Local Government South African Climate

 
Local Government South African Climate
South African
Local Government
Response to Climate Change
March 2016
Local Government South African Climate
CONTENTS                                                                                                                                                          FOREWORD
    FOREWORD..............................................................................................................................ii                      As the Convenor of the Local Government Climate Change Champions,
                                                                                                                                                                  I am pleased to announce that South African local government was well
1. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................1                          represented at the climate change negotiations that took place in Paris
                                                                                                                                                                  in December 2015. This representation was, in part thanks to the efforts
2. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AND NEGOTIATING POSITION...................................2                                                                           of the Local Government Partnership for Climate Change (LGP4CC),
                                                                                                                                                                  a partnership of South African Local Government Association, South
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Cllr Kgosientso Ramokgopa
3. LOCAL GOVERNMENT CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE.................................................7                                                                     African Cities Network, ICLEI- Local Governments for Sustainability and          Convenor of the Local Government
                                                                                                                                                                  the City of Tshwane.                                                             Climate Change Champions
		3.1                        Mitigation Response...........................................................................................10
                                                                                                                                                                  These climate change negotiations formally known as the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) under the
			3.1.1                                Sustainable Energy..............................................................................................11        auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, were particularly significant
                                                                                                                                                                  for local government as our mission was to ensure that we receive appropriate recognition as role-players
			3.1.2                                Green Buildings...................................................................................................16      in the battle against climate change and that this be reflected in the text of the Paris Agreement. This
                                                                                                                                                                  official recognition is a catalyst to ensuring that local government is financially and technically capacitated
			3.1.3                                Sustainable Waste Management....................................................................17                        as well as supported to effect its role in mitigating and adapting to climate impacts, hardest felt by those
                                                                                                                                                                  communities that local government is responsible for.
			                          3.1.4      Low Emission Urban Development..............................................................20
                                                                                                                                                                  Globally, local governments have stepped up to the plate by reaching a mutual understanding of its role
			3.1.5                                Sustainable Transport......................................................................................19             in climate change response as articulated in the Paris City Hall Declaration, a primary outcome of the
                                                                                                                                                                  Local Leaders Summit held on 3 December 2015. This text was influential in terms of what was eventually
		                 3.2       Adaptation Response.......................................................................................25                         committed to in the Paris Agreement.

			3.2.1                               Integrated Adaptation Response...................................................................26                        In the wake of COP21 and the Paris Agreement, it is now more important than ever that the LGP4CC takes
                                                                                                                                                                  up the mantel and ensures that local government is well versed with both the Paris City Hall Declaration
			                          3.2.2      Biodiversity.........................................................................................................27   and the National Determined Contributions (NDCs). The NDCs emphasise the role of vertical integration
                                                                                                                                                                  between national, provincial and local government in climate change response. Local government must
			                          3.2.3      Water Management..........................................................................................29              be well organised so that this vertical integration is effective. As the LGP4CC, we will ensure thorough
                                                                                                                                                                  consultation on how to institutionalise and support this vertical integration and how to fulfil our obligation
			                          3.2.4      Food Security.....................................................................................................31      both in respect of the NDCs and the Paris City Hall Declaration.

		                 3.3       Capacity Building...............................................................................................33                   In parting, I am proud of local government efforts to tackle climate change, some of which it does intuitively
                                                                                                                                                                  as part of its core service delivery mandate and at other times, when it embarks on pioneering initiatives
		                 3.4.       Financing.............................................................................................................34            that deliberately seek to effect dramatic change. It is imperative that we sustain our efforts to amplify our
                                                                                                                                                                  climate change response as it is now globally recognised that we are a core part of the solution.
4. REFLECTIONS ON COP21 AND THE PARIS AGREEMENT...........................................36

