D2.1 Overview of capacity building and training programmes

 
D2.1 Overview of capacity building and training programmes
D2.1 Overview of capacity building and training
programmes

INDUCE
Towards a Sustainable agro-food INDUstry
Capacity building programmes in Energy efficiency

      This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 Coordination Support
      Action under Grant Agreement No.785047.
      The sole responsibility for the content of this deliverable lies with the authors. It does not
      necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Union. Neither the EASME nor the European
      Commission are responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained
      therein.
D2.1 Overview of capacity building and training programmes
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Project factsheet
Acronym:          INDUCE
Title:            Towards a Sustainable Agro-Food Industry. Capacity Building Programmes in Energy
                  Efficiency.

Coordinator:      CIRCE - Research Centre for Energy Resources and Consumption

Reference:        785047
Type:             Coordination and Support Action
Program:          HORIZON 2020
Start:            1st February 2018
Duration:         30 months

Website:          www.induce2020.eu

Consortium:       Centro de Investigación de Recursos y Consumos Energéticos, Spain (CIRCE), Coordinator
                  Netherlands Organisation for applied scientific research, The Netherlands (TNO)
                  Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung E.V., Germany (FhISI)
                  Spanish Food and Drink Industry Federation, Spain (FIAB)
                  Federatie Nederlandse Levensmiddelen Industrie, The Netherlands (FNLI)
                  Food-Processing Initiative e.V., Germany (FPI)
                  KWA Bedrijfsadviseurs, The Netherlands (KWA)
                  ÖKOTEC Energiemanagement GmbH, Germany (ÖKOTEC)
                  SYNYO GmbH, Austria (SYNYO)
                  Association de Coordination Technique pour l’Industrie Agro-alimentaire, France (ACTIA)

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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Deliverable factsheet
Number:                      D2.1

Title:                       Overview of capacity building and training programmes

Lead beneficiary:            ECN part of TNO

Work package:                2

Task:                        2.1

Dissemination level:         Public

Submission date:             30.09.2018

Contributors:                FhISI, CIRCE, FIAB, FPI, FNLI

Document history:

         Revision                  Date                     Main modification               Author
             1               25/05/2018                         editorial               I. Frai Latorre
             2               01/09/2018                         editorial               I. Frai Latorre
             3               07/11/2018                         editorial                 L. Hermans

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
D2.1 Overview of capacity building and training programmes
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Disclaimer of warranties

“This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020, research and innovation
programme, under Grant Agreement No 785047”

This document has been prepared by INDUCE project partners as an account of work carried out within the
framework of the EC-GA contract no 785047.

Neither Project Coordinator, nor any signatory party of INDUCE Project Consortium Agreement, nor any
person acting on behalf of any of them:

    (a) makes any warranty or representation whatsoever, express or implied,
           (i).  with respect to the use of any information, apparatus, method, process, or similar item
                 disclosed in this document, including merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, or
          (ii).  that such use does not infringe on or interfere with privately owned rights, including any
                 party's intellectual property, or
         (iii).  that this document is suitable to any particular user's circumstance; or
    (b) assumes responsibility for any damages or other liability whatsoever (including any consequential
        damages, even if Project Coordinator or any representative of a signatory party of the INDUCE
        Project Consortium Agreement, has been advised of the possibility of such damages) resulting from
        your selection or use of this document or any information, apparatus, method, process, or similar
        item disclosed in this document.

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
D2.1 Overview of capacity building and training programmes
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Definitions
Capacity building program in energy efficiency: A systematic and integrated approach to develop and
continuously improve organizational and individual competences and capabilities necessary for improving the
energy efficiency of a company.

Training courses: Set of lessons, co-creation sessions, workshops and meetings balancing technical
(understand and control energy use), organizational (management commitment, resources and planning) and
cultural (people’s motivations and behaviour) issues and targeting all actors in the company so they are trained
in putting energy efficiency issues in the focus.

Interventions: Specific activities carried out at the companies in order to assist employees in the identification
and implementation of energy efficiency measures and/or in managing change towards an energy efficient
organization. Depending on the intervention, activities can be done by experts/consultants and by using
INDUCE’s tools.

INDUCE tools: Software solutions that will be integrated in INDUCE toolkit for, e.g. energy self-assessments,
communicating on energy issues or assessing purchases, and therefore will be used as part of the
interventions.

INDUCE methodology: The approach taken in this project to develop ad-hoc training courses and interventions
following a Human-Centered Design approach to empower all the relevant actors to develop energy efficient
behaviour in a tailor-made way.

Ad-hoc development: Instead of generic solutions, INDUCE will develop specific training tailored to the current
situation of each company, taking into account relevant aspects such as their needs, structure, network and
organizational culture, thus resulting in unique capacity building programs for each company.

Design thinking or Human-Centered Design approach: Method that can be applied to societal questions to
which the solution is not obvious and requires innovation. It emphasizes creativity in addition to analytic
thinking. Instead of aiming at a first-time right solution and avoiding mistakes, the method challenges users to
experiment, make mistakes, build quick prototypes, test, and improve iteratively before implementing.

INDUCE Toolkit: Open access platform designed within INDUCE to gather all the results, documents, tools as
well as INDUCE methodology in order to make them available to the public.

