SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority

SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority
35th Edition | ISSN 1793-1665 | Mar 2018

                                           FEATURED ARTICLES
                                           02   Highlights of Annual Safety Award Convention
                                                (ASAC) 2017

                                           08   STEC - Safety Is My Responsibility

                                           10   Quieter Noise Machinery and Study on
                                                Boring Process to Reduce Noise Emission

                                           12	Human Factors in Road Safety

                                           14	Safety Systems For Sentosa Gateway Tunnel
SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority
Highlights of Annual Safety Award Convention
    2                  (ASAC) 2017

The Annual Safety Award Convention (ASAC) is an event
hosted by the Land Transport Authority to recognise
its contractors who have shown strong commitment in
implementing excellent workplace safety, health and
environmental management practices in their worksites.
Last year’s ASAC was its 19th edition and it was held at the
Singapore Polytechnic Convention Centre with Mr. Chan
Heng Loon Alan, Chairman of LTA as its Guest-of-Honour.
Close to 1000 participants which include LTA staff, QP teams,
contractors, sub-contractors and professionals from the
construction industry attended the event.
                                                                    Figure 1: Guest-of-Honour Mr. Chan Heng Loon Alan, Chairman of
                                                                         Land Transport Authority, delivering the opening address


The theme for last year’s ASAC was: “Safety Is My                  In his opening speech, Mr Chan highlighted the need to adopt
Responsibility”. The theme aims to reiterate the importance        best practices to prevent accidents from occurring in the first
of safety ownership, where every individual has a role to play     instance. He also added that safety does not just lie with
in keeping the workplace safe. Contractors are encouraged          LTA or with the contractor’s WSH personnel, it is a collective
to take ownership of safety and health by adopting a positive      responsibility. The success of each project is not just about
attitude towards safety as well as taking the implementation of    its timely completion, but more importantly, it’s also about
new safety initiatives seriously.                                  completing it safely.


Last year’s ASAC competition saw a total of 48 contracts           Shield. These finalists then went through a round of audit
competing for the coveted ASAC Challenge Shield.                   by an independent Panel of Judges, and had to prepare a
These contractors were assessed based on their monthly             presentation to be showcased on the actual day of the event.
Environmental, Safety and Security (ESS) scores, safety
performance statistics and a round of internal audit conducted     The past winners of the Challenge Shield include Contract 925
by LTA’s project management teams.                                 GS Engineering & Construction Corp (2015), Contract 925A
                                                                   KTC Civil Engineering & Construction Pte Ltd (2015) and
Three finalists were subsequently short-listed from the group      Contract T213 Samsung C&T Corporation (2016).
to compete against each other for the Contractors Challenge


                                                                   The Panel of Judges comprises of senior representatives
                                                                   from the Ministry of Manpower (MOM), Institute of Engineers
                                                                   Singapore (IES), National University of Singapore (NUS) and
                                                                   Singapore Contractors Association Ltd (SCAL).

                                                                   The Panel of Judges were very impressed with the contractors’
                                                                   excellent Workplace Safety and Health management
                                                                   approaches as well as the well-maintained site conditions
                                                                   at their respective worksites observed during the audits in
    Figure 2: Panel of Judges (from the left): Mr. Lee Kay Chai,   July 2017.
 Professor Michael Chew, Dr. Goh Yang Miang, Er Liew Wan Sein
                   on behalf of Er Mohd Ismadi
SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority
Highlights of Annual Safety Award Convention
                                      (ASAC) 2017

Last year’s finalists comprised of teams from TELC2 Contract
T213 Samsung C&T Corporation, TELC3 Contract T219 Penta
Ocean Construction Co Ltd - Bachy Soletanche Singapore Pte
Ltd Joint Venture and TELC4 Contract T225 Shanghai Tunnel
Engineering Co (Singapore) Pte Ltd.

Each finalist was given 15 minutes to showcase their good
practices based on the theme of the Convention with a
presentation and a theme-related skit. At the end of the
finalists’ presentations, the audience also had the opportunity           Figure 3: Skit presentation by TELC4 Contract T225
to vote for their preferred presentation through Short Message            Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co (Singapore) Pte Ltd
Service (SMS).
                                                                   Contract T225 Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co (Singapore)
The skits put up by the 3 finalists were enjoyed by the audience   Pte Ltd who won the audience over with their joyful and
and the winner of the Best Theme Presentation Award went to        engaging performance.


      Figure 4: ASAC 2017 Champion TELC4 Contract T225                Figure 5: LTA senior management and ASAC finalists singing a
     Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co (Singapore) Pte Ltd with       safety song to reemphasize the importance of commitment on safety
           Mr. Chan Heng Loon Alan, Chairman of LTA

TELC4 Contract T225 Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co (Singapore) Pte Ltd was crowned as the champion for ASAC 2017 and
the company walked away with the Contractor’s Champion Trophy and the Challenge Shield. In deciding on the champion, Dr Goh
Yang Miang remarked “It was a very difficult task to decide on one clear winner, in our opinion all of them are winners”.