5. LOCAL GOVERNMENT CLIMATE CHANGE ROLE-PLAYERS & RESOURCES..........43

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                             i                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ii
Local Government South African Climate
1. INTRODUCTION                                                                                                  2. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
Climate    change is hitting South Africa hard.          The partnership spearheaded the Local Government        AND NEGOTIATING POSITION
Summer rainfall areas are becoming drier than            Programme for Climate Change (LGP4CC) which had
ever and drought is plaguing parts of the country.       a strong focus on climate change awareness and          In  November 2011, the National Climate Change
Due to a significant drop in dam levels, chronic         legacy projects in municipalities beyond COP17. At      Response Policy (NCCRP) was gazetted by the
water shortages in urban areas are extensive. The        the time, Cllr James Nxumalo was the Convenor of        South African Cabinet. Prior to this, the Long-Term
growing water crisis affects both the population         the Local Government Climate Change Champions           Mitigation Scenarios were prepared which spelled
and the yielding of crops and livestock. In turn,        (LGCCC). In March 2015, the baton was handed over       out the country’s mitigation options. Following the
this affects food security as hikes in food prices       to Cllr Kgosientso Ramokgopa, Executive Mayor of        gazetting of the NCCRP, the Long-Term Adaptation
affect those who are already impoverished and            City of Tshwane.                                        Scenarios were launched, which similarly elucidate
unable to adjust to food inflation. This coupled                                                                 adaptation options for the country in building the
with health hazards associated with heatwaves            The key message from COP17/CMP7 was that local          country’s resilience. The Policy recognises the role
and extreme weather events creates unbearable            government has a valuable contribution to make in a     of local government in Section 10.2.6 as it states:        Source: Department of Environmental Affairs

                                                                                                                      ‘
vulnerability for those who are already barely           comprehensive climate change response, especially
coping.                                                  since municipalities are at the forefront of climate           Local government plays a crucial role in building climate resilience through planning human
                                                         change impacts. By their constitutional designation,           settlements and urban development; the provision of municipal infrastructure and services; water
As South Africa braces itself for the full impact
of climate change, there is a growing consensus
                                                         they serve as conduits of services and development,
                                                         thereby reinforcing their role in contributing
                                                                                                                        and energy demand management; and local disaster response, amongst others. Climate change
                                                                                                                        considerations and constraints will be integrated into municipal development planning tools such
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ‘
that organised local government’s role in climate        towards the mitigation of climate change and                           as Integrated Development Plans, and municipal service delivery programmes.
change response is indispensible and relies on           reducing the vulnerability of citizens to the impacts
capacity building and financing for enduring             of climate change. The local sphere of government
reach. Essentially, local government is at the           is best placed to create public awareness and assist
                                                                                                                 The rest of the section outlines the support required by local government to actualise its role in
forefront of this vulnerability, as it is first to see   communities in building sustainable and resilient
                                                                                                                 climate change response, which includes:
the effects and to pick up the pieces.                   environments.
                                                                                                                  • Strengthening mandate of local government to fulfill specific climate change
This consensus on the role of local government           Four years on, local government has grown from
                                                                                                                 		functions;
in meaningful climate change response took root          strength to strength in responding to climate
in the lead up to the seventeenth Conference of          change, moving from policy and planning to
                                                                                                                  • Capacity-building and fiscal mechanisms to enable local government to fulfill these
Parties (COP17/CMP7) in 2011 when the South              implementation through dedicated projects that
                                                                                                                 		functions;
African Local Government Association (SALGA)             have climate change mitigation and adaptation at
with its partners, the South African Cities Network      their core. The objective of this publication is to
                                                                                                                   •           Best practice, knowledge-sharing among municipalities in promoting innovative
(SACN) and the 278 municipalities formed a               showcase a few examples of South African local
                                                                                                                 		            approaches to climate change.
Local Government Partnership for COP17. This             government-driven projects by profiling climate
partnership was supported by the Department of           change response action from 19 municipalities that      Lastly, it reinforces the role of organised local government, which in the context of South
Cooperative Governance (DCoG), Department of             responded to the call for information.                  Africa is SALGA, whose duty is to actively participate in the inter-governmental system, and ensure the
Environmental Affairs (DEA), as well as eThekwini                                                                integration of climate adaptation and mitigation action into local government plans and programmes.
Municipality.                                                                                                    Further duties include lobbying for the necessary regulatory measures and resources to support local
                                                                                                                 government in this regard.