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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The consortium partners are:

  CIRCE – Centro de Investigación de Recursos y Consumos
                                                                         CIRCE          ES            RTD
  Energéticos
  ECN part of TNO                                                         ECN           NL            RTD
  Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Angewandten
                                                                          FhISI         DE            RTD
  Forschung E.V.
  Spanish Food and Drink Industry Federation                              FIAB          ES          Association
  Federatie Nederlandse Levensmiddelen Industrie                          FNLI          NL          Association
  Food-Processing Initiative e.V.                                          FPI          DE          Association
  French Network of Food Technology Institutes                           ACTIA          FR          Association
  KWA Bedrijfsadviseurs B.V.                                             KWA            NL             SME
  Ökotec energiemanagement GmbH                                         ÖKOTEC          DE        Large company
  SYNYO GmbH                                                            SYNYO           AT             SME

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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Executive Summary

Why do energy savings targets of the agro-food and other industries lag behind, despite increasing availability
of energy efficient (EE) technology and that companies can perform audits to identify other, low-cost and no
cost energy saving opportunities? Answering this question requires deep insights into the drivers and barriers
in decision making processes regarding energy efficiency. While energy efficiency is not a companies’ core
business, benefits of making it ‘core to the business’ are considerable. So why is this so difficult?

The project will start by performing an assessment of the most relevant training courses and capacity building
programs to enhance corporate policy towards energy efficiency, as well as an inventory of evidence regarding
their effectiveness, with a special focus on initiatives carried out in the agro-food industry. This will allow the
consortium to identify currently available best practices and interventions and collect knowledge about their
implementation.

The Human-Centered Design philosophy of this project holds that, once companies have a conscious
understanding of how this works, they will understand that in some places in their organization this already
happens and they can come up with ways for organizing these processes themselves.

                             Figure 1: Overview of the Human Centered Design approach in INDUCE

As the supposition of INDUCE reflects a lack of training and capacity building programs focused on
organizational and behavioral aspects, this report is an inventory on current practice of programs and finding
out if these aspects are indeed less covered at current programs. This report will consist of an inventory of
initiatives, platforms, tools and interventions regarding energy efficiency (in the wider context of CO2
reduction) in the agro-food sector, specifically staff training and capacity building programs. Where available,
information on user experience and results of application of these tools will also be collected.

In this task, information will be collected from the INDUCE partners. The INDUCE consortium consists of a mix
of relevant experts and organizations. Gathering all relevant capacity building programs, together with all
relevant information sources that could help INDUCE create Human Centered Design training started by asking
the consortium partners about their knowledge on existing relevant information. The result of this task will be
an overview of capacity building and training programs and, if known, their effectiveness, which will serve as
input to WP3. To make sure INDUCE will not reinvent the wheel, we also ask the Advisory board members and
the pilot companies to give us their relevant capacity building programs, but also their needs on this topic and

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
D2.1 Overview of capacity building and training programmes
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the gaps that in their view exist when it comes to capacity building programs for the agro-food sector and their
own organization in particular.

The perspectives we will use for categorizing are:

    1. Is the training or tool (or other type of information) focused on how to achieve technical
       compliance? (how to implement energy saving by technical energy assessments)
    2. Is the training or tool (or other type of information) focused on creating insights on economic gains
       for the company by energy assessments.
    3. Is the training (or other type of information) focused on having an effect on strategic decision
       making, organization structure or policy of the company.
    4. Is the training or tool (or other type of information) focused on changing behavior of a person or
       group employers or management.

As the overview of categorized capacity building programs depicts, main information sources are technical
oriented. Although the category of strategic decision making is available and not underrepresented, these
types of information are mainly covering giving training to staff, in order to teach them about how to
implement technical energy efficiency options, such as energy management systems.

The categorized overview shows the following results:.

                       OVERVIEW CATEGORIZED CAPACITY
                            BUILDING PROGRAMS
                 achieve technical compliance                        insights on economic gains
                 strategic decision making, organization structure   changing behavior of a person or group

                                                              7%

                                                       29%
                                                                       54%
                                                            11%

When looking specifically at the 12 selected promising capacity building programs and tools from the entire
overview, it shows the focus on targeting individuals with a technical background or job description such as
the energy manager. But many of the promising capacity building programs seem to acknowledge the complex
nature of behavioural change. Most programs have a nuanced view of businesses, in which sometimes several
layers of the organization should play their part in (the implementation of) energy management. This shows a
holistic understanding of organization, in which various actors play a role. It shows an understanding of
behavioural change as a complex process which should be carried, and aligned with, the organizational culture
at large. Nevertheless, most focus of these promising programs are not all designed for engaging several
departments or the entire organization. Most of the capacity building programs are to enable a single
individual in the organization to better communicate, organize or learn about energy efficiency.

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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Aforementioned programs try to broaden the playing field of energy managers by increasing the language
with which they speak to target audiences, like higher management or clients. The implementation of energy
saving measures are for example linked to economic gains, which would help energy managers convince higher
management to support investments. What INDUCE will try and add to these promising capacity building
programs, is also looking at the functioning of a company as whole, and look for specific drivers and barriers
within a company, to see what behavior, what person, on what level should receive a training. So next to the
important specific focus on energy managers, it should create new or broader elements of implementing
energy efficiency in a company.

