Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality

Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality
Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 2021, 8(2), 728–739

                                                                     doi: 10.1093/jcde/qwab010
                                                                     Journal homepage:


Predicting cybersickness based on user’s gaze
behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality

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Eunhee Chang                         , Hyun Taek Kim2 and Byounghyun Yoo                                            1,
 Center for Artificial Intelligence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 5 Hwarangro14-gil Seongbuk-gu,
Seoul 02792, South Korea and 2 Department of Psychology, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro Seongbuk-gu, Seoul
02841, South Korea
*Corresponding author. E-mail:

Cybersickness refers to a group of uncomfortable symptoms experienced in virtual reality (VR). Among several theories of
cybersickness, the subjective vertical mismatch (SVM) theory focuses on an individual’s internal model, which is created
and updated through past experiences. Although previous studies have attempted to provide experimental evidence for the
theory, most approaches are limited to subjective measures or body sway. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the SVM
theory on the basis of the participant’s eye movements and investigate whether the subjective level of cybersickness can be
predicted using eye-related measures. 26 participants experienced roller coaster VR while wearing a head-mounted display
with eye tracking. We designed four experimental conditions by changing the orientation of the VR scene (upright vs.
inverted) or the controllability of the participant’s body (unrestrained vs. restrained body). The results indicated that
participants reported more severe cybersickness when experiencing the upright VR content without controllability.
Moreover, distinctive eye movements (e.g. fixation duration and distance between the eye gaze and the object position
sequence) were observed according to the experimental conditions. On the basis of these results, we developed a regression
model using eye-movement features and found that our model can explain 34.8% of the total variance of cybersickness,
indicating a substantial improvement compared to the previous work (4.2%). This study provides empirical data for the SVM
theory using both subjective and eye-related measures. In particular, the results suggest that participants’ eye movements
can serve as a significant index for predicting cybersickness when considering natural gaze behaviors during a VR

Keywords: cybersickness; virtual reality; eye-tracking, head-mounted display; subjective vertical mismatch theory; regression

1. Introduction                                                              toms, the growth of the VR industry has been impeded. Several
                                                                             theories have tried to explain the cause of cybersickness (Reason
Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies
                                                                             & Brand, 1975; Stoffregen & Smart, 1998; Prothero et al., 1999). In
have been applied to not only entertainment but also various
                                                                             particular, Bos et al. (2008) proposed the subjective vertical mis-
contexts such as education, manufacturing, and building design
                                                                             match (SVM) theory, which considers the individual’s internal
(Ceruti et al., 2019; Fukuda et al., 2019; Sun et al., 2019). During
                                                                             model for understanding the symptoms. According to the the-
VR/AR interactions, some users can experience adverse side ef-
                                                                             ory, an internal model, which is also called a neural store, can be
fects called cybersickness. Owing to the uncomfortable symp-

Received: 30 November 2020; Revised: 2 February 2021; Accepted: 3 February 2021
C The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Computational Design and Engineering. This is an Open Access

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Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality
Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 2021, 8(2), 728–739           729

created and updated based on one’s previous experiences. Sev-              to the previously suggested model, we selected a natural gaze
eral studies have tried to find experimental evidence for sup-             behavior as one of the predictors and investigated whether this
porting the idea or interpret their results based on the SVM               new approach can show a better result for cybersickness predic-
framework (Diels & Bos, 2016; Lubeck et al., 2016; Van Ombergen            tion.
et al., 2016; Wada et al., 2018).
    Earlier studies frequently used questionnaires or oral re-
ports while manipulating the experimental conditions for the               2. Related Work
research hypothesis. However, this approach has a limitation in
                                                                           2.1. SVM theory
that it is difficult to reflect the user’s discomfort in real time. Sev-
eral methods have been proposed wherein a user should report               The SVM theory claims that cybersickness is caused by the dif-
one’s state periodically (e.g. every minute) through a keyboard            ference between the perceived and expected sensory afferents
or a controller to compensate for this limitation (Fernandes &             (Bos et al., 2008). Accumulated past experiences in the real world
Feiner, 2016; McHugh et al., 2019). However, these methods still           develop an internal model in the brain, which serves as a neu-
have a disadvantage in that they can interfere with the partici-           ral store for predicting sensory information. Using VR technol-
pants’ immersive VR experiences owing to their invasive way of             ogy, researchers have implemented various virtual scenes that
measuring cybersickness.