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Local Government South African Climate
A second fundamental principle of relevance to                                      Results of the Long-Term Adaptation Scenarios            Overall, LGP4CC supports the summary position of South Africa in the following areas:
local government is that of seeking a balance                                       conducted by DEA in 2013/14 show that there is a
between mitigation and adaptation responses; an                                     higher proportion of vulnerability to the impacts               • Balanced attention and merit of initiatives to both mitigation and adaptation efforts;
approach that is also emphasised by the Policy in                                   of extreme weather events in the majority of
terms of prioritisation, focus, action and resource                                 rural settlements than in the urban setting. These              • Setting of country-specific mitigation targets (i.e. intended nationally determined
allocation.                                                                         results, as well as the narrative emerging from                   contributions);
                                                                                    the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas of
Local government recognises that mitigation                                         the CSIR, demonstrate the great need for more                   • Increased financial contribution of Annex 1 parties to the Global Climate Facility (financing
should remain a key focal area at both national                                     concerted adaptation efforts in the country.                      mechanism);
and local government level. On-going research1                                      Furthermore, data generated by the South African
indicates that without intervention, energy                                         Weather Services, under the National Climate                    • Adequate technology transfer mechanisms for developing countries, with financing also
consumption in the main urban nodes could more                                      Change Services Framework, also depicts a                         extended to meet reporting requirements and (R&D);
than double in the next 25 years – this would lead                                  picture where growing investment into climate
to an untenable situation. Even with aggressive                                     change adaptation at the municipal level will be                • A legally binding agreement for all parties under the Kyoto Protocol’s second commitment
implementation of renewable energy and energy                                       required.                                                         period.
efficiency interventions, energy consumption would
                                                                                    Therefore, the LGP4CC appreciates a position
continue to grow, albeit at a much slower rate.                                                                                              Although many municipalities, particularly metropolitan and secondary cities, have progressed well with
                                                                                    that places sufficient emphasis on climate
There is considerable opportunity to effectively                                                                                             regards to planning for and implementation of climate change response. Many others do not have the
                                                                                    change adaptation, loss and damage, which are
mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Developing an                                                                                             required capacity at both human and financial capital levels. The LGP4CC therefore, supports the move
                                                                                    critical considerations for municipalities and
enabling regulatory framework for municipalities                                                                                             by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its subsidiary bodies
                                                                                    their vulnerabilities. Municipalities face the most
and supporting them with skills, resources and                                                                                               towards strengthening mechanisms for capacity building.
                                                                                    significant risk to infrastructure, particularly those
funding remains a priority for local government.
                                                                                    that will experience higher incidences of flooding.
However, this should not happen to the exclusion
                                                                                    Socio-economic disparities in many urban, peri-          The Programme further seeks to emphasise the need for a stand-alone body under the UNFCCC as a
of an enhanced adaptation focus.
                                                                                    urban and rural contexts also pose greater risks         mechanism for coordinating capacity-building. Furthermore, this stand-alone body needs to focus on
                                                                                    for municipalities.                                      capacity development not specifically under technology measures; but rather to be inclusive of other
                                                                                                                                             developmental challenges such as gender imparity (i.e. effects of climate change on women and children)
                                                                                                                                             and challenges faced by least developed countries (LDCs). The work of this stand-alone body should
                                                                                                                                             develop a specific approach to capacitate local government.

                                                                                                                                             South African local government, whilst focusing on an inclusive and fair international climate regime, is
                                                                                                                                             equally involving itself in international initiatives to step up and consolidate local government commitments
                                                                                                                                             to climate change response. There are three major initiatives that South African local government is
                                                                                                                                             involved in, namely the carbonn Climate Registry, the Mexico Cities Pact and the Compact of Mayors.

                    City of Cape Town: Water Saving Awareness                       Flooding in Gauteng cities
                    Billboard