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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Table of Contents

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 11
1.       Overview of current practice and capacity building ............................................................................... 16
         1.1.      Categorized inventory of current practice and capacity building ................................................. 16
         1.2.      Findings of the inventory and selection for INDUCE..................................................................... 20
2.       INDUCE Selected promising capacity building programs ........................................................................ 21
         2.1.      Steam Up – capacity-building of technical staff and consultancies about NEBs .......................... 21
         2.2.      ASAP tool – preventing biases in strategic decision ..................................................................... 23
         2.3.      Energy efficiency networks – exchange of experience among Energy Managers ........................ 24
         2.4.      CAS education program ................................................................................................................ 27
         2.5.      Training course DNV GL ................................................................................................................ 28
         2.6.      NEB tool – assessing and identify NEB’s in projects ..................................................................... 29
         2.7.      ProNak – motivating employees for energy and resource efficiency ........................................... 31
         2.8.      ENPI connect ................................................................................................................................. 32
         2.9.      Autodiagnosis tool TESLA – an energy diagnosis for companies .................................................. 33
         2.10. Energy Treasure Hunt ................................................................................................................... 34
         2.11. EUREM .......................................................................................................................................... 35
         2.12. Potential tool: BESS: Benchmarking and Energy Management Schemes in SMEs ....................... 36
3.       Concluding remarks on the promising capacity programs and next steps ............................................. 37
         3.1.      Next steps of INDUCE.................................................................................................................... 38
         3.2.      Existing information channels, relevant projects and relevant networks from the target group 39
4.       References ............................................................................................................................................... 47
5.       Annexes ................................................................................................................................................... 48

                                 © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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Introduction
INDUCE project overview

Why do energy savings targets of the agro-food and other industries lag behind, despite increasing availability
of energy efficient (EE) technology and that companies can perform audits to identify other, low-cost and no
cost energy saving opportunities? Answering this question requires deep insights into the drivers and barriers
in decision making processes regarding energy efficiency. While energy efficiency is not a companies’ core
business, benefits of making it ‘core to the business’ are considerable. So why is this so difficult? Different
theoretical perspectives offer different explanations for the Energy Efficiency Gap(INSERT SOURCE). Of these
perspectives, the economic perspective has been the most researched, so there is a tendency to overestimate
the influence of economic motives and to underestimate behavioral and organization motives. However,
revealing the impact of behavioral and organizational aspects simply requires a different methodological
approach. In the INDUCE method, each perspective is treated as equally important.

The Human-Centered Design philosophy of this project holds that, once companies have a conscious understanding of
how this works, they will understand that in some places in their organization this already happens and they can come
up with ways for organizing these processes themselves.

The project will start by performing an assessment of the most relevant training courses and capacity building
programs to enhance corporate policy towards energy efficiency, as well as an inventory of evidence regarding
their effectiveness, with a special focus on initiatives carried out in the agro-food industry. This will allow the
consortium to identify currently available best practices and interventions and collect knowledge about their
implementation.

                             Figure 1: Overview of the Human Centered Design approach in INDUCE

A comparison will be made with target groups to identify gaps between what is offered, what is needed, and
what is effective. In addition, technical, cultural and organizational information will be collected at the
companies and investigated by the project consortium. In the end, needs and opportunities will be assessed
to define a baseline for the interventions to be implemented in the project. The project will then boost the
efficiency of existing formats or develop new formats of capacity building programs by combining lessons
learned from previous programs. Improved formats will be the basis for the final ad-hoc design of the courses
and interventions. They will be tailored to the specific 15 pilot companies of INDUCE project, where they will
be tested and evaluated. Afterwards, based on their final design, a common action plan will be obtained for
implementing INDUCE capacity building program, resulting in a set of improved and new interventions to
                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
D2.1 Overview of capacity building and trainng programmes                                                     12

boost the market uptake of energy efficient products and services in industry. Therefore, the outcome of this
approach will be a standard methodology for the development of ad hoc courses and interventions and a
toolkit including all the information related to the capacity building program and a list of interventions to
choose from.

Once INDUCE methodology and capacity building program has been validated, it will be taught in 4 courses
(one per pilot country: Spain, the Netherlands, Germany and France) of 20 hours to 60 people that will become
trainers of INDUCE methodology and will be committed to implement it in a total of 300 companies. These
trainers will be part of INDUCE community, a group of energy experts and trainers that will support companies
in changing towards an energy efficient culture. Moreover, INDUCE methodology will be made available
through network organizations already involved in the consortium (FIAB, FNLI, FPI, SCDF) in order to reach a
wide audience for the project results.

                       1.                    MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION

                                                                  3.
                                  GUIDE AND BASELINE                       AD-HOC STAFF TRAINING

                       2.       FOR ORGANIZATIONAL AND
                                 BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES
                                                                         COURSES, INTERVENTIONS AND
                                                                            METHODOLOGY DESIGN

                       4.          CAPACITY BUILDING
                              PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION
                                AND RESULTS MONITORING
                                                                  5.         INDUCE METHODOLOGY
                                                                            VALIDATION AND IMPACT
                                                                                 ASSESSMENT

                       6.                   COMMUNICATION AND DISSEMINATION

                                    Figure 2: Overview of the INDUCE work package structure

Describing the current practice of capacity building

As the supposition of INDUCE reflects a lack of training and capacity building programs focused on
organizational and behavioral aspects, this report is an inventory on current practice of programs and finding
out if these aspects are indeed less well covered at current programs. This report will consist of an inventory
of initiatives, platforms, tools and interventions regarding energy efficiency (in the wider context of CO 2
reduction) in the agro-food sector, specifically staff training and capacity building programs. Where available,
information on user experience and results of application of these tools will also be collected. The project will
start in WP2 with an inventory of existing initiatives, platforms, tools and interventions related to capacity
building programs in energy efficiency, with the aim of creating a deep understanding of the current landscape
on energy savings opportunities in the agro-food sector. Afterwards, the linkage with behavioral and
organizational change models will be studied in detail and the 15 pilot companies will be already involved to
collect all the required information. Finally, a benchmarking analysis will be performed to establish a baseline
for evaluating the project progress and results.