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                                                                           can hardly be experienced in reality. They assumed that this ma-
    Unlike with subjective measures, there has been an increas-            nipulation can affect the building or updating of one’s internal
ing interest in monitoring the level of cybersickness or pres-             model and can induce various responses, including cybersick-
ence in an objective approach (Kim et al., 2005; Soler-Domı́nguez          ness.
et al., 2020). This approach can record the level of discomfort on-            For example, several researchers manipulated the orienta-
line while maintaining a high-quality VR interaction. Accord-              tion of the moving virtual object and observed the changes
ing to a review by Chang et al. (2020), body sway, electroen-              in the level of discomfort. In the study of Bonato et al. (2008),
cephalogram, electrocardiogram, and eye-related index have                 participants reported greater discomfort when they were ex-
been studied as promising objective measures for cybersick-                posed to VR in the forward-moving direction than that in the
ness. In particular, researchers have investigated the relation-           backward-moving one. Similarly, cybersickness was exacerbated
ship between eye movements and cybersickness because the                   when they were in an upright VR scene compared with that
eyes are the primary organ for perceiving VR content (Diels                when they were in an inverted scene (Golding et al., 2012). The
et al., 2007; Yang & Sheedy, 2011). Moreover, it has been shown            authors interpreted these results according to the individual’s
that users frequently reported eye-related discomfort when they            “neural expectancy” (Bonato et al., 2008) or “quarantine” (Gold-
experienced cybersickness. On the basis of these findings, it              ing et al., 2012). Since our brain is less likely to experience an
was expected that the response of the participant’s eyes dur-              unfamiliar moving environment such as a backward-moving di-
ing VR interaction might be directly related to the prediction of          rection or an inverted scene, the internal model would not ex-
cybersickness.                                                             pect any corresponding sensory information (especially the cor-
    Despite the growing interest in eye movements during VR in-            responding vestibular input). Therefore, users can experience
teraction, limited studies have investigated cybersickness using           less cybersickness in a virtual scene with an unfamiliar orien-
an eye-tracking technique with a head-mounted display (HMD).               tation.
Most of the previous studies have recorded the electrooculo-                   According to the SVM theory, the user’s voluntary movement
gram (EOG) signals of the participants while electrodes were               is one of the input elements that lead to an internal model up-
attached around their eyes (Yang & Sheedy, 2011). Otherwise,               date. A self-initiated action leads to an efference copy, which
eye movement was measured with an eye tracker attached to                  helps the brain to predict self-motion and achieve perceptual
a monitor (Diels et al., 2007). Owing to methodological restric-           stability. Several studies have investigated whether the control-
tions, participants usually experienced VR through the screen              lability of the user’s body can affect spatial perception and the
(e.g. a monitor) and were not allowed to move their bodies freely.         level of cybersickness. Depending on the experimental condi-
Therefore, it was not clear whether the results of eye tracking            tion, participants were instructed to move freely or maintain a
could be applied to highly immersive VR interaction. Recently,             fixed posture. The results have consistently shown that the level
Wibirama et al. (2020) recorded eye-tracking data while expe-              of discomfort increases when participants lose controllability of
riencing a racing VR with an HMD. The authors presented a                  their body (Jaeger & Mourant, 2001; Sharples et al., 2008). The
multiple regression model for predicting cybersickness on the              theory explains that a lack of voluntary movement restrains the
basis of well-known eye-related parameters (e.g. fixation du-              update of the internal model, which fails perceptual stability and
ration, amount of fixation, and speed) and showed the pos-                 causes motion sickness.
sibility of predicting users’ discomfort through eye movement                  Most previous studies have used subjective measures to
indicators.                                                                quantify the participant’s reaction according to the changes in
    This study aims to (1) provide empirical evidence for the SVM          the internal model. However, the theory also underlines psy-
theory using both subjective and objective approaches and (2)              chophysical responses due to internal model updates. To sup-
develop a regression model for cybersickness. By changing the              port empirical evidence, recent studies have tried to adopt
orientation of the VR scene and controllability of the user’s body,        both subjective and objective measures (Lubeck et al., 2016; Van
we intended to induce differences in updating a participant’s              Ombergen et al., 2016; Wada et al., 2018). Though some research
internal model. While experiencing VR, the psychophysiologi-               focused on the user’s body sway during VR interaction (Lubeck
cal responses of the participants were recorded using a simu-              et al., 2016; Van Ombergen et al., 2016), little is known about how
lator sickness questionnaire (SSQ; Kennedy et al., 1993) and an            users cope with specific VR conditions through the eyes. Since
eye-tracking HMD. In particular, we focused on oculomotor re-              the SVM model hypothesized that eye movement is one of the
sponses that have not been fully understood in terms of the SVM            physical responses caused by the internal model, more stud-
theory. Based on these measures, we developed a multiple re-               ies are needed to determine how individual internal models can
gression model to predict the level of cybersickness. In contrast          change eye-related measures.
Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality
730      Predicting cybersickness based on user’s gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality

Table 1: Previous research on developing a regression model for cybersickness and its coefficient of determination.

Reference                                        Regressor                               Significant predictor                                      R2 (adj. R2 )

Kim et al. (2005)                                SSQ1 total                              MSSQ2                                                       0.46 (NA)
                                                                                         Heart period
                                                                                         T3 relative delta power
                                                                                         T3 relative slow beta power
Dennison et al. (2016)                           SSQ total                               % Bradygastric activity                                     0.37 (0.30)
Nooij et al. (2017)                              FMS3                                    Vection gain                                               0.78 (NA)
Weech et al. (2018)                              SSQ total                               PC14                                                       0.37 (0.27)
Wibirama et al. (2020)                           SSQ oculomotor                          Amount of fixation                                         NA (0.042)
                                                                                         Viewing duration

  SSQ: simulator sickness questionnaire.
  MSSQ: motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire.

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  FMS: fast motion sickness scale.
  PC1: Principal component 1 (combination of MSSQ, vestibular thresholds, vection magnitudes, and total sway path length measures from the five balance conditions).