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                                3                                                                                                                                                                                                 4
 1
     Cities mitigation potential: on-going study by Sustainable Energy Africa on energy modelling
Local Government South African Climate
Furthermore, four South African cities are members of the C40 Group with the
Table 1: International Involvement of South African Municipalities
                                                                                                                                          City of Tshwane being accepted as the 70th member of the C40 Cities Climate
                                                                                                                                          Leadership in September 2014.
        Municipalities which are               Municipalities reporting             Municipalities which
         Mexico City Pact                      to the carbonn Climate           are part of the Compact of     			                     C40 is a network of the world’s megacities committed to addressing climate change.
            signatories                               Registry                            Mayors               			                     Acting both locally and collaboratively, C40 cities are having a meaningful global
                                                                                                               			                     impact in reducing both greenhouse gas emissions and climate risks through
 Global Cities Covenant on                 The carbonn Climate Registry       The Compact of Mayors is         webinars, workshops, meetings and exchanges. Through a number of thematic networks, C40 offers cities
 Climate known as the Mexico               (cCR) is the world´s leading       a coalition that unites city     an effective forum where they can collaborate, share knowledge and drive meaningful, measurable and
 City Pact consists of two parts:          reporting platform to enhance      governments and their network    sustainable action on climate change. The C40 networks are dynamic working groups of cities organised
 the first mentions considerations         transparency, accountability       partners in order to share the   around a set of common challenges or priorities. Their goal is to accelerate the identification, development
 as to why cities are strategic            and credibility of climate         impact of city action with the   and implementation of programmes, policies and projects in C40 cities through facilitated peer-to-peer
 in combating global warming;              action of local and subnational    global community to both         collaboration.
 the second establishes a set              governments. It is designated      inspire and catalyse action.
 of voluntary commitments to               as the central repository of the   The Compact encourages cities    Last but not least, 21 South African municipalities including all eight metros, are members of ICLEI – Local
 promote strategies and actions            Compact of Mayors launched         to use consistent, transparent   Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI). ICLEI is a leading global association of cities and local governments
 aimed at mitigating GHG                   at the Climate Summit 2014.        and robust reporting and         dedicated to sustainable development, that was founded in 1990. It represents 12 mega-cities, 100 super-
 emissions and adapting cities to                                             measurement standards.           cities, 450 large cities and urban regions as well as 450 small and medium-sized cities and towns in 83
 the impacts of climate change.                                                                                countries around the world.

                                                                                                               The ICLEI Africa Secretariat collaborates closely with the global ICLEI network and other regional offices
Figure 1: Geographic representation of international involvement of
                                                                                                               around the world, in sharing tools, materials and strategies and good practices specifically designed and
South African municipalities
                                                                                                               implemented at the local level. ICLEI Africa’s key focus environmental work streams include the Integrated
                                                                                                               Climate Programme, Urban Water Management, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services as well as Urban
                                                                                                               Planning.

                                                                                                                   “Cities are the new drivers of change, the epicentre of global economic development and growth is
                                                                                                                   located in cities. It is important that there is vertical integration with national government and horizontal
                                                                                                                   cooperation with peers so that we can learn and unlearn from our peers. Through this process, we
                                                                                                                   would be able to truncate the learning curve and we will be very aggressive in introducing many of the
                                                                                                                   interventions that will help us to address the adverse effect of climate change. The C40 Network gives
                                                                                                                   us that pristine opportunity and we want to congratulate it for the sterling work it has been doing over
                                                                                                                   the passage of time.” said Cllr Kgosientso Ramokgopa, Executive Mayor of the City of Tshwane
                                                                                                                   during COP21.

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Local Government South African Climate
3. LOCAL GOVERNMENT CLIMATE
                                                                                                          Local government has built capacity on
                                                                                                          sustainable energy governance with at least