This report will show an overview of what the focus is of these programs, and if any elements of the Human
Centered Design approach are incorporated. This approach should be reflected in the behavioral and
organizational elements of the program and the goal it entails. Although the main focus will be placed on the
agro-food sector, the most relevant initiatives at European level in other sectors will be also be taken into
account in order to consider the possibility of adapting effective interventions to INDUCE’s target group and
analyze the potential replicability of different measures. In addition, this report should ensure the INDUCE
project will not reinvent the wheel , but build upon already existing knowledge and programs.
                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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Work package 2, called ‘Guide and baseline for organizational behavioral changes’, aims at creating a deep
understanding why so many opportunities for energy saving are currently missed in the agro-food sector, how
the INDUCE method can bring about change in organizational behavior and culture, and what information is
needed from a company to effectively apply the method.

Data collected in this WP will set the baseline both for evaluation of the pilot trainings and for potential impact
evaluation for the whole agro-food sector. Specific objectives:

    5. To develop an inventory of capacity building programs and related initiatives in energy efficiency,
       including existing tools, platforms and information channels for promoting energy efficiency and
       improving employees’ capabilities. This is reported in this present document: current practice of
       capacity building (D2.1).
    6. To compare findings from practice to insights from barriers literature and organizational behavior
       theory, resulting in an overview of gaps that the INDUCE capacity building methodology should
       tackle. This is reported in deliverable D2.2.
    7. To collect the necessary baseline data for the pilots in WP4, enabling later monitoring and
       assessment of the results obtained in the 15 pilot companies. This is reported in deliverable D2.3,
       called Baseline report over 15 pilot companies.
    8. To analyse the agro-food sector in order to benchmark typical energy consumption patterns and
       best practices. This is reported in deliverable D2.4, called Benchmarking baseline report.
    9.

The relationship of collecting current capacity with other INDUCE activities

This report (D2.1) will be input for comparing practice to theory (D2.2) , and should complement the existing
gaps in the current energy efficiency capacity building programs. The combination of the literature review and
the current practice gives the first indication of promising programs and possible Human Centered Design
(HCD) elements, that can be used for the next steps; designing the INDUCE training programs for the 15 pilots.
This is forged in work package 3. More specifically, it will be the input for T3.2 called Assessment of cultural,
organizational and behavioral aspects. This task will define the training requirements regarding cultural,
organizational and behavioral issues in the agro-food sector, and more specifically in the targeted industries.
In T2.3, an assessment has been performed in the pilot companies to find specific generic organizational
cultural aspects based on which the interventions will be designed taking into account results of the baseline
report over 15 pilot companies.

                                         Figure 3: Interaction of WPs and HCD approach

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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In addition, existing information channels already being used by the target group will be also mentioned since
they can provide opportunities to incorporate project outcomes and will also ensure that the project adds to
what already exists rather than repeating it. A critical mass of stakeholders interested in the project outcomes
will be involved in INDUCE from the very beginning of the project, enabling repeated assessment of
stakeholder needs and expectations regarding the INDUCE methodology throughout the project.

In addition to proposals in which the consortium participates, INDUCE will establish synergies and obtain input
from other relevant EU projects, platforms and toolkits including for example EUREM (project for training
energy managers for manufacturing SMEs), STEAM-UP (project for closing the gap between energy audit
results and implementation of energy saving measures), IND-ECO (project for reducing energy consumption
in SMEs), ENSPOL (project for implementing energy efficiency obligation schemes or alternative policy
measures), ESTEEM (toolbox for sustainable energy projects) or MECHANISMS (toolkit to help consultants
design projects to save energy). From these projects we will ask short experiences on their training and
capacity building activities. E.g. TESLA 2013-2016 IEE, and 30 Pilotnetzwerke / LEEN 100 plus.

Methodology: How to gather current practice of capacity building

In this task, information will be collected from the INDUCE partners. The INDUCE consortium consists of a mix
of relevant experts and organizations. Gathering all relevant capacity building programs, together with all
relevant information sources that could help INDUCE create Human Centered Design training started by asking
the consortium partners about their knowledge on existing relevant information. The result of this task will be
an overview of capacity building and training programs and, if known, their effectiveness, which will serve as
input to WP3.

To make sure INDUCE will not reinvent the wheel, we also ask the Advisory board members and the pilot
companies to give us their relevant capacity building programs, but also their needs on this topic and the gaps
that in their view exist when it comes to capacity building programs for the agro-food sector and their own
organization in particular.

To collect structured and relevant information, ECN created a template for INDUCE project partners that
contain their relevant information. Many relevant existing information was gathered by the partners
responsible for T3.3, which is FhISI. The total overview of collected information can be found in the appendixes
I to IV. This work package must also describe the link of practice to T2.2, the theoretical framework. Looking
at existing literature, a vast amount of research can be found on possible barriers of implementing energy
efficiency investments.