2.2. Eye-related measures                                                            wise regression model for predicting user discomfort. The re-
                                                                                     sults indicated that various physiological variables can pre-
There has been a growing interest in measuring users’ physi-
                                                                                     dict the severity of cybersickness. Nooij et al. (2017) considered
cal responses due to cybersickness besides self-reporting. Pre-
                                                                                     vection-related factors as well as eye and head movements for
vious studies investigated the identification of eye-related fea-
                                                                                     the regression parameters. According to the results, an individ-
tures for cybersickness (Kim et al., 2005; Diels et al., 2007; Yang &
                                                                                     ual’s vection strength was a significant component of the re-
Sheedy, 2011). Eyeblink, variation in eye position, and vergence
                                                                                     gression model. However, the model only can explain the vari-
and accommodative responses have been examined as promis-
                                                                                     ance within subjects. Meanwhile, Weech et al. (2018) proposed a
ing indices. Recently, HMD devices equipped with eye-tracking
                                                                                     regression model using only the individual differences of each
functions have facilitated the recording of the user’s natural eye
                                                                                     participant to perform a principal component regression analy-
movements in real time during VR experiences.
                                                                                     sis. The authors claimed that the combination of balance control
    Several studies have recorded the EOG signals of partici-
                                                                                     measures of users could predict the level of discomfort.
pants to characterize eye movements. Kim et al. (2005) investi-
                                                                                         Despite these efforts, it was difficult to apply the previous
gated whether there was a difference in the number of eyeblinks
                                                                                     prediction model to a practical VR environment. To acquire ob-
during VR interactions. The results indicated that participants
                                                                                     jective measures that showed a significant predictive coefficient
showed more eyeblinks when experiencing higher cybersick-
                                                                                     (e.g. hear period and various brain wave features), users are
ness. Yang and Sheedy (2011) focused on the vergence and ac-
                                                                                     required to equip additional devices for data recording, which
commodative responses of users when viewing different types
                                                                                     has low accessibility to common users. In addition, the devices
of depth images. According to the results, participants showed
                                                                                     prefer limited body movement for the noiseless data acquisi-
greater vergence and accommodation when they viewed a 3D
                                                                                     tion, which can interrupt immersive VR experiences instead. For
movie. Moreover, they reported severe oculomotor-related dis-
                                                                                     these reasons, there has been an increasing interest in a phys-
comfort compared with that when they watched a 2D movie.
                                                                                     ical index that can be measured in a less invasive way as well
    Eye-tracking devices have facilitated the recording of nat-
                                                                                     as reliably reflect cybersickness. It is also noted that previous
ural eye movements during the VR experience. The study by
                                                                                     regression models considered at least one of the individual’s
Diels et al. (2007) revealed that participants reported more se-
                                                                                     characteristic parameters for developing the models. These fea-
vere motion sickness when they were forced to gaze at an ec-
                                                                                     tures were obtained through questionnaires or various prelim-
centric point. In addition, participants with high susceptibility to
                                                                                     inary user experiments, which might be challenging to apply
motion sickness tended to show more deviated eye movements
                                                                                     to the end-user VR context. Meanwhile, several studies devel-
from the center point as they experienced VR longer. Wibirama
                                                                                     oped an objective assessment model for cybersickness consid-
et al. (2020) implemented an immersive VR experiment using an
                                                                                     ering spatio-temporal features of VR content (Jin et al., 2018; Hu
HMD with eye-tracking techniques. While wearing the device,
                                                                                     et al., 2019; Kim et al., 2019a, b). Using up-to-date techniques such
participants watched both first-person shooting and racing VR,
                                                                                     as convolutional neural network, researchers devised a compu-
and several eye movement indicators (e.g. amount of fixation,
                                                                                     tational model for cybersickness and showed that exceptional
viewing duration, and average speed of eye movements) were
                                                                                     motion in a given VR scene can reliably predict the level of dis-
measured. On the basis of the results, the authors performed
a multiple regression analysis to predict the subjective level of
                                                                                         Recently, Wibirama et al. (2020) developed a prediction model
                                                                                     based on various eye-movement features. The amount of fix-
                                                                                     ation, viewing duration, and average speed of eye movements
2.3. Regression model for cybersickness
                                                                                     were selected as regression parameters. The model explained
Many researchers have tried to predict the level of cybersick-                       4.2% of the total variance in participants’ oculomotor discom-
ness correctly. The psychophysiological responses or individ-                        fort. This study contributed to the development of a regres-
ual characteristics of users were selected as plausible predic-                      sion model that only considers eye-related features, which can
tors (Table 1). Kim et al. (2005) and Dennison et al. (2016) mea-                    be measured with only minimal disturbance to the user’s im-
sured various bio-signals of users during VR interactions, de-                       mersive VR interaction. Although the result indicated a low
rived promising indices of cybersickness, and developed a step-                      coefficient of determination, the model can be improved by
Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality
Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 2021, 8(2), 728–739                          731

  (a)                                    (b)

Figure 1: A VR scene of each orientation condition: (a) upright and (b) inverted.

considering the user’s natural gaze behaviors while interacting
with the VR content. Compared with the visual stimuli in ear-
lier studies (e.g. simple rotating stripes or dots), recent studies
have provided more realistic VR content to participants. There-                     Figure 2: An illustration of the eye position vector in 3D virtual space. We con-
                                                                                    verted the vector into the x and y position on the NDC space.
fore, there has been a growing interest in identifying novel gaze

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behaviors during VR experiences (Piumsomboon et al., 2017; Hu
et al., 2020), which can serve as reliable indicators for predicting
                                                                                    the x and y positions of the normalized device coordinate (NDC)
                                                                                    space (see preprocessing and epoching).
                                                                                       Moreover, we used an SSQ to measure the subjective level of
3. Method                                                                           cybersickness. According to the scoring criteria of Kennedy et al.
3.1. Participants                                                                   (1993), we calculated four types of SSQ scores: SSQ total, SSQ
                                                                                    nausea (SSQ-N), SSQ oculomotor (SSQ-O), and SSQ disorienta-
26 undergraduate students at Korea University (mean age =                           tion (SSQ-D).
25.58 years, SD = 2.59; 13 females) participated in the experi-
ment. All participants were healthy with normal or contact lens                     3.3. Procedure
corrected-to-normal vision. The experiment was performed in
accordance with the guidelines of the institutional review board                    We designed 2 × 2 experimental conditions by changing the ori-
of Korea University (1040548-KU-IRB-18-6-A-1). Before the ex-                       entation of the VR content and the controllability of the partici-
periment, written informed consent was obtained from all par-                       pant’s body. Depending on the camera orientation, participants
ticipants. They were also allowed to terminate the experiment                       watched an upright or inverted VR scene. The controllability of
whenever they wanted to. Three participants could not finish                        the participants’ body was manipulated by restraining their up-
all experimental conditions owing to a severe level of cybersick-                   per body. During a restrained condition, participants were in-
ness. Moreover, three participants were excluded owing to the                       structed to pose with their head fixed using a chin rest. In an
malfunction of the eye-tracking recording.                                          unrestrained condition, they were able to make a head or torso
                                                                                    movement during the VR interaction.
3.2. Material                                                                           Before performing the experiment, participants completed
                                                                                    an eye-tracking calibration. Once a participant wore the
The specification of the PC used in the experiment was                              FOVE, the device provided the standardized calibration ses-
as follows: Intel Core i7-4790K CPU clocked @ 4.00 GHz                              sion ensuring the data accuracy. After the calibration, partici-
and GeForce GTX1080 Ti AORUS Xtreme D5X 11GB. We                                    pants experienced four experimental conditions in a row: up-
adopted a VR roller coaster from “Animated Steel Coaster”                           right/unrestrained, upright/restrained, inverted/unrestrained,
(                      and inverted/restrained. To avoid the order effect, we randomly
Using the Unity engine [version 2018.1.8f1 (64-bit)], we cus-                       assigned the sequences of the experiments and counterbal-
tomized the content to suit the user experiment. The VR scene                       anced them (Fig. 4).
included a roller coaster track and a series of carts moving                            Participants were required to report their SSQ scores before
on the rail. The total duration of the VR experience was about                      and after each VR experience (pre- and post-SSQ, respectively).
3 min 27 s per ride.                                                                Between each experience, there was a 10-min break to prevent
    A VR camera was located at the front of the first cart, giving                  a carryover effect. For the data analysis, relative scores between
the participant a roller coaster ride experience at the forefront.                  pre- and post-SSQ were used (i.e. SSQ). Overall, it took an hour
By manipulating the angle of the camera rotation, we provided                       to complete the entire procedure of the experiment.
two different orientations of the VR content: upright (x = 0, y =
−180, z = 0) and inverted (x = 0, y = −180, z = −180) conditions                    3.4. Data analysis
(Fig. 1). The background of the content consisted only of a terrain
and the sky to preserve the participant’s attention to the track.                   3.4.1. Preprocessing and epoching
The field of view (FOV) of the content was 80◦ .                                    Because the HMD device provides an eye position vector in 3D
    We used an FOVE eye-tracking VR headset (FOVE, Inc.) for eye                    space, it was required to project the vector onto the 2D space.
tracking while displaying the VR content. The sampling rate of                      We transformed the value of a given position vector (xp , yp , zp )
the tracking was 70 frames per second, and the resolution was                       to the point on the NDC plane (xndc , yndc , zndc ) using the follow-
2560 × 1440 pixels. The device provided a unit vector for each                      ing equations (Ahn, 2021; Scratchapixel 2.0, 2021). Note that the
eye position in 3D space (Lohr et al., 2018). The value of (0, 0,                   focal length d = 1/tan (FOV/2):
1) represents the participant’s eye looking straight forward, and
each reference value of the vector is described in Fig. 2. Using the                                                        d · xp
                                                                                                                   xndc =
eye position vector of each frame, we converted the value into                                                                zp
Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality
732       Predicting cybersickness based on user’s gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality

Figure 3: (a) An illustration of virtual moving points that were used for analysing gaze behaviors. (b) As the sequence (t) increases, the point moves farther away from
the current cart position (i.e. Sequence 0). Note that these points are virtual objects for data analysis, which means they did not appear while participants experienced
the roller coaster.

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                                        d · yp
                               yndc =          .

    After the conversion, the x- and y-axis locations of the point
were preprocessed. Following the previous studies, we applied
a weighted average filter with a time window of 300 ms (Kumar
et al., 2008; Feit et al., 2017). After the filter, we performed a lin-
ear interpolation for the eye-blink data points (Wass et al., 2013;
Hershman et al., 2018).                                                                Figure 4: An illustration of the experimental procedure.
    For analysing the gaze behaviors, we selected a specific
course of the track considering both participant’s visual atten-                       ing VR interaction. Using the preprocessed eye-gaze point on the
tion and level of discomfort. First, we chose the part of the scene                    NDC space, we calculated how far the gaze point deviated from
where the upcoming track was mainly observed to the partic-                            the center position at each frame (Fig. 6a) and then averaged it
ipant, ensuring that other distracting visual objects were not                         (Fig. 6b) using the following equation:
contained in the visual field. Therefore, we can assume that                                                            n
the participant focused on the track rather than any other vi-                                                                deviationi
                                                                                                      Mean deviation = i=1               .
sual stimuli. In addition, we selected the course including vari-                                                               n
ous rotational movements (e.g. pitch, yaw, and roll movement)                              As the value of the deviation increased, we assumed that the
where the previous results consistently showed higher cyber-                           participant gazed away from the eccentric point during given
sickness compared to the translational movement (Chen et al.,                          n frames. We investigated whether the experimental condition
2011; Keshavarz & Hecht, 2011; Lubeck et al., 2015). By select-                        could affect a participant’s eye movement in variation.
ing the cybersickness-evoking course, we investigated whether                              Distance between the eye gaze and the moving point: We inves-
the participant showed distinctive gaze behaviors during sev-                          tigated the pattern of the gaze trajectories while riding a roller
erer discomfort. Taken together, we selected the latter part of                        coaster. According to the SVM model, an individual’s internal
the VR ride, which took about 12 s in total. Also, the same                            model can drive eye movements to make a better estimate of
data course was chosen for the analysis in each experimental                           the expected sensory information. To demonstrate this claim,
condition.                                                                             we calculated the distance between the participant’s gaze and a
                                                                                       given point on the track and investigated whether participants
3.4.2. Eye-related indices                                                             accurately gazed where they expected to be located can asso-
Fixation duration: We calculated the participant’s fixation dura-                      ciate with the level of cybersickness. We assumed that, if the dis-
tion for each experimental condition. Following the study of                           tance became smaller, the participant tended to correctly follow
Wibirama et al. (2020), we defined the participant’s eye move-                         one’s eye on the track. As the distance increased, on the other
ment as “fixation” when (s)he stared at a specific area (
Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality
Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 2021, 8(2), 728–739                   733

                                                                                    either nonparametric (i.e. Friedman test) or parametric [i.e. re-
                                                                                    peated measures analysis of variance (rmANOVA)] statistics to
                                                                                    elucidate the effect of each experimental condition (e.g. orien-
                                                                                    tation, controllability, AOI, and sequence). If the assumption of
                                                                                    sphericity was violated in rmANOVA, we applied Greenhouse–
                                                                                    Geisser corrections. After the comparisons, we performed a
                                                                                    fixed-effect multiple regression analysis to elucidate which pre-
                                                                                    dictors can determine the subjective level of cybersickness. On
                                                                                    the basis of the previous study (Nooij et al., 2017), we considered
                                                                                    both categorical (i.e. orientation and controllability) and contin-
                                                                                    uous (i.e. fixation duration, mean deviation, and mean distance)
                                                                                    variables as predictors. Moreover, we added three interaction
                                                                                    terms between the experimental conditions and the eye-related
Figure 5: Nine AOIs of the VR screen for analysing fixation durations.
                                                                                    indices (i.e. orientation × fixation duration, controllability × fix-
                                                                                    ation duration, and orientation × mean distance) to consider the
                                                                                    group differences in eye-related measures based on the results

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                                                                                    of rmANOVA. To minimize the level of multicollinearity (i.e. vari-
                                                                                    ance inflation factors < 10), we centered the interaction terms
                                                                                    around the mean value. In total, we used eight variables to pre-
                                                                                    dict the level of the total SSQ score for all experimental condi-
                                                                                    tions, and all variables were entered in a single step. If the in-
                                                                                    teraction term significantly predicted the level of cybersickness,
                                                                                    simple linear regressions were conducted for the post hoc anal-
Figure 6: A visualization of the (a) deviation from the center point on the NDC
                                                                                    ysis. We considered a specific observation as an outlier if the
space and (b) calculating mean deviation.                                           absolute value of the standardized difference in fit value was
                                                                                    above 3 or if the absolute value of the Cook’s distance was above
                                                                                    1. These criteria excluded 2 of the 80 observations. All statisti-
                                                                                    cal analyses were performed using SPSS (version 21.0; SPSS, Inc.,
                                                                                    Chicago, IL, USA), with a significance level of p < 0.05.