 CHANGE RESPONSE
                                                                                                          17 cities and towns having developed energy
                                                                                                          and climate change mitigation strategies. This
                                                                                                          is further strengthened by developed capacity
South   Africa has 278 local authorities forming a back-                                                  in sustainable energy management in the big
to-back system of local government. Local government is                                                   metros i.e. Johannesburg, Tshwane, Cape Town
one of three spheres of government and one that is mainly                                                 and eThekwini.
concerned with service delivery required for the efficient                                                                                                                                                         “More than 50% of municipalities have
running of towns and cities.                                                                              Since the COP17/CMP7 in 2011, there has been
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   prioritised climate change or sustainable
                                                                                                          an increased implementation of projects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   energy in their integrated development
Local government is tasked with the provision of services in                                              that reduce emissions as well as strengthen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   plans and have identified specific projects”
a sustainable and equitable manner, the facilitation of social                                            communities’ resilience to climate change
and economic development and the promotion of a safe and                                                  impacts. Many of these initiatives have
healthy environment for all. Climate change is already having                                             been successful due to collaborations and
                                                                                                          partnerships between local government and                                                               Section 10.2.6 of the NCCRP makes reference to
a direct impact on the ability of municipalities to meet these
                                                                                                          non-profit organisations, other spheres of                                                              programmes that build capacity for local and provincial
objectives. Climate change impacts include extended dry
                                                                                                          government, agencies, research institutes and                                                           governments. It states that climate response strategies
seasons, increasing temperatures, extreme storms and sea
                                                                                                          the private sector.                                                                                     will be prioritised and that a climate change toolkit
level rise that could result in drought, crop failure, livestock
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  will be prepared for provincial and local government
death, damage to infrastructure and runaway fires. These
                                                                                                          Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) are key                                                             practitioners. This has led to the development of the
factors will further entrench poverty with the increase of
                                                                                                          planning documents for local government.                                                                Let’s Respond Toolkit.
vector-borne diseases, disabling existing livelihoods and
damage to household assets.                                                                               An analysis in 20152 shows that about 50%
                                                                                                          of all municipalities mention climate change                                                            The Toolkit aims to support local government to
                                                                                                          or sustainable energy in their development                                                              integrate climate change response directly into the IDP
Furthermore, local government and in particular cities,
                                                                                                          plans and have identified specific projects. The                                                        and sector planning tools, thus ensuring that the delivery
have a major role to play in the reduction of greenhouse           Congestion on South African highways
                                                                                                          number of municipalities which earmarked                                                                of basic services takes into account and reduces the
gas emissions thus contributing to the fight against climate
                                                                                                          budgets in their IDPs for climate change                                                                risks posed by climate change. This Toolkit is designed
change. An Energy Report published in 2015 by Sustainable
Energy Africa revealed that 18 cities and towns are home
                                                                            18 cities and                 or sustainable energy projects has almost                                                               to take municipal leaders (elected and administrative)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  through the necessary steps towards climate responsive
to half (52%) of South Africa’s population, but occupy only               towns consume                   doubled between 2012 and 2015.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  planning and provides a set of practical tools to support
4.5% of the country’s land area. They account for over a third
(37%) of national energy consumption and nearly half (46%)                   52% of the                                                                                                                           the process.

of national electricity consumption. They also consume                    country’s petrol
half (52%) of the country’s petrol and diesel reserves and
produce approximately 70% of the country’s economic                              and
wealth. Therefore, these dense spaces require sustainable                  diesel reserves                                                                                     “The Let’s Respond Toolkit:
urban development and spatial transformation if they are
                                                                                                                                                                               integrating climate change risks
to remain drivers of economic growth.                                                                                                                                          and opportunities in municipal
                                                                                                                                                                               planning”
                                                                                                                              LET’S RESPOND
                                                                                                                               A TOOLKIT TO INTEGRATING CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS
                                                                                                                               AND OPPORTUNITIES INTO MUNICIPAL PLANNING

                                                                                             10                environmental affairs

                      7                                                                                                                                                                                                                             8
                                                                                                               Department:
                                                                                                               Environmental Affairs
                                                                                                               REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA

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                                                                                                              result of a research on sustainable energy and climate change in municipal IDP, undertaken by GIZ in partnership with SALGA
Local Government South African Climate
The development of the Toolkit was informed by the lessons drawn from piloting the proposed tools
in selected municipalities. The five municipalities (listed below) were selected as representation of the
                                                                                                            3.1   Mitigation Response
different typologies of municipalities that exist within the local government sphere.
                                                                                                            Local government, and in particular cities, has a major role to play in the reduction of greenhouse
       •   Amathole District Municipality                                                                   gas emissions thus contributing to effective climate change response. There is considerable
       •   Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality                                                           opportunity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and efforts to develop an enabling regulatory
       •   Nxuba Local Municipality                                                                         framework for municipalities to grasp these opportunities. Further support with skills, resources
       •   Emfuleni Local Municipality                                                                      and funding remains a priority for local government.
       •   Thulamela Local Municipality
                                                                                                            Mitigation response can be categorised into the following
                                                                                                            thematic areas:

                                                                                                              •      Sustainable energy
                                                                                                            		           o Energy efficiency and demand-side management
                                                                                                            		           o Local renewable energy generation
                                                                                                            		           o Municipal-owned renewable energy
                                                                                                            		           o Sustainable energy for communities
                                                                                                            		           o Biogas to energy
                                                                                                              •      Green buildings
                                                                                                              •      Sustainable waste management
                                                                                                              •      Low emission urban development
                                                                                                              •      Sustainable transport
                                                                                                            		           o Integrated rapid public transport networks
                                                                                                            		           o Eco-mobility.