The categorization of the current existing energy efficiency tools and current capacity building programs will
give an indication of what the main element of the specific type of information is by what purpose it serves.
For example, information can provide insight on technical, economical, organizational or behavioural aspects.
A more detailed explanation of the categorization exercise is given in paragraph 2.1 With this labelling an
overview will be created of what the current practice entails, and what is lacking from theoretical perspective.
Accordingly, the existing capacity building programs and tools that entail the most promising human centered
design approaches will be highlighted and discussed in the next chapter. In the case of labelling it is anticipated
that tools and projects with a behavioral perspective are most promising regarding human centered design
approach.

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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Describing Synergies with other EU projects

INDUCE relies on the lessons learned from previous projects and will establish links with previous EU and
national projects related to capacity building programs on energy efficiency. In order to find synergies and
collaboration opportunities. We will get in contact with several contact persons from these projects, in order
to gain insights on experiences from them, as not to re-invent the wheel.

We will describe existing relevant projects e.g., saving COOPerative Energy – Partners involved: CIRCE, SCDF.

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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1. Overview of current practice and capacity building
        1.1. Categorized inventory of current practice and capacity building

As currently not all energy investments are done in the industry of the agro food sector, the human centered
design should enable companies to realize this in an optimized way. The findings of current practice and the
findings of the relevant literature must jointly create insights for identifying relevant knowledge gaps at pilot
companies, and create better and new tailor made capacity trainings. To assure literature and current practice
are comparable and joined, instead of analyzed separately, a general literature framework is selected for the
categorization of the current capacity building programs.

The categorization of the current existing energy efficiency tools and current capacity building programs is
based on what kind of information the information source shows. The labels can be technical, economical,
organizational and/or behavioural. The categorization of tools and programs works in a non-exlusive manner,
which means information sources can be part of different categories. Encountered drivers or barriers to these
projects is not part of the analysis. The labelling helps to provides an overview of what the current practice
entails and what is lacking from theoretical perspective. Existing capacity building programs and tools that
entail the most promising human centered design approaches will be highlighted and discussed in the next
chapter. In the case of labelling it is anticipated that tools and projects labeled with a behavioral perspective
are most promising regarding human centered design approach.

The perspectives we will use for categorizing are:

        Is the training or tool (or other type of information) focused on how to achieve technical
         compliance?

         Many companies have not reached their full energy efficiency potential, because not all knowledge
         for implementing technical improvements is known. Knowledge about the processes or machines is
         insufficient, and all information or programs that aim at finding these for a company will be labeled as
         such in this category. This category is about the strengthening of competences and the knowledge
         base for energy efficiency technologies, to reach the full technical energy efficiency potential for a
         company. It is about where to implement potential energy efficiency measures. These can be reports
         on energy efficiency in the meat industry, dairy product optimization by filling in an online tool,
         guidelines for energy saving in bakeries, etc.

         An example of information on how to achieve technical compliance is the FRISBEE tool. The FRISBEE
         tool is a software for assessing cold chains with respect to quality of products, energy use and the CO2
         emission (environmental) impact of the refrigeration technologies involved in the cold chain. It
         contains validated kinetic models that can predict how the quality and safety evolve along the cold
         chain as a function of temperature and duration.

    •    Is the training or tool (or other type of information) focused on creating insights on economic gains
         for the company by energy assessments?

         This category contains information that shows the economic gains of implementing energy efficiency
         measures. The rationale is to motivate companies and management by showing financial benefits in
         order to create additional motivation. Many technical tools and reports contain the economic

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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         perspective as well. Energy audits for example include the assessment of cost-effective energy savings
         opportunities as part of their procedure.

         The BESS project is an example on how to achieve economic gains in companies via energy efficiency.
         The BESS projects addresses energy efficiency in SMEs from the food and drink industry. Among
         others, an e-learning system and an energy management implementation model are developed in the
         project. At least 55 companies from the food and drink industry test the system.

        Is the training (or other type of information) focused on having an effect on strategic decision
         making, organization structure or policy of the company.

         Many trainings and capacity programs are trying to enable employees to be more technical skilled;
         they need to know about machines, systems and techniques for the company to achieve energy
         efficiency gains. Learning how to implement an energy management system, reports showing step by
         step how to implement ISO standards, etc. A lot of the information in this category is about achieving
         standards and how to implement them in the organization structure.

         A project which specifically focuses on insight in organization structure is Ecoinflow because of its
         focus on implementation. The aim of the Ecoinflow project is to implement energy management
         systems in sawmills. Among others, an energy management system handbook for sawmills and a
         corresponding benchmarking tool are developed. 27 sawmills started with the implementation of the
         proposed system.

        Is the training or tool (or other type of information) focused on changing behavior of a person or
         group employers or management.

         The motivation, perceived action perspective and effectiveness of energy managers will largely
         depend on the behavior of that person. Capacity programs and tools that focus on behavioral aspects
         take into account how for example energy managers should act within a company structure to foster
         structural change. It should enable e.g., managers, operators to have new or improved knowledge
         about how they themselves or their colleagues can act to realize EE investments and sustainable
         behavior.

         An example of a project where behavioral aspects are covered is the Energy Treasure Hunt. The Energy
         Treasure Hunt is a two- to three-day event that engages employees in identifying low-cost energy
         savings opportunities from behavioral, operational, and maintenance actions. The tool is a 31-page
         guidebook provides step-by-step guidance on how to organize and execute an Energy Treasure Hunt.