The following awards were presented during the Convention:         • Construction Environmental Merit Award to 4 contractors
                                                                     from the Mega category and 1 from Major category who
• Certificate of Excellence to 3 finalists from the Mega             have shown consistently good environmental management
  category.                                                          at their worksites.
• Certificate of Merit to 4 contractors from the Mega category,    • Innovative Noise Management Merit Award to 1 contractor
  1 from Major category, 1 from Minor category and 2 from            who had shown good efforts in developing innovative noise
  E&M category for consistent good WSH performance over              management methods at their worksite.
  the assessment period.                                           • Accident-Free Million Man-hours Recognition Award
• Project Safety Commendation Award to the LTA Project               to 10 main contractors with a considerable accident-free
  Safety Committee with the best effort and WSH performance          man-hour milestone without reportable accidents or major
  in ensuring and promoting excellent WSH standards at its           incidents.
  worksites.                                                       • QPS Safety Award to 1 QPS team with proactive contribution
• Best ASAC Theme Presentation to the finalist of the Mega           towards addressing Workplace Safety and Health (WSH)
  category for delivering the best theme presentation as voted       issues.
  by the audience.                                                 • Sub-contractors’ Safety Recognition Award to 4 sub-
• Construction Environmental Excellence Award to 2                   contractors with significant contribution to good WSH
  contractors from the Mega category and 1 from Minor                performance.
  category who have shown excellent environmental
  management at their worksites.                                                                               Marcello Cacioni
                                                                                                 Deputy Safety & Health Manager
                                                                                                                  Safety Division
SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority
The Winners of ASAC 2017
 Best ASAC Theme
 Presentation Award

    Figure 6: Mega Category (Finalist)       Figure 10: Mega Category (Champion)         Figure 14: Mega Category
         – TELC4 Contract T225                      – TELC4 Contract T225                 – TELC1 Contract T203
    – Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co           – Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co    – GS Engineering & Construction Pte Ltd
           (Singapore) Pte Ltd                        (Singapore) Pte Ltd

 Project Safety                              Certificate of Merit
 Commendation Award

          Figure 7: Project Safety                 Figure 11: Mega Category               Figure 15: Major Category
          Commendation Award                        – TELC1 Contract T206                 – Roads Contract ER478
    – Mr. Henry Foo, Director (TELC3)          – Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co          – Hwa Seng Builder Pte Ltd
                                                      (Singapore) Pte Ltd

 Certificate of Excellence

    Figure 8: Mega Category (Finalist)             Figure 12: Mega Category               Figure 16: Minor Category
         – TELC2 Contract T213                    – Roads Contract ER397A                 – Roads Contract ER495
      – Samsung C & T Corporation                 – Hwa Seng Builder Pte Ltd            – Megastone Holdings Pte Ltd

    Figure 9: Mega Category (Finalist)             Figure 13: Mega Category               Figure 17: E&M Category
         – TELC3 Contract T219                      – TELC1 Contract T207                      – Contract 952
– Penta Ocean Construction Co Ltd - Bachy            – Shimizu Corporation            – Siemens Rail Automation S.A.U.
Soletanche Singapore Pte Ltd Joint Venture                                            and Siemens Pte Ltd Consortium
SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority
The Winners of ASAC 2017
                                         Construction Environmental
                                         Merit Award

Figure 18: E&M Category – Contract 955         Figure 22: Mega Category                 Figure 25: Mega Category
 – Singapore Technologies Electronics           – TELC1 Contract T203                    – TELC3 Contract T216
               Limited                   – GS Engineering & Construction Pte Ltd   – Daewoo Engineering & Construction
                                                                                                 Co. Ltd

Construction Environmental
Excellence Award

      Figure 19: Mega Category                 Figure 23: Mega Category                 Figure 26: Major Category
       – TELC4 Contract T225                    – TELC1 Contract T206                   – Roads Contract ER478
  – Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co         – Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co.           – Hwa Seng Builder Pte Ltd
         (Singapore) Pte Ltd                      (Singapore branch)

                                                                                   Innovative Noise
                                                                                   Management Merit Award

      Figure 20: Mega Category                  Figure 24: Mega Category             Figure 27: TEL C3 Contract T216
       – TELC4 Contract T226                     – TELC2 Contract T210             – Daewoo Engineering & Construction
         – Taisei Corporation                – Gammon Construction Limited                       Co., Ltd
                                                    Singapore branch

     Figure 21: Minor Category
         – Contract RP241
– Wan Sheng Hao Construction Pte Ltd
SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority
The Winners of ASAC 2017
Accident Free Million Man-Hours Award

  Figure 28: Category 1 (For Contracts $120 million and above       Figure 32: Category 3 (For E & M Contracts that achieved
     that achieved above 2 million accident free man-hours)         above 250,000 accident free man-hours) – Contract 973D
 – TELC1 Contract T208 – Leighton John Holland Joint Venture                – Samsung Bintai Kindenko Joint Venture

 Figure 29: Category 1 (For Contracts $120 million and above        Figure 33: Category 3 (For E & M Contracts that achieved
    that achieved above 2 million accident free man-hours)          above 250,000 accident free man-hours) – Contract 975D
 – TELC3 Contract T219 – Penta - Ocean Construction Co Ltd                  – Samsung Bintai Kindenko Joint Venture
      - Bachy Soletanche Singapore Pte Ltd Joint Venture

   Figure 30: Category 2 (For Contracts below $120 million           Figure 34: Category 3 (For E & M Contracts that achieved
    that achieved above 400,000 accident free man-hours)              above 250,000 accident free man-hours) – Contract 952
   – Roads Contract ER432 – Eng Lee Engineering Pte Ltd         – Siemens Rail Automation S.A.U. and Siemens Pte Ltd Consortium