           SALGA discussions on climate change

The overwhelming findings from the pilot process was that the Toolkit is indeed a useful instrument
for mainstreaming climate concerns in the IDP and should be rolled out to other municipalities. These
findings supported the further rollout and implementation of the Toolkit through the application of the
suggested tools in the development planning. It was distributed in 80 municipalities across the country
in the period between 2013 and 2015. This programme continues to be extended to a wider range
of municipalities, with particular focus on municipalities that are classified as the most vulnerable to
climate change hazards.

                                                                                                                                   Various municipal mitigation responses

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Local Government South African Climate
3.1.1 Sustainable Energy                                                                                             There is a notion of leading by example and thus
                                                                                                                     municipalities have a responsibility to minimise their
                                                                                                                     own energy consumption. The Buffalo City Metropolitan
Energy efficiency and demand-side management
                                                                                                                     Municipality showed how to do this when it retrofitted
                                                                                                                     its Electricity Department offices. It has managed
Municipalities have a responsibility to minimise their own energy consumption, to lead by example                    to reduce the demand of the buildings by 25% and
and to save on their operational costs. They have a great opportunity to improve energy efficiency in                harnessed renewable energy generation measures
their infrastructure and operations through interventions such as the retrofitting of municipal buildings,           (wind and photovoltaic) to power 40% of the remaining
traffic and street lighting or efficiencies in the water sector. Municipalities can also encourage their residents   demand. A further objective of the project is to improve
to adopt energy efficient behaviours.                                                                                education, knowledge and understanding on renewable          Buffalo City Electricity Department
                                                                                                                     energy and climate change effects amongst employees,
Energy efficiency is supported through a national Energy Efficiency and Demand-Side Management                       young people and the wider community.
(EEDSM) funding programme aimed at promoting the implementation of more energy-efficient
technologies, processes and behaviours for municipalities. The funding for this programme comes from                 Stepping up from a municipal office to a municipal
the National Treasury via the Division of Revenue Act (DoRA) which is managed by the Department of                   facility, the uMhlatuze Local Municipality applied the
Energy. The programme has been in place since 2009 and over the years, it has evolved and expanded.                  same principles to the Empangeni Library. They did
Through this programme, municipalities receive grants to invest in energy efficiency initiatives for                 a lighting retrofit and replaced 337 lights to LEDs and
municipal infrastructure and operations.                                                                             installed a 5,7kWp solar panel array on the roof, which
                                                                                                                     led to a 55% reduction in energy consumption. The
                                                                                                                     project was part of the Urban LEDS showcase funded
                                                                                                                     by the EU and implemented by UN Habitat and ICLEI.

                                                                                                                     Municipalities also encourage their residents to
                                                                                                                     adopt energy efficient attitudes. An example of              Empangeni Library
                                        Facts on EEDSM                                                               an awareness campaign is the Electricity Savings
                                  •   60 municipalities covered                                                      Campaign launched by City of Cape Town in 2009.
                                  •   Projects in all 9 provinces                                                    It aims to encourage residential and commercial
                                  •   Total budget: just over R 1 billion                                            consumers to reduce electricity consumption. The
                                  •   Total energy savings: 499 GWh                                                  campaign has contributed towards a 24% reduction in
                                  •   31.7 million people affected                                                   electricity consumption levels.
                                  •   61.2% of population
                                  •   7,728 jobs created
                                  •   507,350 tCO2 avoided                                                           Water heating needs can represent about 40% of the
                                      (cumulative)                                                                   electricity usage of a household. Some municipalities
                                                                                                                     for example eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality
                                                                                                                     and City of Cape Town also provide information and
                      Results of the EEDSM programme from 2009/10 - 2014/15
                      Source: Department of Energy                                                                   facilitate programmes for their residents to replace their
                                                                                                                     electric geysers with high pressure solar water heaters.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Solar water heaters in Joe Slovo Township, Cape Town

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Local Government South African Climate
Local renewable energy generation                                                                                        Municipal-owned renewable energy

