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                                                                                    THE EUROPEAN
MAGAZINE                  Issue 06 / n o 01 / 2021 / ISSN 2357 - 9056               UNION

           EDIBLE                      PANTANEIRO                                          OCELOT
           PLANTS                      HORSE IS                                            INFLUENCES
           SUSTAIN                     HEARTY,                                             PREY AND
           WILDLIFE AND                TOUGH AND                                           SMALLER
           PEOPLE                      EFFICIENT                                           FELINES

           PG 08                       PG 12                                               PG 16
                                                                        VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL   1
                AND COMMITMENT
                   The Pantanal asked for water. The       arrives. There are many plant species
                land of the rivers, lakes, oxbows, soda    that developed protections against
                lakes and annual flood cycles slowly       flames. For example, some have thick
                dried up over two consecutive years        bark or roots capable of sprouting
                of drought. Combustible organic mat-       through the ashes. Among the ani-
                ter built up in the dry pastures, forest   mals, many species are able to escape
                patches, dried out lakes and in flood-     or seek refuge in underground bur-
                plains that were usually inundated.        rows, natural tree cavities or aquatic
                Unfortunate careless behavior by           habitats.
                some inhabitants started the fires that       These strategies generally work
                rapidly raged across the Pantanal. In-     during periodic moderate intensity
                numerable wild animals were killed or      fires, whether natural, started by light-
                injured. Predation and scavenging be-      ning, or human-caused. However, this
                came common. Many survivors still          was not the case in 2019 and 2020.
                faced hunger and thirst, competing         Although the prolonged drought was
                with each other for food that was not      within the climatic extremes rang-
                scorched by fires, and for remaining       es recorded in the Pantanal, mea-
                water found in the larger lakes.           sures to control the accumulation of
                   It is true that the Pantanal biome      highly-combustible vegetation were
                evolved with the presence of fires.        lacking, environmental awareness
                Many ecological processes are trig-        and commonsense by people using
                gered by fire, such as certain trees       fire were lacking, adequate train-
                flowering and fruiting, including the      ing for firefighting was lacking and
                famous paratudos (trumpet trees, ge-       emergency responses from govern-
                nus Tabebuia), or the germination of       ment authorities were slow and in-
                carandá palm seeds (Copernicia alba)       adequate. As a result, small fires grew
                that are dormant in the soil until fire    in intensity and size, multiplied, and

soon ravaged and spread across          encouraging resilience report, as        region and present the Bonito Fishes
the landscape. Firefighters, few in     in the case of hyacinth macaws,          Project 20-year commemoration,
number, struggled to reach inac-        whose nests were impacted by fire        connecting science, communities
cessible fire stricken areas that did   during their reproductive season         and tourism. More than ever, this is
not have roads, electricity or an       peak at Caiman Ecological Refuge         a time to value traditional customs
adequate communication system.          and at Fazenda São Francisco do          and knowledge – such as the Pan-
   Researchers, volunteers, com-        Perigara in 2019 and 2020, respec-       taneiro horses’ services for handling
munity members, local govern-           tively. WWF-Brazil provided emer-        cattle, and the edible native plants
ments    and    non-governmental        gency aid to implement nest pro-         uses that enrich Pantaneiro diets
organizations have come togeth-         tection measures for the surviving       – among other ongoing initiatives.
er to put out the flames and try        hyacinth macaws’ new generation.         In this edition, ecological economic
to minimize biodiversity losses.           Also, in this edition, the polli-     zoning instruments for participative
WWF-Brazil supported numerous           nators ecological functions and          territorial planning and landscape
initiatives to organize fire brigades   their intricate plant-pollinator in-     change scenario projections are not
on ranches and in Pantanal com-         teractions networks are presented.       forgotten. Territorial planning recon-
munities, providing firefighting        Although they are small, even in-        ciles economic growth and natural
gear and personal protective equip-     sects can play an important role in      resources protection, favoring cur-
ment to firefighters. They provided     the Pantanal restoration. Another        rent and future generations, while
funds for setting up emergency res-     article discusses parasitism, em-        landscape scenario projections allow
cue centers to treat injured animals    phasizing the importance of con-         us to plan a future that incorporates
in the field, and they donated med-     sidering both domestic animals           the wishes of all Pantaneiros.
ication and veterinarian supplies to    and wildlife’s health as one. The           Through the array of subjects
rescue and rehabilitation centers       herbivorous mammals’ role as true        covered in this edition, WWF-Bra-
(e.g., CRAS in Campo Grande, Mato       environmental guardians, capable         sil reiterates its commitment to
Grosso do Sul). WWF-Paraguay            of providing conservation tips for       the vast biodiversity in the Pan-
and WWF-Bolivia set up an inter-        dealing with ongoing land-use            tanal and the surrounding high-
national communication network          changes, is also described. This         lands conservation. And their be-
to exchange information about           edition reports yet on the preda-        lief in solidarity without borders.
wildfire movements along the            tor-prey relationships of the oce-       Together we can face the chal-
three countries borders.                lot, one of the most abundant fe-        lenges and prioritize environmen-
   This Pantanal Science mag-           line species in the Pantanal.            tal actions that guarantee the Pan-
azine edition presents some of             With a desire to get back to nor-     tanal ecosystem resilience!
the first fire impacts assessments      mal – in the face of wildfires and the
and the long-term consequences          COVID-19 pandemic – it is import-        MAURICIO VOIVODIC
that will affect the Pantanal over      ant to provide sustainable business-     Diretor Executivo
the coming years. There is also an      es examples being developed in the       WWF-Brasil

                                                                                 VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL      3
SUMÁRIO                      Photo: Ieda Bortolotto

                   Alexine Keuroghlian                             THE KNOWLEDGE AND
                                     FLAVOR OF NATURAL
                       CONTACT ADDRESS                             BIOCULTURAL
                           WWF-Brasil                              ORCHARDS
                      CLS 114 Bloco D loja 35
                         CEP: 70377-540
                                                                                                 Photo: Sandra Santos

                           Brasília - DF

                         1.000 exemplares

                                                                   THE “PANTANEIRO”,
                       EDITORIAL BOARD
                                                                   A HORSE OF
                        Alexine Keuroghlian                        EXTRAORDINARY
     Science Pantanal Magazine Founder and General Coordinator     VALUE
                          Donald P. Eaton
    Science Pantanal Magazine Manager and Scientific Coordinator

                        Gabriela Yamaguchi                                                      Photo: Andressa Fraga
               WWF-Brasil Engaged Society Director
                            Júlia Boock
                 WWF-Brasil Conservation Analyst
                      Leonardo Duarte Avelino
             Science Pantanal Magazine Legal Advisor
                             Liana John
           Science Pantanal Magazine Executive Editor
                                                                   OCELOT, BIG OCELOT,
                                                                   WILDCAT OR LITTLE
                        TECHNICAL BOARD                            JAGUAR?
                Alexine Keuroghlian – Peccari Project
                  Andrea Cardoso Araujo – UFMS
                  Cyntia Cavalcante Santos–UFMS
                  Daniela Venturato Giori – Planurb                                      Photo: Wetlands International