    Figure 31: Category 2 (For Contracts below $120 million         Figure 35: Category 3 (For E & M Contracts that achieved
     that achieved above 400,000 accident free man-hours)            above 250,000 accident free man-hours) – Contract 955
   – Contract C158A – China State Construction Engineering                  – Singapore Technologies Electronics Ltd
                        Corporation Ltd
SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority
The Winners of ASAC 2017

  Figure 36: Category 3 (For E & M Contracts that achieved     Figure 40: Interno Engineering (1996) Pte Ltd
   above 250,000 accident free man-hours) – Contract 960
          – Singapore Technologies Electronics Ltd

  Figure 37: Category 3 (For E & M Contracts that achieved          Figure 41: Sambo E & C Company
  above 250,000 accident free man-hours) – Contract T250
  – CTCI Corporation / CTCI Singapore Pte Ltd Consortium

QPS Safety Award

          Figure 38: TELC4 Contract T225 / T226              Figure 42: Doo Ree Engineering & Trading Pte Ltd
                 – WorleyParsons Pte Ltd

Sub Contractors’ Safety Recognition Award

   Figure 39: KTC Civil Engineering & Construction Pte Ltd
SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority
STEC - Safety Is My Responsibility
                                                                 message that “SAFETY IS MY RESPONSIBILITY”. In STEC,
 INTRODUCTION                                                    everyone is empowered to stop work at any time if any unsafe
                                                                 work activity or condition is observed.
Since 1996, Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co. (Singapore)
Pte Ltd (STEC) has come a long way in the civil engineering
& construction industry in Singapore. STEC Deputy Chairman,
Mr. Jin Ai Ping and Managing Director, Mr. Khor Eng Leong
made their stance clear to the top management, as well as
to all its employees and stakeholders that Workplace Safety,
Health & Environment (WSHE) is an integral part and a top
priority in STEC’s business.

STEC strongly believes that all projects can be completed
on time without any lost time incidents through continuous
improvement in WSHE standards. STEC began the journey
towards WSHE excellence by building cohesive bonds,
positive understanding and trust amongst all its employees
and stakeholders.
                                                                        Figure 3: “Safety Is My Responsibility” Banner Display
STEC is committed to fully support LTA’s “ZERO ACCIDENT
MOVEMENT” and MOM’s “VISION ZERO”. Since embarking
on the WSH journey as a bizSAFE Partner in 2010, STEC             BUILDING COMPETENCY
have been inspired to change the way they work with their
business partners, stakeholders and subcontractors.
                                                                 STEC’s WSHE mission starts with building the competency of
                                                                 its workforce. For STEC, it is mandatory for all site personnel
                                                                 to be properly trained in WSHE prior to commencing any work
                                                                 on site. Workers behaviour on the job is significantly influenced
                                                                 by the way their supervisors think and act about safety, thus
                                                                 supervisors play a significant role in cultivating a robust WSHE
                                                                 culture among the workforce.

                                                                 Mandatory In-house WSHE workshops are conducted for
                                                                 supervisors to equip them with the necessary knowledge to
                                                                 identify and deal with potential WSHE hazards. Competency
                                                                 assessments through pre-work interviews are carried out to
                                                                 measure workers’ WSH performance. On top of that, daily
                                                                 health checks are conducted to ensure workers are fit for their
             Figure 1: Top management commitment
                                                                 assigned jobs.
                  - Shanghai HQ Chairman Visit

Due to its strong WSHE culture and concerted teamwork,            ENHANCING WSHE TRAINING
Project T225 was honoured to be nominated as an ASAC              & PROMOTION
Finalists in 2016 & 2017. Besides being awarded the Best
Theme Presentation for 2 consecutive years, Project T225
was also crowned ASAC Champion in 2017.                          To upkeep good WSHE standards, STEC organises annual
                                                                 WSHE promotional and training programs for all its projects.
                                                                 Its top management also actively participates in WSHE
                                                                 promotional activities, including monthly mass safety talks,
                                                                 safety time-outs and WSHE competitions.

       Figure 2: Sharing of Joy for LTA - ASAC 2017 Awards

STEC continues to improve its WSHE standards by being               Figure 4: Project Director’s Participation in WSHE Road Show
proactive and positive towards the implementation of an
effective WSHE Management System. To nurture STEC’s
WSHE culture, the company has implemented several                As a bizSAFE Partner, STEC takes extra steps to keep their
initiatives to help achieve WSHE excellence.                     workers safe by ensuring its workers are equipped with proper
                                                                 knowledge and skills for every job undertaken. By educating
                                                                 workers about the occupational hazards, workers became
 TAKING OWNERSHIP IN SAFETY                                      more conscious of the risks involved with the works.

                                                                 Project T225 has conducted a spectrum of real-situation
All workplace accidents are preventable if everyone takes        training, targeting at various trades and personnel of different
ownership in safety. Each of us has a responsibility to work     levels. This includes hands-on demonstration which allows
safely, and to make our workplace safer by bringing across the   workers to familiarise with the tools and equipment that they
SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority
STEC - Safety Is My Responsibility
will be using. Workers can better understand the hazards          its management. By getting staff involved in WSHE matters,
involved in their work which is the very first step towards an    the engagement sessions help to build mutual trust and
accident free worksite.                                           confidence across all levels.