    The number of relevant information sources that we categorized are 181 toolkits, reports, guidelines,
    trainings, etc. It was not the goal to place each of the individual sources in a single category. It is very well
    possible that a type of information can have technical and economic aspects, or organizational and
    behavioral aspects. The goal is to create an overview that shows what needs and possibilities are currently
    available for the agro-food sector. Figure 4 shows the overall categorization of all relevant information
    sources. Although all four categories are represented, almost half of all information sources focus on
    technical compliance (47%), meaning technical aspects are the most widely covered. Second, information
    sources give insight on strategic decision making and/or organization structure (33%). Economic gains

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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    (28%) form the third largest category. As insight on economic gains are frequently a part of (technical)
    audits, few information sources with a sole focus on economic gains were found. Of all information
    sources, 9% focused on behavioural aspects of persons or groups.

                      OVERVIEW CATEGORIZATION CAPACITY
                             BUILDING PROGRAMS
                     achieve technical compliance                        insights on economic gains
                     strategic decision making, organization structure   changing behavior of a person or group

                                                                 9%

                                                                               47%
                                                      33%

                                                                 28%

                                   Figure 4: Overview of categorized capacity building programs

The relevant information sources were divided into agro food sector tools & projects (figure 5), and general
relevant energy management tools and projects (figure 6) to see if there are any differences between the
sectors, which might give insight into the needs and possibilities for the agro-food sector specifically, and
whether this information is available in non-agro-food sector tools and projects.

Categorization in food tools and projects shows the dominance of technological aspects, respectively with 48%
(tools) and 80% (projects). Next, 20% (projects) and roughly a quarter (tools) pay attention to economic gains.
The third largest category in the ago-food sector is based on strategic decision making/organization structure.
Compared to the overall view this means relatively more information on economic gains are available in the
agro-food sector. Similarly to the categorization in all capacity building programs as shown in figure 4,
behavioural aspects form the minority of the agro food tools with 10%, whilst no agro food projects take
behavioural aspects into account.

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
D2.1 Overview of capacity building and trainng programmes                                                     19

                            Figure 5: Overview of categorized agro food tools (left) and projects (right)

In energy management the division between the categories look slightly different, as shown in figure 6. The
largest category in energy management are based on strategic decision making and/or organizational culture,
with 40% (projects) and 47% (tools). Technical support (44%) form a close second in energy management tools
and support by insight on economic gains create the third category (27%). In energy management projects
these two are reversed, with economic gains second (37%) and technical compliance third (28%).

                      Figure 6: Overview of categorized energy management projects (left) and tools (right)

As in the agro-food sector and the overall view shows, behavioural aspects are covered the least in both
energy management projects (10%) and tools (8%).

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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       1.2. Findings of the inventory and selection for INDUCE

The analysis of the categorization by sector shows how the focus on technical, economic and organizational
guidelines differ between the sectors. Technical and organizational aspects take the two biggest parts of the
diagram. Generally speaking, economic factors are taken into consideration secondly. The common
denominator is the relatively small representation of behavioural factors in all information sources. Table 1
shows a numerical overview of the division between categories in the food sector, general relevant projects,
and overall.

                                                               Matrix
                                    Technical             Economic            Organizational             Behavioral
                                   perspective           perspective           perspective               perspective
          Agro food sector                                                          4                         0
                                         28                    7
          tools
          Agro food sector                                                           13                        8
                                         40                   23
          projects
          General relevant                                                           64                       11
                                         60                   37
          tools
          General relevant                                                           23                        9
                                         19                   21
          projects
          Total                         147                   88                    104                       28
Table 1. Matrix with overview of categories of ‘Flagged’ information by technical, economical, organizational, behavioral perspective.

From those categorized sources of information, we selected 12 programs of which information was available
and informative in a way the INDUCE consortium could make use of them and showcase them in this report.

                           © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
D2.1 Overview of capacity building and trainng programmes                                                   21

2. INDUCE Selected promising capacity building programs
Here the selection of promising tools and programs can be found, each explained with accompanying
information. All of these programs contain a behavioral aspect, and INDUCE looked for known effectiveness
of the program or tool from the partner who provided the information.

       2.1. Steam Up – capacity-building of technical staff and consultancies about NEBs

Steam Up is a project that created a capacity-building program for technical staff and consultancies. Steam Up
aims to assess the substantial and easy to reach energy-saving potential of steam systems in heavy industries,
to support the EU objectives for energy efficiency. It is based on 75 detailed audits from several European
countries. It teaches energy advisors how to start a conversation with the higher management about non-
energy benefits (NEBs) in relation to the key KPIs of the company.

            2.1.1. Who is the source (who has developed or initiated this support?)

The Steam Up consortium consists of:

The Netherlands: eugenie.balde@rvo.nl, Germany: weber@adelphi.de, Austria: office@energyagency.at,
Czech Republic: michael.tendonkelaar@enviros.cz, Spain: fpuente@escansa.com, Greece: ifarrou@cres.gr ,
Italy: wen.guo@isnova.net, Denmark: nmr@aura.dk.

            2.1.2. What is the objective/what are the learning goals?

The objective is to teach energy advisors how to start a conversation with the higher management in an
organization about non-energy benefits (NEBs) of investments in energy efficiency in relation to the key KPIs
of the company.