                  Donald P. Eaton – Peccari Project
                  Fabio de Oliveira Roque – UFMS
        Laércio Machado de Souza – CNRPPN and REPAMS
              Walfrido M. Tomas – Embrapa Pantanal

             Alexine Keuroghlian and Donald P. Eaton               NATURAL PRODUCTS
                     TECHNICAL SUPPORT
      Renata Andrada Peña – WWF-Brasil Comunication Analyst        CONSCIENTIOUSLY
                       EXECUTIVE EDITOR
          Liana John (Responsible journalist MTb 12.092)

                        COVER PHOTOS
                Hyacinth Macaw – Bruno Carvalho
              Acuri bunch – Cyntia Cavalcante Santos
                Pantaneiro Horse – Sandra Santos
                     Ocelot – Andressa Fraga

     Spanish – Easy Translation Services and Flash Translations    PLANNING
        English – Alexine Keuroghlian and Donald P. Eaton          ACCOMPLISHED!
                     Matheus Fortunato

                                                                                                  Photo: Juliana Arini

                                                                   THE FIRES
                                                                   BLEAK LEGACY


4   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL VOLUME 06                    | 2021
Photo: Bruno Carvalho                               Photo: Camila Souza


                                  46                                                   42
                                  PROJECTIONS                                       NATURE’S

                                 Photo: Marcelo Krause                  Photo: Gabriel Oliveira de Freitas


         Photo: Liana John   Photo: Jeffrey Himmelstein

                                                                           A HAPPYREDIS-

          56                                              60
                                                          THE BODOQUENA
   KEEPING AN EYE                                         ENVIRONMENTAL
      ON WILDLIFE                                         GUARDIANS

                                                             VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL             5
    Alessandro Pacheco Nunes                      Catiana Sabadin Zamarrenho                      Gabriel Oliveira de Freitas
    Ecology and Conservation -Mato Grosso         Ecologycal Economic Zoning                      Wildlife and Environmental Education
    do Sul Federal University (UFMS)              Campo Grande Town Hall                          Pantanal Enviromental Foundation                                                                 
                                                  Cyntia Cavalcante Santos
    Ana Cecília de Paula Lourenço                 Ecology and Conservation - etlands Inter-       Geraldo Alves Damasceno-Junior
    Biology and Conservation - Hyacinth Macaw     national Blue Corridor Program / Women in       Biosciences, Ecology and Conservation
    Institute    Action in the Pantanal (MUPAN)                  Mato Grosso do Sul Federal University
                                                        (UFMS) -
    Ana Paula Camilo Pereira
    Geography - Mato Grosso do Sul State          Daniel Massen Frainer                           Grasiela Edith Oliveira Porfírio
    University (UEMS) -      Economy and Producción Engineering              Biology, Ecology and Conservation
                                                  Mato Grosso do Sul State University (UEMS)      Mato Grosso do Sul Federal University
    Andréa Cardoso de Araujo                                                                      (UFMS) and Dom Bosco Catholic University
    Vegetal Biology, Ecology and Conservation     Daniela Venturato Giori Ayres                   (UCDB)
    Mato Grosso do Sul Federal University         Journalist – Consultant
    (UFMS) -                         Heitor Miraglia Herrera
                                                                                                  Veterinary Medicine and Parasitic Biology
    Andressa Rocha Fraga                          Érica Fernanda G. Gomes de Sá                   Dom Bosco Catholic University (UCDB) and
    Ecology and Environmental Monitoring          Ecology and Zoology                             Research Group InsanaHuna (CNPq)
    Paraíba Federal University (PPGEMA/UFPB)      Paraíba Federal University (PPGCB/UFPB)             
                                                                                                  Henrique Villas Boas Concone
    Angélica Guerra                               Fabiana Lopes Rocha                             Applied Ecology and Conservation
    Vegetal Biology, Ecology and Conservation     Ecology, Parasitology and Conservation          Pro-Carnivores Institute (IPC) and São Paulo
    Mato Grosso do Sul Federal University         Brazil Species Survival Center (IUCN/SSC)       University (PPGI-EA/ESALQ/CENA/USP)
    (UFMS) -         and Paraíba Federal University (UFPB) 
    Áurea da Silva Garcia                                                                         Ieda Maria Bortolotto
    Science Teaching                              Fabio de Oliveira Roque                         Biosciences - Mato Grosso do Sul Federal
    Mato Grosso do Sul Federal University         Biosciences - Mato Grosso do Sul Federal        University (UFMS) -
    (UFMS) y MUPAN -        University (UFMS) -
                                                                                                  José Sabino
    Breno Ferreira de Melo                        Fabio Martins Ayres                             Fishes of Bonito Project - Anhanguera-
    Cerrado-Pantanal Conservation                 Geography - Mato Grosso do Sul State Uni-       UNIDERP University (University for the
    WWF-Brasil -             versity (UEMS) -         Development of the State and the Pantanal
                                                                                                  Region) -
    Bruno Henrique Grolli Carvalho                Fábio Takahashi
    Biology and Photography                       Food Engineering and Ecologycal                 Juiana de Mendonça Casade
    Pedro Scherer Neto Foudation                  Engineering - Viçosa Federal Univserity         Ecologycal Economic Zoning                    (UFV) -                         Campo Grande Town Hall

    Camila Silveira Souza                         Fernanda Mussi Fontoura                         Júlia Corrêa Boock
    Biological Sciences, Ecology and              Biology, Environment and Regional               Conservation – WWF-Brasil
    Conservation - Paraná Federal University      Development - Hyacinth Macaw Institute
    (UFPR) - 
                                                                                                  Júlio César Sampaio da Silva
    Caroline L. Gross                             Flávia Accetturi Szukala Araujo                 Conservation and Environmental
    Sciences and Agriculture -                    Conservation - WWF-Brasil                       Sustainability - Consultant -
    University of New England in Australia
    (UNE) -                                                                     Julio Francisco Alves Fernandes
                                                  Gabriel Carvalho de Macedo                      Geography - Wetlands International Blue
    Cássio Bernardino                             Environmental Sciences and Agricultural         Corridor Program / Women in Action in the
    Forest Engineering and Project Management     Sustainability - Dom Bosco Catholic Universi-   Pantanal (MUPAN)
    WWF-Brasil -      ty (UCDB) -

