includes
Our noise strategy                                                sound insulation and land-use, similar to ICAO’s
At Heathrow we are determined to remain at the                    second principal element. Our fourth pillar takes
forefront of international efforts to address the                 the Balanced Approach element on Operating
challenge of aircraft noise, while continuing to                  Restrictions and expands it to include Voluntary
safeguard the connectivity and economic benefits                  Measures. Our fifth pillar, Working with Local
that the airport provides.                                        Communities, goes beyond the Balanced Approach
                                                                  as we recognise the importance of community
Our Framework for Noise Management has five                       engagement and collaboration in identifying and
pillars as shown in Figure 5.1. The first four of these           understanding issues and working towards
have been developed to reflect the four principal                 improvements.
elements of ICAO’s Balanced Approach to Aircraft
Noise Management.

                                           FRAMEWORK FOR NOISE MANAGEMENT

                                                           Land-use                   Operating
         Quieter                    Quieter                                        restrictions and              Working with
                                                         planning and
         planes                   procedures                                     voluntary measures            local communities
                                                          mitigation

 APPROACH                          GENERAL COMMITMENT

                                   As aircraft and technology improves and planes become quieter, we will continue to work
                                   to ensure that residents share in the benefits. We are committed to continuing to provide
 Quieter planes
                                   a strong financial incentive for airlines to use the quietest planes currently available,
                                   including in the early morning period, through the use of variable landing charges.

                                   We are committed to take full advantage of opportunities to manage airspace
 Quieter procedures                differently, working with local communities to identify changes that could benefit them.
                                   This will include trialling new airspace management and operating procedures

                                   We are committed to continuing to help with noise insulation and mitigation through
 Land-use planning                 a range of schemes. We will also continue to press the Government to provide
 and mitigation                    more detailed guidance on planning around airports, and to restrict noise sensitive
                                   development in high noise areas.

                                   We do not see restrictions as a first resort and are committed to developing voluntary
 Operating restrictions            measures through collaborative approaches. These can be quicker to implement and
 and voluntary measures            more effective. Where restrictions are in place we are focussed on ensuring that they
                                   are adhered to fully.

                                   Underpinning all of our work to address aircraft noise, we are committed to engaging
 Working with local
                                   openly and constructively with local communities to understand their concerns and to
 communities
                                   provide accessible information and an on-going dialogue.

Figure 5.1 Framework for noise management

© Heathrow Airport Limited 2018                                   Environmental Noise Directive Noise Action Plan 2019-2023 Draft Page 25
You can also read