                    Figure 7. STEAM-UP approach. Source: Ronald Vermeeren. Netherlands Enterprise Agency,
                               IEA Workshop Behavior in organisations. From the STEAM UP project.

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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             2.1.3. Which underlying insights or theories were used?

The training is based on the behaviour change wheel theory1. The method was used to train a group of
participants in switching from their own perspective to the client perspective.

The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) provides a structured approach to designing or updating behaviour
change interventions and strategies. Its purpose is to promote a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the
available options using behavioural change theory and the available evidence. It facilitates application of
behavioural science to ensure that component parts of an intervention or strategy act synergistically.

 The activities in the BCW process for designing an intervention strategy are related to how to create and learn
the right skills for the participants. Several steps were taken to specify the needed behavior and accompanied
intervention:

              1. Behavioural target specification: Identify the precise goal of the intervention in terms of
                 what behaviour/s need/s to change, to what degree, in what way, and in whom.
              2. Behavioural diagnosis: Find out what would need to change for the behaviour to change in
                 terms of Capability (physical and psychological), Opportunity (physical and social) and/or
                 Motivation (reflective and automatic) in the target population, group or individual.
              3. Intervention Strategy selection: Use the behavioural diagnosis to decide what ‘intervention
                 functions’ to apply: Education, Persuasion, Incentivisation, Coercion, Training, Restriction,
                 Environmental restructuring, Modelling, Enablement.
              4. Implementation strategy selection: Choose from among a range of policy options to support
                 long-term implementation: Fiscal policy, Legislation, Regulation, Environmental planning,
                 Communications, Service provision, Guidelines development.
              5. Selection of specific Behaviour Change Techniques: Develop a detailed intervention plan by
                 selecting from among a range of specific behaviour change techniques (elementary
                 components of interventions such as goal-setting, providing rewards etc.).
              6. Drafting the full intervention specification: Create the detailed intervention specification
                 covering all aspects of content and delivery of the intervention structured around the
                 chosen behaviour change techniques (content) and modes of delivery.

             2.1.4. What is the target group? Who should use this?

External energy advisors and energy coordinators within companies.

             2.1.5. Measured effects or user experiences

This far, in the Netherlands, two 3-hour trainings have been organized with a total of about 50 participants. In
a qualitative evaluation of the trainings, the participants identified three take-outs that most of them now use
in their daily practice as advisor:

 NEBs can be hard to quantify, but it is initially sufficient to mention them and make them plausible to
  clients;
 Knowing the drivers and main KPIs of the client/decision maker you are talking with increases your chance
  of success (i.e. an advice that is taken)

1
    Michie S, Atkins L, West R The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide to Developing Interventions. London: Silverback Publishing.
    www.behaviourchangewheel.com
                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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 NEBs are known by advisors, but unconsciously, and are not actively used as a sales argument. This training
  has helped to make conscious use of NEBs in communication with key KPI responsible.

        Figure 6. Model for organisational behavior and change. Source: Ronald Vermeeren. Netherlands Enterprise Agency, IEA
                                   Workshop Behavior in organisations. From the STEAM UP project.

       2.2. ASAP tool – preventing biases in strategic decision

Aligning Sustainability impact Assessment of Purchasing decisions.

            2.2.1. Who is the source (who has developed or initiated this support)?

The project Green by Choice, Green by Design: Suzanne Brunsting (ECN), Frans van den Akker (ISPT), Bart Vos
(Universiteit Tilburg), Marcel van de Bovenkamp (KWA).

            2.2.2. What is the objective/what are the learning goals?

Piloting the role and the significance of energy efficiency (EE) in investment projects in the (process) industry.
This is mainly focused at preventing ‘biases’ (be it conscious or unconscious) in making strategic decisions.
Previous research has shown that even companies that profile themselves as sustainable do not always make
desirable choices from EE perspective. The ASAP tool can improve the decision-making process in this area,
thereby considering EE as part of the overall sustainability policy of enterprises. It is important that the ASAP
tool is deployed at an early stage in the decision-making process, to allow for steering the process in the
strategically desired direction.

            2.2.3. Which underlying insights or theories were used?

One key insight important to development of this tool was that even apparently complex decisions or
judgements can be simplified to a handful of criteria that can be protocolized. In psychology, heuristics are
simple, efficient rules which people often use to form judgments and make decisions. They are mental
shortcuts that usually involve focusing on one aspect of a complex problem and ignoring others. A well-known
example is the APGAR score that is being used worldwide to judge the health of newborns in the first minutes
of their lives. Someone who uses this system has made it a routine to pay attention to five factors and will
                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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never miss one, even when tired. Another key insight is that the quality of decisions is higher if multiple
perspectives are involved. That is, different ‘roles’ in the organization should have a voice.

Methodology

Firstly, it is important to have a compact fact sheet (1-2 A4) containing key information about the investment
project. This could include information on project type (e.g. new equipment, major maintenance), investment
timing (when), estimated budget, (global) technical specifications and previous experiences in similar projects.

Subsequently, high level managers (management team, Board of Directors) assess this information using the
ASAP tool. This could involve a team of officers such as the CEO/director, COO/head of production and the
CTO/R&D director. It is important that the tool is initially filled in individually.