6    CIÊNCIA PANTANAL VOLUME 06          | 2021
Katia Maria Paschoaletto                        Pedro Cordeiro Estrela                            We appreciate and thank the informa-
Micchi de Barros Ferraz                         Sistemathics and Ecology                      tion from the field on the impacts of fires
Biological Sciences and Applied Ecology         Paraíba Federal University (UFPB)
São Paulo University (ESALQ/USP), Pro-Car-                           in the Pantanal provided by researchers,
nivores Institute (IPC) and Manacá Institute                                                  collaborators and volunteers and used in                             Pedro Scherer-Neto
                                                Ornitology and Conservation                   the articles on the fire impacts (Pg 30) and
Kefany Ramalho                                  Pedro Scherer Neto Foudation                  on the blue macaws resilience (Pg 36):
Biology and Conservation              
Hyacinth Macaw Institute                                                                          Andrea Garay – Geographic Informa-                           Pierre-Cyril Renauld                          tion Systems Coordinator (SIG) WWF-Pa-
Laíza de Queiroz Viana Braga                    Université de Angers en Francia               raguay, Karim Musalem – Conservation
Ecology and Health                              (UMR CNRS 6554/LETG-Angers/UFR Scien-         Coordinator WWF-Paraguay, Maria Edu-
Paraíba Federal University (PPGEMA/UFPB)        ces) -                                                                          arda Coelho – Conservation Technician
                                                Pietro K. Maruyama                            WWF-Brasil, Patrícia Medici,       National
Liana John                                      Minas Gerais Federal University (UFMG)
Environmental Communication                                    Initiative for the Brazilian Tapir Conserva-
Camirim Editorial                                                                             tion and the Ecological Research Institute                       Rafael Oliveira Fonseca
                                                Mato Grosso do Sul State University (UEMS)    Coordinator – INCAB/IPÊ, Thaishi Leonar-
Luciana Paes de Andrade                                                                       do da Silva – Conservation Analyst WWF
Sciences and Zoology                            Rafaela Danielli Nicola
Fishes of Bonito Project and                    Wetlands International Blue Corridor          Brasil, Victor Hugo Magallanes – WW-
Anhanguera-UNIDERP University                   Program / Women in Action in the              F-Bolivia and Walfrido Moraes Tomas –                  Pantanal (MUPAN)
                                                        Embrapa Pantanal
Luciana Pinheiro Ferreira                                                                         We also thank the following NGOs,
Ornitology and Conservation - Hyacinth          Sandra Aparecida Santos
                                                                                              companies, farms, inns, research insti-
Macaw Institute -       Zootechnics, Agronomy and
                                                Landscape Ecology                             tutions, and wildlife refuges, for their
Marcos Antônio Moura Cristaldo                  Embrapa Pantanal
                                                                                              support in fighting fire fronts, rescuing
Ecologycal Economic Zoning            
Campo Grande Town Hall                                                                        wild animals, supplying food and water
                                                Thamy de Almeida Moreira
                                                                                              to survivors, and facilitating the field trip
Marcos Roberto Ferramosca Cardoso               Veterinary Medicine
Veterinarian Medicine - Mato Grosso State En-   Hyacinth Macaw Institute                      of the afore mentioned researchers:
vironment Secretary -
                                                                                                  Bioparc, Campanha Adote um Ninho
Neiva Maria Robaldo Guedes                      Thiago André Albuquerque Silva                2020, CRAS-MS, Documenta Pantanal,
Biology and Conservation                        Ecology and Zoology
                                                                                              Fazenda São Francisco de Perigara, Fio-
Hyacinth Macaw Institute and Universidad        Paraíba Federal University (PPGCB/UFPB)
Anhanguera-UNIDERP                                         cruz, Fundação OS, Fundação Toyota do
                                                                                              Brasil, Galo da Manhã, Granado, Hotel Fa-
                                                Walter Guedes da Silva
Olivier Pays                                    Geography and Environmental Sustainability    zenda Baía das Pedras, Instituto Solar dos
Sciences                                        Mato Grosso do Sul State University (UEMS)
                                                                                              Abacaxis, Jogabilidade, Luan Santana, Neo-
Université de Angers in France (UMR CNRS
6554/LETG-Angers/UFR Sciences)                                                                energia, O Boticário , Parrots International,                     Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto                Refúgio Ecológico Caiman, RPPN SESC
                                                Environmental Sciences, Agricultural
Osvaldo Barassi Gajardo                         Sustainability, Ecology and Conservation      Pantanal, Sema-MT, Sicredi, SOS Panta-
Conservation – WWF-Brasil                       Mato Grosso do Sul Federal University         nal, Universidade Anhanguera-UNIDERP,                        (UFMS)
                                                                                              Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Paula Hanna                                     Walfrido Moraes Tomas                         (UFRGS), Whitley Fund for Nature, Wildlife
Conservation – WWF-Brasil                       Ecology and Conservation – Embrapa Panta-                         nal –               Studios, WWF-Brasil, Zoo de Zurich WCS.

                                                                                             VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL              7
wild rice
                                                                  Photo: Geraldo Alves Damasceno


    Edible native plants enrich the Pantanal residents and visitors
    diet and valuing traditional knowledge contributes to species
    preservation and their multiple uses

People of various indige-                                                             ing true natural “orchards” with

                                      Photo: Cyntia Santos
nous ethnicities live in the Pan-                                                          fruits, nuts, hearts of palm and
tanal, along with riverine and                                                             other edible parts. Such occur-
quilombola communities, rural                                                              rences contribute to the local hu-
producers, farmers and other                                                               man populations’ cultures: they
groups, who may or may not be                                                              are biocultural orchards.
considered traditional Pantanei-                                                               Some ethnobotanical main
ros (i.e., people of the Pantanal).                                                        studies carried out in communi-
This region in the South Amer-                                                             ties located along the Paraguay
ica central portion stands out                                                             River during the last two decades
because of its rich cultural her-                                                          resulted in scientific publications
itage that extends beyond four                                                             and community extension ac-
countries international bound-                                                             tions focused on valuing cul-
aries: Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay                                                           turally important plants. These
and Argentina. A rich biological                                               Acuri       include wild food plants that are
diversity is associated with the                                                           known and used by local people.
region’s cultural diversity, in-                       through species collection sur-         The data for these studies
cluding plants common to the                           veys, identification of plants      were obtained from interviews
Pantanal and to neighboring bi-                        with known uses and speci-          with the communities adult resi-
omes: Cerrado, Chaco, Amazon                           mens deposits in herbaria.          dents, accompanied by botanical
Forest and Atlantic Forest. Some                           A preliminary list for the      collections in the Corumbá and
of the species are well known,                         entire Mato Grosso do Sul State,    Porto Murtinho municipalities,
used and even cultivated by the                        in Brazil, developed by a re-       Mato Grosso do Sul. In Corum-
local populations, together with                       searchers team from the Mato        bá, residents from the Albuquer-
exotic plants, in small domestic                       Grosso do Sul Federal Universi-     que, Castelo, Amolar and Guató
gardens or fields.                                     ty (UFMS) estimated that there      (indigenous) rural communities
     The exact number of native                        are 294 native plants species       participated. In Porto Murtinho,
food plants that occur within                          that can potentially be used for    the studies included inhabitants
the international Pantanal lim-                        food. Among these, more than        of rural and urban areas located
its is not known, nor are there                        100 occur in the Pantanal, one of   along the Paraguay River banks.
systematic studies in the Bra-                         the world’s largest inland flood-       The interviewees demon-
zilian portion on the tradition-                       plains whose waters are drained     strated knowledge about the
al knowledge associated with                           by the Paraguay River.              use of 69 wild plant species for
the plants. Until the mid-1980s,                           Several food species are        making oils and flours, or prepar-
the scholars’ attention was con-                       abundant among the vegeta-          ing dishes and drinks that make
centrated mainly on records of                         tion physiognomies native to        up part of their diet. Among the
wild food plants included in the                       the Pantanal, both in flooded       drinks, teas, juices and “chichas”
indigenous populations diets.                          and non-flooded areas. Many         were mentioned; the latter being
However, since the 1990s, stud-                        of them occur in vegetation for-    a local name for artisanal fer-
ies have expanded to include                           mations dominated by a single       mented beverages similar to beer.
non-indigenous communities                             species (monodominant), form-           Among the most important
                                                                                            VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL   9
Photo: Ieda Bortolotto                                                     Photo: Paulo Robson de Souza