                                                                                    4. Result
                                                                                    For the SSQ scores, data from 23 participants were used because
                                                                                    three participants withdrew from the experiments. For the eye-
                                                                                    tracking analysis, a total of 20 participants were used owing to
Figure 7: A visualization of the (a) distance between the eye gaze and the moving   malfunction in the data recording of three participants.
point at the second sequence (i.e. the upcoming path after t = 0.75 s) and (b)
calculating mean distance.
                                                                                    4.1. SSQ

the eye gaze and the object position on the NDC space (i.e. a                       We performed a Friedman test since the results of the Shapiro–
point on the track) at each frame (Fig. 7a) and averaged it (Fig. 7b)               Wilk test showed violations of the normal distribution in SSQ
using the following equation:                                                       scores. Before we demonstrated the effects of orientation and
                                 n                                                 controllability on cybersickness, we checked the carryover effect
                                        distancei                                   in each SSQ score. Although the participants had a 10-min break
               Mean distance = i=1                .
                                         n                                          between each session, we investigated whether they reported
    This approach was attributed to the VR content of this study.                   higher SSQ scores as they repeatedly experienced the VR regard-
While the previous study used stationary objects such as a fix-                     less of the experimental condition. The results of the Friedman
ation cross (Diels et al., 2007), our content did not include any                   test showed that there were no differences in the level of cyber-
fixed visual stimuli. This is intended for participants to watch                    sickness according to the repetition; that is, the participants did
any desired location on the rail to record natural gaze behavior                    not show more severe sickness in the fourth trial than the first
in experiencing VR riding.                                                          (SSQ total: χ 2 (3) = 0.031, p = 0.999, SSQ-N: χ 2 (3) = 1.675, p = 0.643,
    Thus, we first calculated the shortest distance between the                     SSQ-O: χ 2 (3) = 0.353, p = 0.950, SSQ-D: χ 2 (3) = 0.696, p = 0.874).
eye and the five candidate sequences. We regarded the se-                               However, the Friedman test showed that there was a signifi-
quence indicating the minimum distance as the position of the                       cant difference in SSQ-N score depending on the type of experi-
track where the participant mainly gazed while experiencing VR.                     mental condition (χ 2 (3) = 9.258, p = 0.026). While participants
Then, we examined whether the distance between the eye and                          showed the lowest level of nausea symptoms when they had
the selected sequence can be changed due to the experimental                        controllability in the inverted VR condition, the level of SSQ-N
conditions. Also, we investigated whether this gaze behavior can                    was highest when watching the upright scene with fixed body
serve as a predictor for the regression model.                                      posture.
                                                                                        Post hoc analysis with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed dif-
3.4.3. Statistical analysis                                                         ferent levels of SSQ-N according to the orientation and control-
We performed a Shapiro–Wilk test to ensure the normality                            lability condition. Participants tended to report a lower level of
of distributions in dependent variables (e.g. SSQ or three eye-                     nausea when watching the inverted VR than that when watch-
related indices). Depending on the test results, we conducted                       ing the upright VR (Z = −1.952, p = 0.051). Moreover, they
Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality
734       Predicting cybersickness based on user’s gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality

Table 2: SSQ scores for all experimental conditions (mean ± SD).


                                  SSQ total                                SSQ-N                                   SSQ-O                                  SSQ-D

Upright                        18.70 (±21.93)                          14.72 (±20.49)                         10.38 (±15.59)                          29.05 (±33.22)
Inverted                        9.43 (±15.66)                          7.05 (±16.58)                          3.63 (±11.40)                           18.16 (±28.29)


                                  SSQ total                                SSQ-N                                   SSQ-O                                  SSQ-D

Upright                        21.63 (±21.28)                          22.61 (±23.02)                          9.39 (±13.99)                          30.26 (±35.53)
Inverted                       15.45 (±15.96)                          12.44 (±12.68)                          9.23 (±14.63)                          22.39 (±26.46)

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Figure 8: Fixation durations of each AOI according to each experimental condition. The results indicate significant main effects of orientation and controllability (∗p <
.05). Error bars represent SEM.

reported less SSQ-N when they were free to move (i.e. high                              Table 3: Mean deviations from the center point for all experimental
controllability) (Z = −2.346, p = 0.019). However, other scores (i.e.                   conditions (mean ± SD).
SSQ total, SSQ-O, and SSQ-D) did not show statistical differences
                                                                                                                    Unrestrained                        Restrained
between experimental conditions. The mean (±SD) SSQ scores
are shown in Table 2.                                                                   Upright                    0.249 (±0.116)                     0.243 (±0.091)
                                                                                        Inverted                   0.221 (±0.070)                     0.254 (±0.062)

4.2. Eye-related indices
4.2.1. Fixation duration                                                                hoc analysis with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed that par-
The distribution of fixation duration violated the assumption of                        ticipants significantly spent more time fixating their eyes in the
normality; we performed a Friedman test to determine a specific                         inverted scene compared to the upright one (Z = −2.837, p =
area where the participants mostly fixated their eyes. In accor-                        0.005). Besides, they showed significantly longer fixation du-
dance with the previous study of Wibirama et al. (2020), partic-                        ration when their body was restricted (Z = −3.248, p = 0.001)
ipants mostly fixated at the center part of the VR screen com-                          (Fig. 8).
pared to other areas (χ 2 (8) = 136.907, p = 0.000).
     Follow-up comparisons of fixation duration at AOI 5 showed                         4.2.2. Deviation from the center point
significant differences between the experimental conditions                             A 2 × 2 rmANOVA with orientation and controllability as fac-
(χ 2 (3) = 16.440, p = 0.001). The rank of fixation duration in                         tors was performed on the eye-gaze deviation from the center
each condition was restrained-inverted, unrestrained-inverted,                          position. The results showed no significant differences between
restrained-upright, and unrestrained-upright, respectively. Post                        experimental conditions (Table 3).
Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality
Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 2021, 8(2), 728–739                              735

Table 4: Mean distances between the eye gaze and the moving point on each sequence (mean ± SD).

                           Sequence 1                        Sequence 2                  Sequence 3                       Sequence 4                          Sequence 5

Upright                   0.259 (±0.094)                    0.212 (±0.058)              0.253 (±0.067)                  0.323 (±0.072)                       0.408 (±0.076)
Inverted                  0.512 (±0.112)                    0.429 (±0.085)              0.430 (±0.058)                  0.471 (±0.036)                       0.536 (±0.027)

                                                                                        Table 6: Summary of a simple linear regression for predicting total
                                                                                        SSQ score in the upright condition.