Finally, the individually completed ASAP forms are discussed in the management team. Exchanging thoughts
based on a variety of positions and background (i.e. functions in an organisation) has a positive effect on the
decision-making process. It is important that the ASAP tool is deployed at an early stage in the decision-making
process, to allow for steering the process in the strategically desired direction.

                                  Table 1. Title of the Table. Source: Source of the Table (YEAR).

            2.2.4. What is the target group? Who should use this?

High level managers (management team, Board of Directors) assess a compact fact sheet (1-2 A4) containing
key information about the investment project, using the ASAP tool. This could involve a team of officers such
as the CEO/director, COO/head of production and the CTO/R&D director. It is important that the tool is initially
filled in individually. Finally, the individually completed ASAP forms are discussed in the management team.
Exchanging thoughts based on a variety of positions and background (i.e. functions in an organisation) has a
positive effect on the decision-making process.

            2.2.5. Measured effects or user experiences

The ASAP tool has been reviewed by a small group of experts. A role playing game was organized with the
experts playing boardroom members judging a realistic case that was prepared by the project team based on
experiences in real life settings. The tool was judged to be helpful, however formal testing with the actual
target group has not taken place.

       2.3. Energy efficiency networks – exchange of experience among Energy Managers

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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Network Approach with moderated Exchange of Experience among people from different Companies.

            2.3.1. Who is the source (who has developed or initiated this support)?

Various actors. The approach originally comes from Switzerland and is currently applied in Germany. ÖKOTEC
carries out >10 Energy Efficiency Networks in Germany. ÖKOTECS contact persons are internal moderators
working at ÖKOTEC. ÖKOTEC has close ties to Dirk Köwener (LEEN), Andreas Gerspacher (STREKS) and Michael
Mai (IREES).

            2.3.2. What is the objective/what are the learning goals?

In Learning Energy Efficiency Networks (LEEN), 10 to 15 regionally based companies from different sectors
share their energy efficiency experiences in moderated meetings. Following an energy review and the
identification of profitable efficiency potentials in each company, all participants decide upon a joint target.
Information regarding new energy efficiency solutions is presented by experts during these meetings, together
with experiences concerning realized measures. The performance of each company is continuously monitored
and is controlled on a yearly basis. The network operating period is typically from three to four years.

The LEEN management system consists of a variety of documents and calculation tools as well as regulations
how to run a LEEN network. Thus it offers the participants a transparent evaluation of their saving potentials
and ensures a quality standard. The energy review and the monitoring of implemented measures comply with
the ISO 50001 standard.

The objective is to initiate and moderate an exchange of Experience among Energy Managers from different
companies about Energy Management Topics and also behavioural topics. This exchange of experience shall
accelerate energy efficiency progress within companies.

                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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                                                                                    2
The table below outlines key roles and potential actors in an EEN (IEEN, 2015 )

                                  Table 2. key roles and potential actors in an EEN (IEEN, 2015).

            2.3.3. Which underlying insights or theories were used?

Most Networks follow the LEEN Approach. Each network usually has an external Moderator who uses many
moderating methods; like structured inputs, target definition techniques and action plan development.

            2.3.4. What is the target group? Who should use this?

Energy Managers in enterprises.

            2.3.5. Measured effects or user experiences

This far, in Germany, around 50 Energy Efficiency Networks exist consisting usually of one moderator and 5 to
15 participants each. In first evaluations of the Network approach it could be observed that the progress of
adopting energy efficiency of companies in a network is twice as fast compared to the usual situation:

 Participants from the different companies share their experience and success stories among each other
  e.g. regarding motivation of people for using Energy management.

 The capacity building process is assisted by trainings and workshops in the network meetings.

 Continuous monitoring gives feedback to success of measures.

2
     IEEN, http://www.effizienznetzwerke.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Praxis- Leitfaden_Energieeffizienz-
     Netzwerke_Ausgabe-2016-4.pdf
                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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    10.

According to the experience of the project team, all trainings and capacity building activities are required and
appreciated by the target groups. However, a great challenge remains the initiation of a network: companies
still remain reluctant to participate to a network. This difficulty to initiate EEN is not specific to LEEN networks.

       2.4. CAS education program

Teach candidates (mostly professionals with a technical profile active in the field of energy) how to implement
an ISO 50001 in organizations. And to produce professionals with strong marketing capabilities, able to more
successfully sell energy-efficiency projects.

            2.4.1. Who is the source (who has developed or initiated this support)?

The education program Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS)3 in energy management, of the new University
of Geneva.

What is the objective/what are the learning goals?

Objectives of this course are twofold;

    1. teaching candidates how ISO 50001 energy management system in organizations should be
       implemented.
    2. train professionals in marketing capabilities to make them sell energy-efficiency projects in
       companies more successfully.

            2.4.2. Which underlying insights or theories were used?

The course defines Energy management as “effectuating organizational, technical and human actions in order
to improve an organization’s energy performance”.

Theories and techniques which were used in the course:

    1. change management/negotiation: influencing individual and organizational behaviour and decision-
       making
    2. business management: strategy, risk management, corporate finance, project management
    3. non-energy benefits of energy-efficiency in energy-performance projects and investment
       calculations.
    4. the serious game to help the candidates to integrate and apply the methods and concepts taught.

            2.4.3. What is the target group? Who should use this?

Mainly professionals with a technical profile active in the field of energy.

3
    https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:97518
                         © 2018 INDUCE | Horizon 2020 – EE-15-2017 | Grant Agreement No. 785047
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