     (above), “bocaiúva” flour
         (right) and “carandá”
             (side page) enrich
          the pantaneiros and

     native food plants species, palm           consumption of these wild food        to elderly community members.
     trees predominate: “bocaiuva”              plants, passing down knowl-               In Corumbá, for communi-
     (Acrocomia aculeata), for its oil,         edge about them orally from           ties farthest from urban centers,
     pulp, heart of palm and flour,             generation to generation.             the number of native food plants
     and “carandá” (Copernicia alba),               However, despite some plant       known and used is greater than
     for its edible fruits, although            species have local importance,        those known and used in com-
     they are under appreciated and             traditional knowledge about           munities closer to cities. This
     seldom consumed. What gives                them is in an eroding process, or     shows how proximity to com-
     these plants their cultural val-           has been lost already. This is the    mercial markets influences and
     ue is the wealth of associated             case for wild rice (Oryza spp.),      reduces the wild plant species
     knowledge and practices that               whose use by indigenous peo-          use. There are also plants whose
     are maintained by local com-               ples has several records in his-      medicinal use is more important
     munities. In addition to pro-              torical literature, but cultivation   than its value as a food, as is the
     viding food, these plants have             and even harvesting are no lon-       case for “jatobá” (Hymenaea spp.)
     medicinal, aromatic and tim-               ger practiced. Also, the practices    used by the riverine communi-
     ber-related uses; they serve as            to obtain a variety of oils, drinks   ties along the Paraguay River.
     fish bait and are used in religious        and flours from the wild rice             Even so, there are still
     rituals. For centuries, tradition-         were mentioned in interviews as       well-preserved areas with plen-
     al populations have maintained             “ways of the past”, and today the     ty of native food plant resources
     the extractivism practices and             practices are mainly known only       that enrich the Pantaneiro diets.

10    CIÊNCIA PANTANAL VOLUME 06     | 2021
There are also still communities

                                                                                                                  Photo: Rosa Helena da Silva
with a knowledge wealth about
native plants. Not to mention,
there is potential for communi-
ties to gain economically from
marketing food plants, espe-
cially abundant species, such
as those found in monodomi-
nant vegetation formations. So,
with the objectives to value food
plants; encourage the conserva-
tion and sustainable use of wild
plant species and stimulate the     nities where the research was          “acuri” (Attalea phalerata) and
income generation to improve        carried out and have included 14       “laranjinha-de-pacu”         (Poute-
the life quality in the commu-      municipalities in the Cerrado/         ria glomerata) are prominent.
nities, several actions were pro-   Pantanal region during the peri-       There are several governmental
posed and developed within          od from 2006 to 2020.                  and non-governmental institu-
the “Programa Sabores” (Flavors          Annually, “Programa Sabores”      tions implementing projects to
Program) scope.                     promotes a course on food plants       strengthen and organize com-
    “Programa Sabores” is a         native to the Pantanal and Cer-        munities and support extractive
UFMS community extension            rado and counts on the partici-        activities.
program whose objective is          pation of students and residents           The Pantaneiros ability to
to value food plants from the       from regional communities. The         rescue neglected practices and
Pantanal and Cerrado. Program       extension team also created a          knowledge that still exists with-
activities are developed in col-    products kit in collaboration with     in their communities has ad-
laboration with several rural       the communities, such as a cook-       vanced the specialized edible
community partners, including       book, postcards and calendars.         plants use in recent years. It has
schools. Culinary workshops         These products are free of charge      also progressed due to the will-
are organized, producing dishes     and are distributed to workshop        ingness of communities, and es-
and drinks from recipes devel-      and course participants.               pecially women, to take control
oped by the communities or by            With these extension pro-         of their activities by organizing
the extension team. To incen-       gram actions support, traditional      and investing in autonomy. The
tivize consumption and com-         communities residents already          wild food speces conservation
mercialization, workshops are       produce and sell frozen pulps,         and the traditional knowledge
offered on good hygiene prac-       jellies, flours, oils and other food   maintenance are fundamental
tices, harvesting and post-har-     products. Among the abun-              to sovereignty and the food and
vesting techniques, guidance on     dant plants involved in actions        Pantanal communities’ nutri-
the fruits nutritional value and    to incentivize use by the com-         tional security. And, it will ensure
others. Program activities have     munities, “bocaiuva” (Acroco-          that fundamental resources re-
extended beyond the commu-          mia spp.), wild rice (Oryza spp.),     main abundant for native fauna.

                                                                            VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL            11

     Unique multifunctional breed adapted to environmental extremes;
     excellent performance handling livestock, providing transportation,
     giving tourists horseback rides and competing in sporting events


         Hearty, tough and resilient,       Breeders Association (ABCCP)       heat as well as drought; traverse
     Pantaneiro horses are ideal-           was created in Poconé, Mato        areas with dense vegetation;
     ly adapted for handling cattle,        Grosso with the fundamental        approach a majority of wild an-
     whether during flood and dry           aims to promote, select and im-    imals calmly; their hooves re-
     seasons peaks, or during the           prove the breed.                   sist humidity during long rides
     nuanced conditions that appear             Valuable genetic traits ac-    through wetlands, and they are
     mid-cycle between seasonal             quired during the natural selec-   able to find forage and sustain
     peaks. A descendent of equines         tion long process gave the Pan-    themselves for long periods in
     brought from the Iberian Penin-        taneiro horse the exceptional      flooded environments.
     sula to Brazil during the coloni-      characteristics, such as adapt-        These characteristics make
     zation period, the horse has un-       ability, toughness and function-   the Pantaneiro horse a general-
     dergone centuries of adaptation        ality. They are animals that are   ist and multifunctional animal,
     in a dynamic and complex en-           resistant to diseases and even     able to live and work in a wide
     vironment with extreme tem-            thrive in areas subjected to       variety of environments and
     peratures. It was recognized as        limited resources and environ-     cattle production systems. To
     a unique breed in 1972 when            mental disturbances (episod-       maintain this adaptability, it is
     the Brazilian Pantaneiro Horse         ic or persistent). They tolerate   necessary to ensure the genet-