                                                                  At Project T225, all personnel are encouraged to report any
                                                                  near miss and ill health condition to their supervisors during
                                                                  daily toolbox meetings which are conducted 3 times a day.
                                                                  Near misses are reported via WhatsApp and has proven to
                                                                  be an efficient communication tool as it allows the relevant
                                                                  parties to take immediate actions. A reward system is also in
                                                                  place to encourage more near miss reporting in promoting a
                                                                  safer workplace.

                                                                  STEC acknowledges that workers are the most valuable asset
                                                                  of the company and they contribute to the company’s success.
                                                                  At Project T225, STEC celebrated Labour Day with its workers
                                                                  by providing food and entertainment. STEC believes that this
                                                                  helps to foster a stronger bonding of trust and respect among
       Figure 5: Hands-On Training on Safe Use of Machine         its workers.
                      and Manual Handling


At the corporate level, STEC shows its commitment towards
safety through its monthly WSHE cross inspections and
meetings helmed by it’s Managing Director. In addition, ad-
hoc night WSHE inspections are also conducted to ensure that
safety measures are in place and adhered to round the clock.

                                                                            Figure 8: Project T225 Labour Day Celebration

                                                                  At Project T225, a family photo banner comprising of site
                                                                  personnel family photos is put up on site.
                                           Figure 6:
                                           Night WSHE
                                           Inspections by PD &
                                           Corporate WSHM

Additionally, a committee led by STEC Corporate WSHE
Manager, conducts bi-annual review for all projects to step
up control measures, share past safety performances, good
WSHE practices and lessons learned, and develop safety
initiatives to raise company’s WSHE standards.

                                                                      Figure 9: Family photo banner display for constant reminder


                                                                  STEC strongly believes that building a strong and positive
                                                                  safety, health and environment oriented culture is necessary
                                                                  in ensuring zero accident, and the very foundations of this
   Figure 7: Project Director’s Participation in WSHE Road Show   culture are embodied within its name:
                                                                  • Safety is our Responsibility
                                                                  • Targeting Zero Accident is our Priority
                                                                  • Embracing Safety Challenge is a Necessity
 ENGAGING WORKFORCE                                               • Creating a Positive Safety Culture is our long team journey

Active employee engagement is a critical element in                                                                   Thant Zaw
ensuring workplace safety. To engage its workforce, STEC
has implemented the Project Director’s feedback session to                                                        WSHE Manager
allow site personnel to share WSHE and welfare issues with                                                      STEC Project T225
SAFETY News - Land Transport Authority
Quieter Noise Machinery and Study on
   10                   Boring Process to Reduce Noise Emission
 INTRODUCTION                                                            HACKING

With the ongoing projects such as the Thomson-East Coast                Hydraulic breakers are used in LTA worksites for the breaking
Line (TEL) and the upcoming North South Corridor (NSC),                 up of rock layers and demolition of concrete structures such
Jurong Regional Line (JRL) and Cross Island Line (CRL)                  as diaphragm wall (D-wall) and pile cap. This generates high
projects, it is imperative to take a holistic approach in exploring     impact noise level of 91-96 dBA, which causes annoyance to
different methods of noise control, as there will be works              stakeholders. Quieter alternatives to hydraulic breakers could
carried out in close proximity to residential and biodiversity          be used and are as follows:
sensitive areas. Noise reduction can be carried out at source           (i)      Aqua Cutter
(machinery and equipment noise), and at the receiver’s end.             (ii)     Diamond Wire Saw Cutter
At the source, a common noise mitigation measure is to erect            (iii)    Hydraulic Splitter
noise enclosures around the machinery or equipment. Albeit              (iv)     Vibroripper
a simple measure to implement, there is a risk of overheating
the machinery or equipment due to insufficient ventilation.             Aqua Cutter

To reduce noise emission more effectively, quieter construction         The aqua cutter utilises a constant high pressure water jet
solutions need to be explored. While the use of quieter                 to cut reinforced concrete to expose rebars. This method
machineries on LTA sites can help to reduce noise emission,             reduces the level and duration of impact noise as the water jet
the competency of operators and their common practices in               produces a continuous and steady noise source, which causes
operating these machineries should also be looked into.                 less annoyance to the receiver. Other benefits include minimal
                                                                        dust and vibration generated, and increased productivity as
From the public noise feedbacks received in 2016, the top three         less manpower is required to operate the machine.
noisiest site activities identified in LTA worksites are: (i) Sieving
of excavated materials, (ii) Hacking, and (iii) Boring & Piling. The
following sections will highlight the quieter noise solutions for
contractors to adopt in their work sites.


A noisy aspect of construction works is the separation of soil
from hardcore material for disposal. Contractors typically use
the skeleton bucket by shaking it repeatedly to sieve out the
soil, as shown in Figure 1. This generates high impact noise                                  Figure 3: Aqua Cutter
level of 90 dBA, due to the clanging noise produced from the
impact of the joints of excavator arm and skeleton bucket. A            Diamond Wire Saw Cutter
quieter alternative is the screening bucket.
                                                                        The diamond wire saw cutter uses a wire saw to cut through
                                                                        concrete or rocks, which reduces the level and duration of
                                                                        impact noise. Thus, the perceived loudness decreases by
                                                                        about 2 times. Other benefits are minimal dust and vibration
                                                                        generated, as well as increased productivity.