Local renewable energy generation is a significant component of local energy supply and has a major                      Municipalities are also developing their own energy projects
role to play in contributing to low carbon development, local economic growth and security of supply.                    by installing solar panels on their buildings, use of own waste
Municipalities have the opportunity to develop their own renewable electricity generation plants as well                 resources as well as stand-alone generation .
as to facilitate installation of small-scale generation by their residents and communities. Nelson Mandela
Bay, City of Cape Town, Drakenstein Local Municipality, City of Johannesburg, eThekwini Metropolitan                     Camdeboo Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape and
Municipality, Ephraim Mogale Local Municipality and others are walking this path.                                        Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality have demostrated this
                                                                                                                         respectively. For example, in Camdeboo an upgrade and
Given the high increases of electricity tariffs and regular                                                              extension was planned for a small waste water treatment
load shedding, municipalities identified the need to allow                                                               plant. The decision was taken to keep the water works off-grid
residents and companies to generate their own electricity                                                                and install about 11 kW of solar panels to provide the electricity
through solar panels and feed their excess electricity                                                                   required to power the pump used to irrigate the area with
back into the grid in a safe and sustainable manner.                                                                     the effluent water, as well as provide electricity to the office
Some municipalities are allowing their customers to feed                                                                 buildings and the telemetry system which sends data to the           Camdeboo Local Municipality Nieu Bethesda
                                                                                                                         municipal office.                                                    solar panels and SWH providing electricity and
electricity back into the grid in a pilot phase; others are
                                                                                                                                                                                              hot water needs to WWTP building
eagerly awaiting the national regulatory rules, whilst still
connecting individual installations. Approximately 100                                                                   Sustainable energy for communities
small-scale renewable energy producers are connected
to the grid as pilots in several municipalities.                                                                         Municipalities can also use alternative energy to provide
                                                                                                                         sustainable energy sources for their communties. Such
                                                               Doornkop Community Centre in Steve Tshwete Municipality   communities would be those not connected to the grid
                                                                                                                         and generally use candles, paraffin, charcoal or wood to
eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality has developed an online solar map and a tool to assist developers
                                                                                                                         provide for their energy needs. Using existing grants from           Ekurhuleni Leeupan Solar panels in the OR
and home owners in their solar PV projects. With a street address, a building owner can identify the
                                                                                                                         the national government, several municipalities in KwaZulu-          Tambo Precinct
electricity generation potential and evaluate the costs and benefits of such an installation.
                                                                                                                         Natal, Mpumalanga (Umjindi Local Municipality and
                                                                                                                         Bushbuckridge Local Municipality), Eastern Cape (Maletswai
                                                                                                                         Local Municipality) provide bioethanol gel (green gel) to their
                                                                                                                         communities together with efficient stoves. Through the Urban
                                                                                                                         LEDS project the Steve Tshwete Local Municipality installed
                                                                                                                         18kWp solar panels and solar water heaters on their community
                                                                                                                         centre. They also installed ceilings in the crèche and LED solar
                                                                                                                         street lights

                                                                                                                         !Kheis Local Municipality in the Northern Cape has rolled
                                                                                                                         out solar panels and mini grids to its informal settlements to
                                                                                                                         provide electricity day and night. On occasion, the informal         Mayor Masina from Steve Tshwete Local
                                                                                                                                                                                              Municipality engages with exhibitors at the
                       eThekwini solar map site                                                                          settlements have electricity thanks to their solar panels and
                                                                                                                                                                                              Doornkop Renewable Energy Rural Expo, April
                                                                                                                         storage systems, while the residents connected to the grid are
                                                                                                                                                                                              2015.
                                                                                                                         in the dark due to load shedding!
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                     13                                                                                                                                                                                            14
Local Government South African Climate
Biogas to energy                                                                                                        3.1.2 Green Buildings

An emerging trend in South Africa is harnessing the power of waste to generate electricity using emissions              Green buildings are environmentally responsible and
from both solid and liquid waste, thereby targeting two climate change issues at once.                                  resource-efficient buildings throughout their                            The Green Building Council South Africa
                                                                                                                        life-cycle: from design and construction                              is a non-profit organisation formed in 2007 to lead the
                                                                                                                        through to operation, maintenance,                                  greening of South Africa’s property sector.
Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality has established landfill gas extraction at four of its landfill sites. Its
Simmer and Jack landfill site which was commisioned in September 2014, has generated over 3 million                     renovation, and demolition.                                    It provides tools, training, knowledge and networks to promote
kWh of electricity and since its inception, a total of 664 488 tCO2eq has been avoided through methane                                                                                green building practices throughout South Africa. It is one of over
flaring for the four landfill sites.                                                                                    Green buildings is a trend that is steadily                   95 members of the World Green Building Council alongside Australia,
                                                                                                                        taking off in South Africa. At the forefront                 the United States and the United Kingdom. The GBCSA has developed
                                                                                                                        of this trend is the City of Tshwane, the                   the Green Star SA rating system and is the official certification body
                                                                                                                                                                                   for Green Star SA projects. It is a dedicated team of industry experts
                                                                                                                        first municipality to promulgate the green
                                                                                                                                                                                   working in collaboration with industry bodies, leaders, government
                                                                                                                        buildings by-law, thus becoming a
                                                                                                                                                                                    departments and professionals to develop market-based green
                                                                                                                        member of the Green Building Council                          solutions for the South African property industry.
                                                                                                                        South Africa (GBCSA) Leadership Network.