Photo: Sandra Santos

ic stability and breed diversity     trail riding, they have even          equestrian competitions, most
through appropriate conser-          greater value for demonstrating       prominently in Technical Las-
vation, selection and breeding       how traditional cattle ranching       soing, Long Lassoing, Team
management.                          can be practiced in harmony           Penning (separation of certain
    Bred        semi-extensively     with biodiversity.                    cows from the herd) and Ranch
among large rural properties,             Because of their versatili-      Sorting (selection and direc-
the Pantaneiro horse is eco-         ty and functional characteris-        tion of cattle to pens/corrals),
nomically important in the           tics, the Pantaneiro horse has        among others.
Pantanal. It is essential for han-   attracted buyers from several             One important factor in
dling cattle; is one of the prin-    regions in Brazil, mainly for         these competitions is the inter-
cipal transportation means for       their utility in handling cat-        action between horse and rider,
local populations (especially        tle, but also for other activities,   a relationship of trust developed
during flood periods) and is         like equotherapy, trail rides and     during training and also during
seen as a local culture sym-         sporting events. The Pantaneiro       free time and the animals’ dai-
bol to the Pantanal visitors. On     horse’s agility and its ability to    ly care. The breed inclusion in
ranches with tourism opera-          read cattle, i.e., its “cow sense”,   sporting events encourages
tions offering horseback and         has encouraged its inclusion in       family participation – especial-

                                                                           VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL          13
Photo: Sandra Santos
     ly by young adults and children            Pantaneiro horses feed
     – and it helps guarantee conti-        mainly on native forage spe-
     nuity, promoting the the breed         cies, which are highly-sustain-
     conservation for future gen-           able renewable resources in
     erations. To reinforce the Pan-        the region. This is because the
     taneiro horse functional value         native pastures growth does
     in sporting events, their par-         not require fossil fuel inputs.
     ticipation should be promoted          This extraordinary breed ani-
     through sponsorships.                  mals also maintain the habit of
          In the Pantanal, the horse        consuming aquatic plants, such
     is especially important for            as the water lily (Nymphaea
     handling cattle when flooding          gardneriana), taking advantage
     occurs, as it is one of the few        of the Pantanal’s diverse floral
     breeds to have humidity re-            resources.
     sistant hooves. This valuable              In order to adequately ap-
                                                                               external supplies in the service
     service is appreciated more by         preciate the Pantaneiro horse
     ranchers who insist on regis-          functional work, it is useful to
                                                                                   For such analysis, it was
     tering their animals with the          carry out an emergetic analysis,
                                                                               first necessary to define a pro-
     ABCCP. However, it should be           a systems-level procedure that
                                                                               duction system, with its energy
     appreciated more widely by             assesses the energy required
                                                                               input and output flows. The 100
     ranchers in the region, because        to perform a service – in this
                                                                               hectares fenced study area cho-
     it is a breed that is easy to care     case, handling cattle – through
                                                                               sen in the Pantanal comprise
     for and requires few purchased         quantification of the contribu-
                                                                               forest, cerrado (a more open
     external supplies for it upkeep.       tions from natural capital and
                                                                               forest formation) and savanna
sections with approximately             between renewable energy              native pasture, or other supplies
30% consisting of native pas-           and total energy, which pro-          and services.
ture. The area held 17 Pantanei-        vides an estimate of the service          Another index estimated
ro service horses. Native forage        sustainability. In this case study,   was the service quantification,
species that only require the           renewability was 64%. In other        in “emergy dollars” per hectare.
sun, rain and soil nutrients (a         words, for the semi-extensive         In monetary terms, the value of
renewable resource in the Pan-          production system evaluat-            the cattle handling service per-
tanal) to grow were the main                                                  formed by a Pantaneiro horse
food sources for the animals (a         Useful for handling                   was 603.53 emergy dollars per
provisioning ecosystem ser-             livestock (bottom left),              hectare/year. This estimate in-
vices example). The only ex-            even in flooded areas (side           cluded only cattle handling
ternal supplies and services            page), the Pantaneiro horse           while, in reality, Pantaneiro
needed for the study consisted          (bottom) is also a good               horses also provide many other
of vaccines, medications, tools,        option in transport, tourism,         services, such as transportation,
fencing and labor. The service          leisure and in competitions           tourism support and leisure.
provided (handling cattle) could                                                  Results show the function-
                 Photo: Sandra Santos                                                               Photo: Sandra Santos

have internal (management               ed, the horses primarily used         al services extraordinary value
unit/farm) or external (com-            natural resources, transform-         provided by Pantaneiro horses
mercialization) output flows.           ing native forage species into        maintained on native pasture
    Based on the energy inputs          a functional service (handling        by rural producers. Undoubt-
and outputs analysis from the           cattle). Of course, renewability      edly, assessing these services
study area, it was possible to          depends on the production sys-        value will contribute to green
estimate several emergetic in-          tem used to maintain the hors-        technology benefits quantifi-
dices. One is the renewability          es and will be affected by fac-       cation associated with sustain-
index, that is, the relationship        tors like the proportional use of     able ranching systems.
                                                                              VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL          15

     Discover the “spotted cat” most common species in the
     Pantanal and its strong influence on prey and smaller felines


         Wild animals’ common               (almost 50 times more). In Bra-           And wildcat or forest cat is used
     names tend to be different re-         zil, they are all called ocelot, big      for any feline with a spotted
     gionally within a country, and         ocelot, wildcat or little jaguar,         coat seen at a glance amid the
     even locally within a region.          generalizations that generate             vegetation.
     The most obvious exception is          confusion when identifying the                To complicate matters, nat-
     for “spotted” cats. Even though        species, especially during local          ural variation in size occurs
     there are six distinct species in      residents’ interviews for prelim-         among adult individuals of the
     Brazil, they are often given the       inary assessments on these an-            same species. The ocelot (Leop-
     same generic common names              imals’ occurrence in particular           ardus pardalis) is the third larg-
     throughout the country. It             ecosystems.                               est feline species in Brazil after
     doesn’t matter if you’re talking            These names use, in fact,            the jaguar (Panthera onca) and
     about the smallest species –           seems to obey criteria related            the puma (Puma concolor). An
     the oncilla or “small-wildcat” –       to size: if the animal is not big         adult individual can measure
     weighing on average just 2.5 kg,       enough to be a jaguar, it is called       between 1 to 1.4 meters in length
     or the largest species – the jag-      a big ocelot or little jaguar. If it is   from the snout tip to the tail tip,
     uar – that weighs up to 120 kg         a bit smaller, it is called ocelot.       while its weight can vary from 8
Foto: Felipe Peters

                                                                            The ocelot is the third
                                                                            largest feline in Brazil,
                                                                             just behind the jaguar
                                                                            (bottom right) and the
                                                                                puma (bottom left)