                                             Figure 1:
                                             Excavator Skeleton

Screening Bucket

The screening bucket is an attachment affixed to the excavator              Figure 4: Diamond Wire Saw and Diamond Wire Saw Cutter
arm, and consists of a rotating trommel screen to separate
out soil particles. This eliminates the clanging noise, thus
decreasing the perceived loudness by about 2 times. Other               Hydraulic Splitter
benefits are increased productivity and minimal wear and tear
to excavator joints.                                                    The hydraulic splitter can either be hand-held or attached to an
                                                                        excavator. It relies on the wedge principle to internally “split”
                                                                        concrete or rocks, whereby a strong force is applied in pre-
                                                                        drilled holes to create a shearing effect as shown in Figure
                                                                        5. As this process is almost silent, impact noise is eliminated,
                                                                        resulting in about 3-4 times decrease in perceived loudness.

                    Figure 2: Screening Bucket
Quieter Noise Machinery and Study on
                    Boring Process to Reduce Noise Emission
                                                                    Noise Reduced Boring Tools

                                                                    These tools help to reduce the noise originated from the boring
                                                                    process. As shown in Figure 8 (left), the auger cleaner is a
                                                                    secondary attachment used to scrape off soil from the auger
                                                                    after boring. This reduces the need for “spin and lock” during
                                                                    soil dislodgment. On the other hand, the noise dampened
                                                                    Kelly bar Figure 8 (right) consists of sound absorbing pads
                                                                    which are glued on the outer surface of the bar section. This
                                                                    reduces the disturbing high-frequency noise generated by its
                     Figure 5: Hydraulic Splitter                   jerky movements.


The vibroripper is an attachment on the excavator arm as
shown in Figure 6. Impact noise level is reduced though
the tearing and ripping of cracked or soft rocks through high
frequency vibration. Thus, the perceived loudness decreases
by about 3-4 times. Another benefit of the vibroripper is
increased productivity.

                                                                                        Figure 8: Auger cleaner (left),
                                                                      1) Traditional Kelly bar and 2) Noise dampened Kelly bar (right)


                                                                    Educating operators is another essential approach to
                                                                    encourage the appropriate use of machineries, thereby
                        Figure 6: Vibroripper
                                                                    eliminating unnecessary noise emission. Figure 9 summarises
                                                                    a list of dos and don’ts for operators to adopt during the bored
                                                                    piling operation.

In the piling process, much of the noise is generated during the
soil dislodgement process. However, there are limited quieter
alternatives available and more effort is needed to explore other
noise mitigating measures. Some of the measures to reduce
noise generated from bored piling are elaborated below.

High Speed Discharge Rig

Traditionally, the boring rig operator uses the “spin and lock”
method, whereby he rotates the rotary head left and right
repeatedly to dislodge the soil. Due to the collision between
the “teeth” on the inside of the rotary head and on the Kelly bar
during spinning, a loud noise is generated.

To tackle this issue, the high speed discharge rig can be used               Figure 9: Dos and Don’ts for boring rig operators
as an alternative. This piling rig is installed with a high-speed
discharge function for soil dislodgement, which spins 3 – 4
times faster than the normal rig. Also, the rig is able to spin      CONCLUSION
in one direction and discharge soil from the driving tools. This
eliminates noise generated from the collision of the rotary
head and the Kelly bar.                                             To reduce the impact of noise generated by construction
                                                                    projects on stakeholders, Safety Division has been exploring
                                                                    a wide range of quieter options for site application. For
                                                                    example, noise level considerations are included in the
                                                                    selection and approval of new machines and equipment on
                                                                    site. Furthermore, LTA also believes that the use of quieter
                                                                    machineries and construction methods are essential in
                                                                    minimising disturbance caused to the public. Moving forward,
                                                                    we will continue to explore and introduce feasible and quieter
                                                                    construction options to attain LTA’s vision of achieving a low
                                                                    noise construction site.

                                                                                                                     Loo Hong En
                                                                                                   Deputy Environmental Manager
                                                                                                        Dr Benny Tan Yong Liang
                                                                                                  Assistant Environmental Manager
            Figure 7: Rotary head (left), Kelly bar (right)                                                         Safety Division
Human Factors in Road Safety
                                                                        b) Vehicle Factors
                                                                           Vehicle factors involves the following attributes: (1) lighting
We see an encouraging trend in the safety of road users                    (head / rear lighting, signaling); (2) display and controls; (3)
travelling on the carriageways in Singapore, with the number               tyres and braking system; (4) wipers; and (5) conspicuity of
of fatal road accidents from 2011 to 2016 having decreased                 vehicle (vehicle body paintwork).
from 192 to 140 (Figure 1). Nonetheless, we should continue to
strive to further reduce the statistics to achieve zero accident.       c) Road Environment
For this reason, we will identify the major factors that cause road
accidents and provide some examples which could mitigate the               Road environment encompasses elements such as (1)
issues faced and help improve the road safety condition.                   legibility of traffic signs and traffic control devices; (2)
                                                                           street furniture and landscaping; (3) pavement condition;
                                                                           (4) road alignment and junction layout; (5) street lighting
                                                                           and pavement delineation; and (6) roadside hazard
                                                                           management system.