                                                                                        Predictor                             β†             t           p        Partial R2

                                                                                        Mean distance (seq. 2)              0.544          3.941    0.000           0.296

                                                                                        Note. R = 0.296, adj. R = 0.277, F(1, 37) = 15.530, p = 0.000.
                                                                                              2                2

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                                                                                        η2 = 0.830]. Whereas the participants gazed close to the track in
                                                                                        the upright VR condition, the eye movement trajectories devi-
                                                                                        ated away from the track when they experienced the inverted
                                                                                        roller coaster (Fig. 9). However, there were no significant differ-
Figure 9: Mean distance between the eye gaze and the moving point of sequence
                                                                                        ences in the distance according to either the controllability con-
2. The result indicates a significant main effect of VR orientation (∗p < .05). Error
                                                                                        dition [F(1, 19) = 0.347, p = 0.563, η2 = 0.018] or the interaction
bars represent SEM.
                                                                                        between the controllability and orientation [F(1, 19) = 0.001, p =
                                                                                        0.973, η2 = 0.000].
4.2.3. Distance between the eye and the moving point
We performed a 2 (orientation) × 2 (controllability) × 5 (se-
                                                                                        4.3. Regression model
quence) rmANOVA to determine which sequence indicated the
shortest distance between the eye gaze and the object posi-                             On the basis of previous studies and of the results of rmANOVA,
tion. We assumed that, as the distance decreased, the partici-                          we added eight regression parameters to predict the level of the
pants gazed closer to the object position (i.e. track) of a specific                    total SSQ score for all the experimental conditions (Table 5). Note
sequence. The results showed that there was a significant se-                           that we used the distance between the eye gaze and the object
quence effect on the distance [F(1.18, 22.45) = 91.260, p = 0.000, η2                   position in the second sequence (i.e. upcoming path after 0.75 s)
= 0.828], which indicated that the participants’ eyes followed the                      because the result of rmANOVA indicated the shortest mean dis-
track nearest to the upcoming path after 0.75 s (Table 4). We also                      tance at the second sequence. The overall model fit was signif-
found a significant main effect of orientation [F(1, 19) = 130.590,                     icant and accounted for 34.8% of the variance in the total SSQ
p = 0.000, η2 = 0.873], indicating the participants’ gaze relatively                    score. Fixation duration significantly predicted the level of dis-
deviated from the track when they watched the inverted roller                           comfort (β† = −0.477, p = 0.009, partial R2 = 0.094), indicating
coaster compared with that when they watched the upright one.                           that a shorter fixation duration led to a greater level of cybersick-
However, the main effect of controllability was not significant.                        ness regardless of experimental conditions. Moreover, the inter-
For the interaction effects, orientation × sequence [F(1.03, 19.47)                     action of orientation and distance between the eye gaze and the
= 6.801, p = 0.017, η2 = 0.264] and orientation × controllability                       object position significantly predicted the total SSQ (β† = 0.563,
× sequence [F(1.07, 20.35) = 5.642, p = 0.026, η2 = 0.229] showed                       p = 0.000, partial R2 = 0.252).
significant differences; that is, the difference in mean distance                           According to the significance in prediction using the inter-
between orientations was the largest at sequence 1 and became                           action term of orientation type and eye-gaze behavior, simple
smaller as the sequence increased.                                                      linear regressions on the total SSQ scores were performed for
    Follow-up comparisons showed that the distance between                              the post hoc analysis. For each upright and inverted condition,
the eye gaze and the spot on the second sequence (i.e. the up-                          the distance between the eye gaze and the object position was
coming path after 0.75 s) significantly decreased when the par-                         added as a predictor variable. The distance significantly pre-
ticipants experienced the upright VR compared with that when                            dicted the total SSQ score in the upright condition (β† = 0.544,
they experienced the inverted one [F(1, 19) = 92.682, p = 0.000,                        p = 0.000, partial R2 = 0.296) (Table 6). When the participants

Table 5: Summary of a fixed-effect multiple regression analysis for variables predicting total SSQ score.

Predictor                                                            β†                             t                               p                             Partial R2

Orientation                                                       − 0.477                         − 1.733                          0.088                            0.042
Controllability                                                   − 0.098                         − 0.588                          0.558                            0.005
Fixation duration                                                 − 0.379                         − 2.681                          0.009                            0.094
Ori. × fixation dur.                                                0.233                           1.372                          0.175                            0.027
Con. × fixation dur.                                              − 0.039                         − 0.229                          0.820                            0.001
Mean deviation                                                    − 0.228                         − 1.938                          0.057                            0.052
Mean distance (seq. 2)                                            − 0.404                         − 1.777                          0.080                            0.044
Ori. × mean distance (seq. 2)                                       0.563                           4.820                          0.000                            0.252

Note. R2 = 0.348, adj. R2 = 0.273, F(8, 69) = 4.613, p = 0.000.
Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality
736        Predicting cybersickness based on user’s gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality

                                                                                    tent of this study and that of Risi and Palmisano (2019). While
                                                                                    the roller coaster VR contained various rotational movements
                                                                                    such as pitch, roll, and yaw, the content of Risi and Palmisano
                                                                                    (2019) allowed only yaw rotation. Thus, the degree of sensory
                                                                                    mismatch due to the restricted body might not be greater in their
                                                                                    research compared to this study (i.e. floor effect). Taken together,
                                                                                    it is recommended to consider various features of VR content to
                                                                                    demonstrate the controllability effect on cybersickness.
                                                                                         We further investigated the eye movements in each exper-
                                                                                    imental condition to demonstrate the physical responses cor-
                                                                                    responding to the subjective responses. The eye movements of
                                                                                    the participant indicated distinctive results depending on each
                                                                                    experimental condition. In line with the previous study (Wibi-
                                                                                    rama et al., 2020), the participants fixated their eyes mostly at
                                                                                    the center of the content for 6.32 s on average. Moreover, they
                                                                                    spent significantly more time in fixation when they watched the