                                 Foto: Adriano Gambarini                                              Foto: Edir Alves
to 16 kg! There are also differenc-   cies and, possibly, the most          tis, pacas and armadillos. They
es between the sexes, males be-       abundant, both on the Pantanal        occasionally feed on animals
ing, on average, 25% larger than      floodplain and in the bordering       larger than themselves, such
females. Therefore, it is easy to     Cerrado highlands. One of the         as gray brocket deer or great-
understand when there is skep-        most likely explanations for its      er rheas. These feeding habits
ticism about species sightings        abundance is its intermediate         may avoid intense disputes with
or confusion related to common        size, which increases the oce-        jaguars over food, while allevi-
names.                                lot’s ability to adapt to different   ating competition for food with
    The ocelot is widely dis-         situations. Ocelots hunt small        smaller feline species. Accord-
tributed in Brazil and in the         mammals, birds, lizards, snakes       ing to several studies, even in ar-
Pantanal. It is one of the most       and fish, but they also catch me-     eas where jaguars are abundant,
commonly sighted feline spe-          dium-sized prey such as agou-         ocelots are present, often in high
                                                                            VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL           17
Foto: Felipe Peters
     numbers. However, where oce-
     lots are abundant, smaller “spot-
     ted” cat species typically occur
     in low numbers or may be ab-
         The phenomenon of ocelots
     “bullying” smaller feline species
     has been termed the “parda-
     lis effect”, highlighting the idea
     that ocelots are dominant over
     smaller cats. This dominance
     may be one of the most import-                                                                      Foto: Felipe Peters
     ant ecological forces structuring
     medium-sized predators and
     their prey communities.
         Felines are obligate carni-
     vores, that is, they feed exclu-
     sively on other animals. There-
     fore, during their prey searches,
     greater competition with other
     carnivores is expected. The more
     “similar” the carnivores are, the      dent: where ocelots are abundant,       and predator avoidance.
     greater the competition should         smaller cats are less common.               All of the smaller “spotted”
     be. In simple terms, the largest           This is especially true for         cat species preferentially inhabit
     species dominate the environ-          small “spotted” cats: margay            forests and are active at night, so
     ment (and prey supplies) to the        (Leopardus wiedii), southern ti-        they come under the “pardalis
     detriment of the smallest: where       grina (Leopardus guttulus), little      effect” influence. The jaguarundi
     jaguars are abundant, pumas are        spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus)        is also a forest dependent spe-
     less common, and where jaguars         and Geoffroy’s cat (Leopardus           cies, but it is active during the
     are less common or absent, pu-         geoffroyi), while this effect is less   daytime. Pantanal cats frequent
     mas are more abundant. How-            pronounced for small cats that          open areas, like native grass-
     ever, neither of the two larger        are not spotted, like the Pantanal      lands and wetlands, seldom us-
     cat species appears to have a          cats (Leopardus braccatus and           ing forested environments. So,
     significant impact on the ocelot,      L. munoai) and the jaguarundi           these two “unspotted” felines
     whose variation in abundance           (Puma yagouaroundi). Spotted            are able to avoid the “pardalis
     seems to be much more related to       coat patterns are usually asso-         effect”, either by being active
     the prey availability, rather than     ciated with cats inhabiting for-        when ocelots are not, or by in-
     to the larger felines presence. In     ested habitats, serving as cam-         habiting environments that are
     contrast, the impact of ocelots on     ouflage among the vegetation            seldom used by the ocelots.
     smaller feline species is quite evi-   while facilitating prey searches            The ocelot plays a funda-

Foto: Adriano Gambarini

                                                                            If the ocelot is abundant,
                                                                            there are fewer small
                                                                            cats, such as the margay
                                                                            (side page top); the
                                                                            jaguarundi (left); the
                                                                            Geoffroy’s cat (side page
                                                                            bottom); the southern
                                                                            tigrina (below), and
                                                                            the Pantanal cat (well
                                                                                                    Foto: Felipe Peters
mental role in terrestrial eco-
systems that make up the
environments mosaic in the
Pantanal: including wetland
margins, forests and savannahs.
Its presence is vital for main-
taining the ecological process-
es dynamics through its inter-
actions with a huge diversity
of prey, larger predators and a
range of competitors.
     The ocelot conservation sta-
                                                                                                    Foto: Felipe Peters
tus in the Pantanal has not yet
been systematically assessed.
But, overall, the environmental
health of the Pantanal is bet-
ter than it is for neighboring
biomes, such as the Cerrado
and Atlantic Forest. Therefore,
it is likely that the ocelot con-
servation status is also better
in the Pantanal. For long-term
conservation purposes, ocelot       accompany rivers and other              as in cultivated areas, but they
populations will depend on the      aquatic environments in the             predominantly use forested
remaining forests fragments         Upper Paraguay River Basin              habitats.
maintenance in the bordering        (BAP). Ocelots are able to range            Based on a large number of
Cerrado highlands and espe-         and hunt in a variety of native         recurring ocelot records that
cially on riparian corridors that   vegetation formations, as well          were documented on a ranch

                                                                            VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL           19
Foto: Érica Gomes                                    Foto: Érica Gomes

     with cattle and tourism activi-        source for the ocelots.              landscape agricultural portions,
     ties in the Rio Miranda Pantanal           In 2004, after the initial       is this due to the small rodents
     region, the site was chosen for        studies were completed, the          abundance in rice fields, or is
     launching the Ocelot Project.          Ocelot Project continued to doc-     this also related to the native
     Initially, studies focused on the      ument records of the species         vegetation remnants proximity
     diet and local occurrence of the       through photographs, videos          on which the species depends?
     species. These studies lasted          and direct observations. Start-      For long-lived carnivorous
     two years (2002 to 2004) and           ing in 2005, the ranch’s local       mammals with large ranges
     contributed to a Master’s degree       guides team began filling out        – like ocelots and crab-eating
     awarded by the Mato Grosso do          faunal observation forms af-         foxes (Cerdocyon thous) – can
     Sul Federal University (UFMS).         ter nocturnal safaris to observe     landscape-level changes in the
     A surprising result from the           wildlife (initiated in 1996). The    Pantanal affect their health? Can
     study was the numerous ocelot          data collected by these citizen      these changes, for example, alter
     individuals sightings registered       scientists between 2005 and          ecological interactions between
     in irrigated rice fields, which,       2018 showed the same trends          hosts and parasites?
     previous to the study, were con-       for ocelots observed during the          To answer these questions,
     sidered inhospitable habitats for      2002-2004 UFMS study.                new field activities with com-
     a forest associated species. In a          After completing these stud-     plementary objectives were
     little over a year during 103 noc-     ies, the project began to focus      launched. The ocelots popula-
     turnal wildlife surveys, there         on new questions. Are the high       tion size was estimated based
     were 81 records of ocelots (79%).      numbers of ocelot sightings due      on annual camera-trap samples
     Studies of their diet revealed         to the presence of many individ-     obtained at 45 to 60 locations
     that 80% of the items found in         uals (i.e., a high density popula-   distributed among the differ-
     ocelot feces were small rodent         tion), or to repeated observations   ent environments range on the
     remains. This led to the hypoth-       of a few ocelots that are accli-     ranch, including rice fields, live-
     esis that the rice fields were         mated to humans presence? If         stock areas and natural habitats.
     providing an abundant rodents          the ocelots density is high in the   Thanks to the unique fur coat