                                                                        d) Weather Conditions

                                                                           Weather conditions similar to the road environment,
                                                                           have a direct impact on the safety of road users. Adverse
                                                                           weather conditions such as heavy downpours, fog and
                                                                           mist will reduce road users’ visibility. Wet surface reduces
                                                                           skid resistance and strong wind destabilises the vehicle.
                                                                           Driving under blinding sun glare and high heat condition
                                                                           affect driver’s visibility and concentration.

                                                                        Studies have shown that about 90 percent of road accidents
                                                                        are due to human behaviour. The statistics provided by TP
              Figure 1: Number of fatal accidents by year1              also showed similar trend. Hence, it is crucial to understand
                                                                        how human factors in the road environment can affect road
                                                                        safety, and the relevant measures put in place to address the
Causes of Road Accidents                                                potential safety issues and to enhance road safety.

                                                                         HUMAN FACTORS IN ROAD SAFETY

                                                                        Human factors in road safety had been discussed as early as
                                                                        in the 1970s. These human factors relate to the road users’
                                                                        abilities, characteristics and behaviours as described earlier
                                                                        when using the road in the capacity as a driver, motorcyclist,
                                                                        cyclist or pedestrian. In general, different road users have
                                                                        varied abilities and experience in controlling the vehicles
                                                                        and recognising road hazards. They possess different
                                                                        characteristics and manifest their behaviours in many ways
                                                                        on the road.

                                                                        Younger road users have limited ability to recognise road
                    Figure 2: Causes of accidents2                      hazards and are more likely to be impulsive, hence under-
                                                                        estimating the accident risk. For the elderly, they are prone to
                                                                        reduced mobility, reduced visual field and often require longer
The causes of road accidents in Singapore gathered from                 perception-reaction time leading to slower decision making.
Traffic Police (TP) are shown in Figure 2 above. These                  They are always adverse to walking longer route and tend to
accident causation factors are similar to those highlighted in          choose the most direct paths. On-going education on road
the road safety engineering literatures. The primary causes of          safety is conducted for the public and regular enforcement by
accidents can be broadly categorised into three main groups,            TP is carried out on errant drivers and pedestrians who flouted
namely road users (human factors), vehicles factors and road            the traffic rules to address the undesirable human behaviour.
environment and these factors are further inter-related with the
weather conditions.                                                     The following information presents the effect which some of the
                                                                        identified human factors have on road safety when performing
a) Road Users (Human Factors)                                           the driving task, riding task and using the road as a pedestrian.
     Road users or human factors take into account the following        Motorists3: What affects the Driving Task?
     characteristics of the person using the road: (1) reaction
     times; (2) driving skills; (3) visual field; (4) memory; (5)       The driving task of a motorist involves timely decision making
     body coordination; (6) mobility; (7) motion sensitivity; (8)       whereby motorists are required to gather information, process
     decision making ability; and (9) risk perception.                  information and execute tasks.

                                                                        a) Expectation of events / road conditions
    Traffic Police’s Annual Road Traffic Situation 2016
    Singapore Public Data – Causes of accidents by severity of injury      Motorists are familiar with the roads from past experiences
    sustained                                                              and expect lane arrangement and traffic conditions to be
    Motorists are defined as drivers of vehicles including power-          similar as they drive on the road.
    assisted bicycles and bicycles used on any road.
Human Factors in Road Safety
                                                                    signs. The information gathering is limited by the ability to
                                                                    move the head and refocus of the eyes. Having warning
                                                                    or direction signs placed too close or contain too many
                                                                    legends is likely to result in information missed out or
                                                                    ignored as they are unable to be gathered and processed
          Figure 3: Road layout before traffic diversion            by motorists at the particular travelling speed.

   With traffic diversion implemented, motorists could likely
   be unfamiliar with the new layout and lane arrangement
   which required a change of travel path (e.g. bends and
   bifurcation introduced).

                                                                                                            Figure 7:
                                                                                                            Warning signs for
                                                                                                            temporary road works
                                                                                                            at intervals adjusted for
           Figure 4: Road layout after traffic diversion                                                    posted speed
              due to temporary construction works
                                                                 d) Short term memory
   Hence, a driver’s expectations shall be managed by
   avoiding surprises and maintaining similar driving               In carrying out driving tasks, motorists utilise short term
   conditions as much as possible. Adequate measures and            memory to temporarily store the information such as signs,
   information should be provided to inform motorists of the        signals, pavement markings, other vehicles, pedestrians,
   changes in advance such that they are prepared for the           etc. to be processed. Therefore, motorists are constantly
   new layout and be able to navigate through the traffic           reminded of information which varies along the road such
   diversion safely. Physical guidance such as warning signs        as speed limit signs and lane destination / directional
   and lane destination indication signs, delineation and lane      signs to maintain guidance and prevent last minute erratic
   markings are thus installed for these purposes.                  actions.

                                                                 e) Reaction time

                                                                    The motorists’ reaction time (time taken between registering
                                                                    a ‘signal’ and carrying out the corresponding reaction) is
                                                                    the critical period whereby one processes the information
                                                                    gathered, decide on the course of action and execute the
                                                                    task(s). Longer reaction time will decrease time available to
                                                                    attend to other information or carry out any action to avoid an
           Figure 5: Traffic signs displayed along roads            accident. Reaction time can be reduced via (1) encourage
          to warn motorists of impending road diversion             familiarity; (2) minimise the number of alternatives; (3)
                                                                    provide positive information; (4) provide prior warning; (5)
b) Visual field on the road environment                             provide clear sight distance; and (6) use of symbolic signs.