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                                                                                    inverted scene or they could not move. It is well known that
                                                                                    the longer the average fixation duration, the greater the level of
                                                                                    attention deployment (Calen Walshe & Nuthmann, 2014; Nuth-
Figure 10: A scatterplot of mean distance at sequence 2 (t = 0.75 s) and total
                                                                                    mann, 2017; Cronin et al., 2019). Therefore, these results suggest
SSQ scores. The plot indicates the opposite direction in predicting cybersickness   that the participants tended to pay more visual attention toward
according to the (a) upright and (b) inverted conditions. Shaded areas are 95%      the center when they experienced unfamiliar orientation with
confidence intervals.                                                               low controllability. According to the study by Luke and Hender-
                                                                                    son (2016), participants showed greater fixation durations when
Table 7: Summary of a simple linear regression for predicting total
                                                                                    they viewed an uninterpretable meaningless scene (i.e. pseudo-
SSQ score in the inverted condition.
                                                                                    stimuli). Following this result, participants might regard the in-
Predictor                              β†            t            p   Partial R2    verted scene as incomprehensible and try to encode more visual
                                                                                    stimuli during fixations to cope with unfamiliar surroundings.
Mean distance (seq. 2)               −0.331      −2.137       0.039     0.110       Moreover, when participants lose controllability of their body,
                                                                                    the internal model cannot receive the proper input for its up-
Note. R2 = 0.110, adj. R2 = 0.086, F(1, 37) = 4.565, p = 0.039.                     date. Thus, the greater fixation duration in the restrained con-
                                                                                    dition suggests the compensation of physical responses for the
experienced the upright roller coaster, the closer the eye gaze                     limited inputs of the update.
toward the upcoming track was, the lower their total SSQ score                           For the deviation from the center point, participants did not
became (Fig. 10a). However, in the inverted VR condition, the                       show a significant difference depending on the experimental
level of cybersickness decreased as eye movement trajectories                       conditions. According to Diels et al. (2007), participants who
deviated away from the track (β† = −0.331, p = 0.039, partial R2                    were susceptible to motion sickness showed greater eye drift
= 0.110) (Table 7 and Fig. 10b).                                                    from the center, and this result was associated with the level
                                                                                    of sickness. However, this study failed to reveal a correlation
                                                                                    between SSQ scores and gaze deviation. This might have orig-
5. Discussion
                                                                                    inated from the difference in the visual stimuli implemented in
The results of the SSQ scores indicate that the severity of cy-                     each study. Whereas Diels et al. (2007) used moving dots that
bersickness can be changed according to the orientation of the                      simulated anterior–posterior oscillation, we adopted relatively
VR scene or the controllability of the user’s body. Participants                    highly immersive VR including complex rotations and content
tended to report a lower level of discomfort while they watched                     scenario (i.e. roller coaster riding). Thus, participants showed
the inverted VR scene. Moreover, those in the unrestrained con-                     greater visual attention toward the center and had little room
dition (i.e. high controllability) experienced less cybersickness,                  for focusing on the peripheral region. Further studies that im-
especially in nausea-related symptoms, than that experienced                        plement slower moving content are required to clarify whether
by those in a fixed-position condition (i.e. low controllability).                  the deviation from the center can be a promising index for
These results replicate those of previous studies (Bubka et al.,                    cybersickness.
2007; Bonato et al., 2008; Golding et al., 2012) and confirm the ex-                     Assuming that participants could anticipate the upcoming
isting evidence for the SVM theory, which stresses the role of                      path, we examined where the participant usually gazed during
the internal model and its update in understanding the cause                        the ride and whether such eye movements can be used to predict
of cybersickness. In other words, when people are exposed to                        the level of cybersickness. The result indicated that the partic-
unfamiliar VR content that they have rarely experienced, the in-                    ipants’ gaze was found to be closest to a point on the track of
ternal model would not expect any corresponding sensory in-                         the second sequence (i.e. the upcoming path after 0.75 s). This
formation owing to the lack of prior knowledge, resulting in                        might be related to the characteristic of gaze behavior that peo-
less cybersickness. Likewise, the participants’ voluntary move-                     ple usually stare at the center of the screen (Carnegie & Rhee,
ment might drive the update in the internal model, contribut-                       2015; Wibirama et al., 2020). Since the trajectory of the sequence
ing to the reduction in the conflict between the perceived and                      2 (t = 0.75 s) substantially covered the center part of the screen,
the expected sensory information. Meanwhile, a recent study                         the participant might naturally follow the moving point of the
by Risi and Palmisano (2019) showed no differences in cybersick-                    track in this sequence. Follow-up comparisons showed that par-
ness between unrestrained and restrained body conditions. This                      ticipants viewed a wider part of the scene as well as the track
might have originated from the difference between the VR con-                       when they watched the inverted VR compared to the upright
Predicting cybersickness based on user's gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality
Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 2021, 8(2), 728–739             737

one. We suggest that this distinguished gaze behavior might be          were induced to focus their visual attention on the restricted
associated with the individual’s internal model. When watching          space of the VR environment (i.e. the track). However, common
an unfamiliar orientation, participants hardly have an internal         types of VR content are more complex and consist of various
model of the scene, so they tend to focus on encoding broader           visual objects. These types of VR can cause more dynamic eye
visual information of a new environment along with following            movement depending on the content scenario or individual dif-
the path. On the other hand, in a familiar environment, partici-        ferences in visual attention. For this reason, the predictor vari-
pants already built neural expectancy for coherently perceiving         ables in our regression model may be useful for a similar type of
the world, and the model might drive to minimize prediction er-         VR, such as racing or navigation. In future studies, various types
rors by gazing at the upcoming path where the participants will         of VR content are needed to choose the promising indices for
arrive soon. Further studies using various types of scene orien-        improving the prediction model.
tation (e.g. forward-moving vs. backward-moving) are needed to              In addition, this study was unable to sufficiently evaluate the
support the idea that distinctive eye movements in VR orienta-          motion features of the VR content. Previous studies have shown
tion are related to the internal model.                                 that motion-related elements, such as speed or acceleration, can
    Development of a regression model for cybersickness was at-         affect the level of cybersickness (Kim et al., 2019a, b). Thus, fur-
tempted in previous studies (Kim et al., 2005; Dennison et al.,         ther studies are required to investigate whether the current re-
2016; Nooij et al., 2017; Weech et al., 2018; Wibirama et al., 2020).   gression model can also successfully predict discomfort in vary-