patterns of each ocelot – similar    population size, such as survival,      wild mammal species were re-
to a “fingerprint” – it is possi-    longevity, birth and mortality.         corded. Only 5 species were re-
ble to identify individuals from         Preliminary project data            sponsible for 70% of the records:
camera-trap photos and esti-         analyses show that the ocelots          ocelot (591 images), marsh deer
mate the animals total number        population density is between           (Blastocerus dichotomus, 551),
in an area (population density)      29 and 66 individuals per 100           capybara (Hydrochoerus hydro-
using mathematical models. In        km² (10,000 hectares). This esti-       chaeris, 470), jaguar (393) and
addition, the same mathemati-        mate is consistent with the hy-         crab-eating fox (375).
cal models can be used, for ex-      pothesis that a large population            More recently, live trapping
ample, to examine relationships      inhabits the study region. For          was used to investigate the po-
between differences in the num-      future analyses, these estimates        tential ocelot prey. The live traps
ber of individuals registered in     will be refined (to reduce uncer-       were distributed among multi-
different environments with the      tainty in the results), and both        ple locations in agricultural and
number of available prey.            the effect of prey abundance            native habitat areas. The small
    Using the photos database        and spatial variation among en-         mammals captured were se-
and direct observations ob-          vironments will be evaluated.           dated, measured, weighed and
tained over the last 15 years, at        In addition to information          biological samples were collect-
least 65 different ocelots were      collected about ocelots, the            ed. Small metallic earrings for
identified in the study region,      camera-trap data was used               identification were also placed
some over consecutive years. In      to carry out a systematic sur-          on the captured animals before
                                                                             they were released. Similar to
                                                                             the camera trap analyses, based
                                                                             on the number of captures and
                                                                             recaptures of different individ-
                                                                             uals and species, mathematical

                                                                               Most common ocelot
                                                                               prey: Chacoan marsh
                                                                               rat (side page left), agile
                                                                               gracile opossum (side
                                                                               page right) and gray
                                                         Foto: Érica Gomes     four-eyed opossum (left)
fact, one of the females
remained in the same area from       vey of medium- to large-sized           models were used to estimate
2006 until the most recent sur-      mammals in the area, help-              population densities and spe-
vey in 2019. Long-term data like     ing us understand how other             cies abundances in the sam-
these are very important and re-     species use the available en-           pling areas.
quire continuous field sampling      vironments. During two con-                 From a total sampling effort
efforts. These data can be used to   secutive years of camera-trap           of 9,480 trap-nights, 314 individ-
evaluate parameters other than       monitoring, 3,400 photos of 26          uals from 9 species were regis-

                                                                              VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL   21
tered. Two of the species stood        1.5% and 3%, that is, on average,        300 g), Azara’s agouti (Dasyproc-
     out in terms of abundance, rep-        only 2 to 3 individuals are cap-         ta azarae, 3 kg), the spotted paca
     resenting more than 55% of the         tured per 100 traps.                     (Cuniculus paca, 7.5 kg), in addi-
     total registered individuals: the          Although a number of the             tion to ground birds, such as the
     Chacoan marsh rat (Holochilus          small mammal species were                undulated tinamou (Crypturellus
     chacarius) and the agile grac-         registered in both the rice fields       undulatus, 800 g) and the bare-
     ile opossum (Gracilinanus agi-         and in native vegetation habitats,       faced curassow (Crax fasciolata,
     lis). The other species registered     the Chacoan marsh rat was more           3 kg), all of which were recorded
     were the mamore arboreal rice rat      abundant in the rice fields, while       frequently in camera traps.
     (Oecomys mamorae), the Cerra-          the agile gracile opossum pre-               For ocelot and other wildlife
     do climbing mouse (Rhipidomys          dominated in native vegetation           health investigations, field pro-
     macrurus), the hairy-tailed bolo       habitats. So, the Chacoan marsh          cedures included capturing and
     mouse (Necromys lasiurus), the         rat is an ideal prey for ocelots in      anesthetizing of medium-sized
     gray four-eyed opossum (Philan-        rice fields due to their high avail-     carnivores for biometric mea-
     der opossum), the Brazilian guin-      ability (many individuals) and           surements, clinical examina-
     ea pig (Cavia aperea), Agricola’s      their size (average adult weight         tions and biological samples
     gracile opossum (Cryptonanus           between 115 g and 150 g). In na-         collection, i.e., blood, hair and
     agricolai) and a rodent of the ge-     tive habitat areas on the ranch,         ticks. During the procedures,
     nus Cerradomys.                        a more varied diet of abundant           captured animals were hydrated
           In some rice field plots, the    lower-weight small mammals               and allowed to recover from an-
     live-trap capture success rate         was available: about 30 g for the        esthetic effects in shaded traps.
     reached 11%, meaning that for          agile gracile opossum and 70 g           After complete recovery, they
     every 100 traps placed daily, 11       for the mamore arboreal rice rat.        were released at the same site
     animals were captured! For com-        In these native areas, other spe-        where they were captured. Of 13
     parison, in the Atlantic Forest,       cies may be preyed upon more             captured ocelots, four were adult
     the capture rate for small mam-        frequently, such as the gray four-       males (average weight: 12.3 kg)
     mals typically varies between          eyed opossum (average weight             and seven were adult females

            HEALTH ISSUES
               Most of the ocelots and crab-eating foxes cap-        evaluated. On average, ocelots were infected by 6.7
            tured for biomedical collections by the Ocelot Project   hemoparasites per animal. Crab-eating foxes infec-
            presented clinical symptoms, such as dehydration,        tions were lower at 4.3 hemoparasites per animal.
            anemia and low body scores (i.e., a fat and muscles         Among the hemoparasites detected, it is worth
            evaluation indicating an animal’s energy reserves).      highlighting those with significant health implica-
            Fourteen of the 20 hemoparasites investigated were       tions – for wildlife, domestic animals or humans –
            detected in one individual animal, and at least two of   such as the rabies virus and the bacteria that causes
            the parasites were detected in all other individuals     leptospirosis (whose main urban hosts are rodents).

(9.4 kg). A large female cub and         tact between parasites and hosts          on assessing the agrochemical
a young nearly-adult male were           may be increased due to the rice          exposure and prey species para-
also caught. Among the 12 cr-            fields – both for prey and pred-          sites effects. Field activities will
ab-eating foxes captured, there          ators, potentially increasing the         also continue with felines using
were 5 adults (3 males with an           parasite transmission rate.               GPS collars annual monitoring.
average weight of 9.4 kg and 2               These factors may explain             Focused on ocelots and small
females with an average weight           the poor health conditions ob-            mammals populations, the GPS
of 6.3 kg), four sub-adults (3           served for many captured ani-             collar monitoring will provide
males and 1 female) and 3 kits (2        mals, but further investigations          more in-depth information on
males and 1 female).                     are needed. For example, a rel-           range use. Next steps for the
    For the captured carnivores,         evant factor to consider is the           Ocelot Project will depend not
20 parasites that circulate in the       agrochemicals use, a common               only on essential continued sup-
bloodstream       (hemoparasites)        practice in many agricultural             port from the partner ranch, but
were investigated using specif-          areas. These products can weak-           also on establishment of new
ic tests. The parasites included         en immunity in exposed indi-              partnerships that advance re-
species of public health impor-          viduals, and therefore have the           search efforts.
tance, e.g., the causative agents        potential to negatively affect                The project expects to in-
of leptospirosis and leishman-           the animals health in the study           crease knowledge about the
iasis, as well as others, such as        region. The risk is even great-           investigated wildlife, providing
the rabies virus that represents         er for carnivores like the ocelot         important information that can
a threat to species conserva-            whose exposure increases in-              be applied by public and pri-
tion. On one hand, rice cultiva-         directly through consumption              vate sector decision makers to
tion appears to favor the ocelots        of prey species that are also ex-         improve production areas man-
maintenance and abundance,               posed to the agrochemicals (i.e.,         agement. The aim is to reconcile
due to the small rodents large           bioaccumulation). The Ocelot              agricultural production goals
population in the fields. On the         Project will continue to investi-         with the Pantanal’s precious
other hand, it appears that con-         gate wildlife health with a focus         biodiversity conservation.