   Motorists rely 90% on visual characteristics and 10% on       Pedestrians: What affects walking / road crossing?
   other senses to gather information. Visual field which is
   the area visible to motorists using their peripheral vision   Conflicts often occur between pedestrians and motorists
   decreases as the travelling speed increases. Traffic signs    at the traffic junctions and other road locations away from
   and devices have to be located close to the carriageway       pedestrian crossing. Elderly pedestrian is hit by vehicle as he /
   within the motorist’s field of view based on the posted       she cannot complete the road crossing due to slow and weak
   speed limit of the road.                                      walking ability. Some may be less aware of oncoming vehicles
                                                                 due to deterioration of hearing or poorer vision with age. With
                                                                 increased use of electronic devices such as mobile phones,
                                                                 handheld devices and headphones, pedestrians are distracted
                                                                 during walking which in turn, poses higher accident risk.


                                                                 Understanding the human factors that affect the safety of
                                                                 motorists and pedestrians travelling on the road will certainly
                                                                 will enhance the knowledge for traffic designer and auditor.
                                                                 Though standards and guidelines generally take into
   Field of view 20km/h     Field of view 60km/h                 consideration human characteristics, it is still important to
   Field of view 40km/h     Field of view 80km/h                 recognise and incorporate human factors into the planning,
Based on Leutzbach and Papavasiliou, 1988                        design, implementation, operation and maintenance of the
                                                                 road system to reduce potential traffic accidents.
             Figure 6: Driver’s visual field decreases
                  with increased speed of travel

c) Body coordination
                                                                                                           Dr Ho Sze Hwee
   When presented with more than 1 sign along the road,                                  Deputy Road System Safety Manager
   motorists need to move his / her head and eyes to focus                                                   Safety Division
   on the next sign after reading the legends of the previous
Safety Systems For Sentosa Gateway Tunnel

The Sentosa Gateway Tunnel was opened on 27 April 2017. It
is a one-way tunnel connecting outbound traffic from Sentosa
Island directly to Keppel Road and Lower Delta Road and
helps to alleviate congestion at the busy at-grade junctions
at Sentosa Gateway, Telok Blangah Road, Kampong Bahru
Road and Lower Delta Road.

For the Sentosa Gateway Tunnel Project, there were
engineering considerations as its tunnel location is in close
proximity to the North East Line MRT tunnels and the West
Coast Highway viaduct foundations. Therefore, the tunnel
portal has to be constructed with a limited headroom of 3.5m.
In view of the height constraints, only cars and motorcycles
are permitted to use the tunnel.

Similar to the other road tunnels in Singapore, the Sentosa
Gateway Tunnel is equipped with various systems to ensure
the safety of tunnel users. These systems form part of the
Integrated Traffic and Plant Management System (ITPMS)
to ensure the safety of tunnel users. It includes the following

a)   Traffic Control Management System (TCMS)                               Figure 2: Tunnel Control Management System
b)   Tunnel Linear Heat Detectors (LHD)                                               in Sentosa Gateway Tunnel
c)   Tunnel Ventilation System (TVS)
d)   Tunnel Deluge System                                         b) Tunnel Linear Heat Detectors (LHD)
e)   Emergency Power and Lighting system
f)   FM Radio re-Broadcast and Break-in (RBBI) facilities         The LHD system is part of the tunnel fire alarm system which
g)   Emergency Niches.                                            provides early warning of fire incidents by continuously
                                                                  monitoring the temperature in the tunnels. Alarm will be
                                                                  activated when the temperature in the tunnel exceeds the pre-
 INTEGRATED TRAFFIC AND PLANT                                     set temperature or the rate of temperature increase exceeds
 MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (ITPMS)                                        the pre-set rate.

The ITPMS is an automatic computer control system that
allows the tunnel operator in the Operation Control Centre
(OCC) to centrally control and monitor traffic conditions and
Mechanical & Electrical (M&E) plants along the Sentosa
Gateway Tunnel.

                                                                      Figure 3: Linear Heat Detectors in Sentosa Gateway Tunnel

                                                                  c) Tunnel Ventilation System (TVS)

                                                                  Sentosa Gateway Tunnel is provided with a longitudinal
                                                                  type TVS comprising of jet fans installed within niches along
                                                                  the tunnel ceiling. During a fire emergency, the jet fans are
                                                                  configured to extract the smoke towards the exit portal. This
                                                                  will provide trapped motorists in the tunnel a smoke free
                                                                  escape path and assist evacuees in identifying the emergency
     Figure 1: Sentosa Gateway Tunnel Operation Control Centre
                                                                  escape staircases and entry portal.

a) Traffic Control Management System (TCMS)

The TCMS allows the tunnel operator in the OCC to
continuously monitor and manage incidents and traffic within
the Sentosa Gateway Tunnel through various field equipment
which includes the following:

(i) Automatic Incident Detector Cameras
(ii) Closed Circuit Television Surveillance System
(iii) Traffic Display System
(iv) Entrance Ramp Barrier System
                                                                    Figure 4: Tunnel Ventiliation System in Sentosa Gateway Tunnel
Safety Systems For Sentosa Gateway Tunnel
d) Tunnel Deluge System                                           f) FM Radio re-Broadcast and Break-in (RBBI) facilities

The tunnel deluge system utilises a water-based extinguishing     The RBBI facilities at OCC and Facility Building (FB) allow the
agent to slow or suppress fire growth rates and prevent the       tunnel operator to make public announcements to motorists
spread of fire to other vehicles. Besides protecting the major    through FM radio channels in the event of an emergency.
tunnel structure, it compliments the SCDF efforts in evacuation
and fire fighting during emergencies.