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In accordance with the study by Wibirama et al. (2020), we com-         ing degrees of motion situations. It is to be noted that we per-
bined various eye-related measures as predictors and found that         formed a multiple regression analysis for the prediction pur-
fixation duration can effectively predict the level of user dis-        pose. Therefore, it is not possible to interpret the relationship
comfort. The more participants fixated on the VR scene, the             between oculomotor responses and cybersickness in a causal
less cybersickness they likely experienced. This result can pro-        manner. More empirical data should be acquired to reveal the
vide a plausible explanation for the previous approaches for re-        causal relationship between psychophysiological responses and
ducing cybersickness. For example, it has been consistently ob-         cybersickness.
served that the level of discomfort decreases when users expe-              Owing to the low sampling rate of the eye-tracking device,
rience a narrower visual field in VR by reducing the FOV of the         limited approaches were adopted to investigate the distinctive
content (Fernandes & Feiner, 2016) or by implementing the dy-           eye movements. Other well-established indices, such as sac-
namic depth of field (Carnegie & Rhee, 2015). These manipula-           cades and smooth eye pursuit, can be considered to clarify the
tions might cause the user to pay visual attention only to a lim-       relationship between eye movements and cybersickness. Lastly,
ited area, to induce a longer fixation duration, and thereby result     recent techniques using a machine learning algorithm (Padman-
in decreasing cybersickness.                                            aban et al., 2018; Kim et al., 2019a, b) or nonlinear regression anal-
    Besides fixation durations, we focused on natural gaze be-          ysis can improve the current prediction model.
haviors during immersive VR interaction. Considering the length
of the entire VR experience, participants spent most of the time
exploring the virtual world rather than fixating in a specific lo-
                                                                        6. Conclusion
cation. Thus, we assumed that including natural gaze behaviors
as predictors would result in better performance in predicting          Recent research on cybersickness has shown a growing interest
cybersickness. The results indicated that our model could ex-           in enjoying VR more safely. In this study, we investigated novel
plain 34.8% of the total variance of cybersickness, which showed        features of eye movements in VR while wearing an HMD with
a substantial improvement in the coefficient of determination           eye tracking. Using this device, we acquired natural gaze be-
compared with that of a previous study (Wibirama et al., 2020).         haviors during the VR experience and examined whether these
Interestingly, the result of multiple regression indicated that the     physical responses can be interpreted in terms of the individ-
interaction term (orientation × mean distance) significantly ex-        ual’s internal model. Moreover, we developed a regression model
plained the 25% of the variance in SSQ total. This result implies       for cybersickness that only considers physical measures of
that the mean distance between the eye and the object posi-             participants.
tion in the second sequence can predict the total SSQ score but             The experimental results contribute new insights on (1)
should be analysed separately depending on the orientation. As          demonstrating the SVM theory using HMD eye-tracking data, (2)
shown in Table 6 and Fig. 10a, there was a significant posi-            inducing changes in SSQ scores and eye movements by manipu-
tive correlation (β† = 0.544) between the mean distance and cy-         lating the internal model, and (3) developing a regression model
bersickness in the upright condition; that is, participants who         for cybersickness using eye-related measures as predictors. The
showed closer eye movement toward the upcoming track (i.e.              results indicated that the level of discomfort can change de-
shorter mean distance) could experience a lower level of dis-           pending on the condition of the individual’s internal model, sug-
comfort if they watched the upright VR scene. However, a sig-           gesting that accumulated previous experiences in the real world
nificant negative correlation (β† = −0.331) was observed in the         and accessibility of update inputs can influence the severity
inverted condition (Table 7 and Fig. 10b). Thus, participants who       of cybersickness. Furthermore, fixation duration and dynamic
gazed further away from the track tended to report a lower level        gaze behaviors can be affected by the internal model and its
of cybersickness. This result suggests that natural eye-gaze be-        update.
havior might be a promising index for predicting cybersickness,             On the basis of these results, we developed a regression
but the index should be interpreted carefully depending on the          model that only considers the eye-related measures as predic-
orientation of the VR scene.                                            tors. It is noted that these parameters were acquired without
    This study has several limitations. The VR content of this          disturbing the user’s immersive VR experience. Unlike the previ-
study was a roller coaster, which minimized visual elements             ous variables for predicting cybersickness (Kim et al., 2005; Nooij
other than the track for experimental purposes. Tracks are ro-          et al., 2017; Weech et al., 2018), eye movements can be recorded
bust and explicit indicators that guide participants on what they       using an HMD-based eye tracker, which does not require addi-
will soon experience. Therefore, participants in this experiment        tional devices for data recording. This advantage can facilitate to
738      Predicting cybersickness based on user’s gaze behaviors in HMD-based virtual reality

develop a prediction model that is highly applicable to practical         Diels, C., & Bos, J. E. (2016). Self-driving carsickness, Applied Er-
VR context. Besides, by considering natural eye-gaze behaviors,                gonomics, 53, 374–382.
our model showed a clear improvement in predicting cybersick-                  09.009.
ness compared to the previous study (Wibirama et al., 2020: 4.2%,         Diels, C., Ukai, K., & Howarth, P. A. (2007). Visually induced
our model: 34.8%). Taken together, this study provides empirical               motion sickness with radial displays: Effects of gaze angle
data for the SVM theory and suggests that eye movements can                    and fixation. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 78(7),
serve as a promising index for predicting cybersickness.                       659–665.
                                                                          Feit, A. M., Williams, S., Toledo, A., Paradiso, A., Kulkarni, H.,
                                                                               Kane, S., & Morris, M. R. (2017). Toward everyday gaze input:
Acknowledgements                                                               Accuracy and precision of eye tracking and implications for
This work was supported by the Industrial Technology Innova-                   design. In 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing
tion Program (20012462) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Indus-                Systems(pp. 1118–1130). ACM.
try & Energy (MOTIE, Korea), the Korea Institute of Science and                3.3025599.
Technology (KIST) under the Institutional Program (Grant No.              Fernandes, A. S., & Feiner, S. K. (2016). Combating vr sickness
2E31051), and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-                  through subtle dynamic field-of-view modification. In 2016
                                                                               IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI)(pp. 201–210). IEEE.

                                                                                                                                                   Downloaded from by guest on 23 May 2021
                                                                          Fukuda, T., Yokoi, K., Yabuki, N., & Motamedi, A. (2019). An in-
Conflict of interest statement                                                 door thermal environment design system for renovation us-
None declared.                                                                 ing augmented reality. Journal of Computational Design and En-
                                                                               gineering, 6(2), 179–188.
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