       All the carnivores evaluated showed positive,         lence and titers were high, with about 70% of
       but low titer, serological test results for rabies.   individuals positive. Important leptospirosis
       These results indicated exposure to the virus         symptoms are related to renal dysfunction, and
       without clinical rabies manifestations, since         eight of the seropositive animals showed al-
       several of the sampled animals were recorded          tered values of urea and/or creatinine, indicating
       by camera traps more than 120 days after par-         kidney function problems. These health issues
       asite collections (120 days being the maximum         deserve greater attention. Analyses should be
       survival period for an animal with clinical rabies    expanded and refined with the aim of guiding
       manifestations).                                      possible initiatives that help maintain the hu-
          With respect to Leptospira sp., both preva-        mans, domestic animals and wildlife health.

                                                                                    VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL   23

     Sustainable Business
                                                                                                Photo: Wetlands International

     Development in the
     Pantanal values people,
     their knowledge and
     NICOLA, ÁUREA DA SILVA GARCIA                                          Small-scale tourism favors
     FERNANDES                                                                   low-impact activities
         Sustainable businesses are         international) dimensions. In this     guá) among other non-indigenous
     reaching niche markets more and        manner, sustainable businesses         people, such as riverine and qui-
     more, driven by a society that is      will value people, their knowl-        lombola communities. Through-
     increasingly attentive and will-       edge and customs.                      out the occupation history, all of
     ing to opt for sustainable products        The Pantanal is the largest        these communities have contrib-
     consumption. Despite continual         contiguous continental wetland         uted to the wealth of knowledge
     challenges, there are efforts being    on the planet and, on its own, still   that exists about plants, animals
     advanced by legal bodies that are      maintains large well-conserved         and the natural flooding regime,
     having impacts through adaptive        areas and healthy ecological in-       as well as to knowledge about
     planning and management in-            teractions, enabling the develop-      their own community dynamics,
     corporation into human (sustain-       ment of a variety of sustainable       i.e., cultural diversity, customs and
     able business) activities.             products and services. However,        traditions passed down over sev-
         In addition to concerns about      to create truly sustainable busi-      eral generations. Although these
     natural resources management,          nesses and markets for the prod-       communities also influence the
     discussions on sustainability          ucts and services, collective ef-      Pantanal landscape, for the most
     should include a society’s prob-       forts are needed.                      part, they coexist harmoniously
     lems holistic view. Beyond the             The human presence in the          with the region’s biodiversity.
     environmental, economic and            Pantanal – registered since the              Geographically, the Brazilian
     social factors tripod, other com-      16th century – includes several        Pantanal encompasses 23 mu-
     plementary aspects to consider         ethnic indigenous groups (Guai-        nicipalities in two states: Mato
     include: cultural, ecological, ter-    kuru, Kadiwéu, Aruak, Guarani,         Grosso (MT) and Mato Grosso do
     ritorial and political (national and   Guató, Meridional Kaiapó, Paya-        Sul (MS). The principal economic
activities include cattle ranching,    outside the region. Another prod-       associated with these programs is
fishing, tourism and mining. On        uct that is becoming more widely        linked to educational background
the highlands that border the Pan-     available is meat from the Pantanal     and greater awareness on the con-
tanal floodplain, the predominant      caiman (Caiman yacare) that is          sumers part. However, to achieve
activity is ongoing large-scale        marketed by two businesses with         success, these efforts will need to
cattle ranching and agricultural       sustainable caiman harvesting           provide additional support for pro-
operations expansion. However,         systems in the Corumbá (MS) and         ducers in order to create a steady
small-scale economic activities        Cáceres (MT) municipalities.            demand for the products and set
are also gaining ground, mainly             Commercializing honey from         final costs (because comparisons
due to tourism, as is the case with    the Pantanal is also being consid-      between organic and conventional
the sale indigenous handicrafts        ered as a diversifying production       products have a strong influence on
and regional foods.                    means. It stands out as a sustain-      consumer decisions).
     On varying sizes rural prop-      able activity due to the wild plants         Product certification efforts en-
erties, efforts are being made         species variety that are visited by     courage increased production and
to organize and review current         native bees and for being free from     provide opportunities for producers
practices with the aim of finding      agrochemical contamination, as          to obtain eco-friendly (sustainabil-
alternatives that increase produc-     pesticide exposed crops are gener-      ity) product labels, which are im-
tivity while reducing impacts on       ally grown outside of the Pantanal.     portant for guaranteeing access to
natural environments. Focusing         Since 2015 in the southern Pan-         niche markets. By developing prod-
on cattle ranching, for example,       tanal, a certification has been used    uct certifications for organic and
producers are trying to optimize       to differentiate locally produced       sustainable production, new more
natural forage resources while         honey: an indication of origin is       efficient forms of using renew-
taking environmental limits, bio-      provided by the Instituto Industrial    able natural resources will emerge,
diversity maintenance and Pan-         Property National Institute (INPI)      creating opportunities to improve
tanal ecosystem resilience into        based on regulations established        sustainability across entire supply
consideration. The main objective      by researchers, beekeepers and          chains, e.g., during the phases that
is to increase the production sys-     beekeeping associations.                occur on Pantanal properties, such
tems sustainability, either through         Although very recent, projects     as adopting best practices for live-
monetization strategies, origin rec-   using organic and sustainable al-       stock management and ecotourism.
ognition or through the creation of    ternatives are attempting to recon-          Due to the unique characteris-
eco-friendly (sustainability) labels   cile the productivity maintenance       tics of the Pantanal, development of
that increase a product or service     with natural environments protec-       sustainable products and services
profitability.                         tion. Most of the projects originate    will require a dynamic process of
     With respect to local com-        from partnerships between private       planning and promotion of best
merce, many fruits and seeds stand     initiatives and civil society organi-   production practices, as well as on-
out, such as coconuts of the “bo-      zations. These partnerships have        going monitoring and evaluation at
caiuva”, “buriti” and “acuri” palms.   developed out of a growing interest     each stage of the process. From en-
Some fruits, such as “guavira” and     reflected in public policies and eco-   vironmental, economic and social
“jatobá”, are commonly found at        nomic development programs that         points of view, this is the best way
organic product fairs, even reach-     are facilitating the new arrange-       to guarantee effective development
ing niche markets in larger cities     ments. The products consumption         of sustainable production.
                                                                               VOLUME 06 | 2021   CIÊNCIA PANTANAL   25
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