Coupled with TVS, the tunnel deluge system will also enhance
the overall incident management process in the event of a fire
as well.

                                                                              Figure 8: Radio re-Broadcast and Break-in
       Figure 5: Deluge system in Sentosa Gateway Tunnel
                                                                                     in Sentosa Gateway Tunnel

e) Emergency Power and Lighting system                            g) Emergency Niches
The power supply to the Sentosa Gateway Tunnel is backed          Emergency niches are provided in the Sentosa Gateway
up by a diesel generator system in the event where the main       Tunnel at intervals of 50m. The provision of alarm bells and
power supply from SP Power Grid is disrupted. In addition,        flashing beacon lights at the niches alert tunnel users of fire
an Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) system ensures that         situations. Manual call points are also installed in the tunnel
critical systems such as tunnel lighting are always available     to allow tunnel users to alert the tunnel operator in case of
during emergency situations.                                      any emgergency. Communication between the tunnel operator
                                                                  and motorists can be established via the emergency phones
                                                                  installed in the emergency niches. The niches also house the
                                                                  deluge control valves, fire hydrants, hose reels and portable
                                                                  fire extinguishers to facilitate fire fighting purposes.

      Figure 6: Emergency power in Sentosa Gateway Tunnel

                                                                       Figure 9: Emergency Niches in Sentosa Gateway Tunnel


                                                                  The various safety systems in place for the Sentosa Gateway
                                                                  Tunnel are aligned with international best practices through
                                                                  state of-the-art technologies. Effective and responsive tunnel
                                                                  systems will play a critical role in ensuring safety and providing
                                                                  a comfortable environment for motorists.

                                                                                                           Chong Zhong Yang
          Figure 7: Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS)                                                       Principal Engineer
                    in Sentosa Gateway Tunnel                                          Mechanical & Electrical Services Division
Editorial Page
23RD CONSTRUCTION STAFF AWARD CEREMONY                                                              1

The 36 Safety Workshop organise by Safety Division was held on 8th January 2018 at

the HSO Auditorium. It was attended by more than 100 officers from Rail, Roads
Projects and Engineering Groups.

At the Safety Workshop, LTA Chief Executive Mr Ngien Hoon Ping
emphasised on LTA’s safety acronym S.H.G, where S stands
for – Safety, H – Housekeeping and G – Ground leadership. He
urged staff to pay attention to safety and further iterated on the
need to keep the workplace tidy as good housekeeping contributes                                                   3
to increased productivity and better WSH performance. Lastly, he also
highlighted the importance of strong ground leadership and encourage
staff to walk the ground regularly to eradicate any safety lapses.
There were four presentations shared at the Safety Workshop:
• Near Miss Reporting - Analysis of Data (Year 2016 / 2017) by LTA Deputy
   Safety & Health Manager, Mr Kenneth Cheong
• Safety Considerations on Connection to a Live DTSS Tunnel Located 35m
   Underground by LTA Executive Project Engineer, Ms Chew Jia Bei                                                                5
• Presentation on the Safety Considerations for the Construction of Mined
   Tunnels at T213 by LTA Senior Project Engineer, Mr Thiruvalluvan Karuppasamy
• Sharing of Crane Related Incidents and Initiatives to Leverage Technology to
   Raise Crane Safety Standards by MOM, Senior Specialist (Engineering Safety),
   Mr Ng Yi Hang                                                                                        4

                                                                                                 1. LTA Chief Executive, Mr Ngien Hoon Ping
                                                                                                 2. LTA Deputy Safety & Health Manager,
                                                                                                    Mr Kenneth Cheong
                                                                                                 3. LTA Executive Project Engineer,
                                                                                                    Ms Chew Jia Bei
                                                                                                 4. LTA Senior Project Engineer,
                                                                                                    Mr Thiruvalluvan Karuppasamy
                                                                                                 5. MOM Senior Specialist (Engineering
                                                                                                    Safety), Mr Ng Yi Hang
                                                                                                 6. Winners of Construction Safety
6                                                                                                   & Environmental Award

    Editorial Committee
    Advisor                                    Contributions or feedback to:
    Corporate Safety Committee                 Land Transport Authority
                                               Safety Division
    Editors                                    No. 1, Hampshire Road, Blk 5, Level 4, Singapore 219428
    Phoa Hock Lye, Patrick                     Tel: (65) 6295 7392 Fax: (65) 6396 1188
    Liu Weng Keong, Ian                        Email address:
    Lee Yu Qi, Jocelyn
                                               Safety News is also available online at
    Circulation Officer               safety-andhealth-and-
    Zhuo Shumei                                environment/construction-safety-and-environment/safetynews.html

    Marcello Cacioni
    Thant Zaw
    Loo Hong En                                or scan
    Dr Benny Tan Yong Liang
    Dr Ho Sze Hwee
    Chong Zhong Yang

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