                                                                                                                        The Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality developed the O.R Tambo Precinct, a green building which
                                                                                                                        showcases sustainable technologies and construction techniques. To supply part of the building’s
Ekurhuleni Simmer and Jack landfill site                                                                                electricity requirement, the Leeupan solar photovoltaic (PV) plant has a generation capac­ity of 200kW
                                                                                                                        from 860 solar PV panels generating enough elec­tricity to power about 133 low-cost houses.
In eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, similar projects have been implemented at Bisasar and Marianhill
landfill sites and the electricity generated is fed into the municipal grid.                                            In Cape Town, the Wallacedene taxi rank operates off-grid, generating and storing its own electricity.
                                                                                                                        Rainwater har­vesting and recycling is also a feature of this transport hub to reduce water demand for
The City of Tshwane is home to a biogas project where the power                                                         non-drinking purposes, such as car washing. Furthermore, the Manenburg Contact Centre and Bloemhof
generated through a biogas plant is wheeled through the City of Tshwane                                                 Electricity offices are both municipal buildings that received 4-star Green Star SA rating, reflecting the
electricity infrastructure as part of a power purchase agreement between                                                Cape Town’s Smart Building Guidelines.
the project developer, Bio2Watt and the electricity off-taker, BMW. The
biogas is generated through cattle manure and supplies BMW’s Rosslyn                                                    Kwa Dukuza and Steve Tshwete have also recently compiled municipal green building guidelines and
plant with about a third of its power capacity.                                                                         their staff received training by GBCSA
                                                                                Bio2Watt biogas plant in Tshwane

At the City of Johannesburg’s biggest waste water treatment works                                                       The City of Tshwane is leading by example through 5-star green grading for the design of its new
(WWTW) known as Northern Works, biogas resulting from the anaerobic                                                     headquarters, Tshwane House. A 5-star building is considered “South African Excellence” under
digestion of the sludge is used to generate heat and electricity. The                                                   the Green Star rating system and shows a clear commitment to the overarching sustainability
electricity produced is for own-use within the WWTW. Once all the existing                                              objec­tives of the city, whilst maintain­ing a prudent and economical application of city resources.
digesters at the WWTW have been upgraded and all of the available
                                                                                                                        Tshwane House - the new municipal headquarters in the Tshwane CBD
sludge is treated anaerobically, the plant will generate approximately
56% of its power requirements.

                                                                                Johannesburg Northern Works waste
                                                                                water treatment plant - digester, gas
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                                                                                collector and treatment
                            15
3.1.3 Sustainable Waste Management                                                                                    The project of Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality aims to minimize waste disposed at land­fill coupled with
                                                                                                                      waste beneficiation and attendant economic development benefits and job creation. Landfill sites are
                                                                                                                      being transformed into waste parks which will have Material Recovery Facilities, Refuse Transfer Stations
Whilst     there are emerging technologies to process waste and minimise landfill emissions, a                        and technologies to treat waste and produce energy.
more proactive approach involves one that seeks to minimise waste disposal. The National Waste
Management Strategy mandates all local authorities to develop an Integrated Waste Management                          The Steve Tshwete Local Municipality has successfully reviewed its institutional arrange­    ments for
Plan (IWMP), which promotes the ‘3Rs’: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Municipalities are encour­aged to                   providing waste management and this is demonstrated by its success in imple­menting several waste
move towards a service that promotes the reduction of waste as well as the reuse of waste. As a further               management projects, such as buy-back centres, recycling bins in the municipal offices and a separated
priority, recycling schemes should be established, completing the 3Rs of good waste management.                       waste stor­age facility. The municipality has been a consistent winner of the Greenest Municipality
Only after these activities have been applied should the remaining waste undergo treatment and                        Competi­tion conducted annually by the DEA.
energy generation. Thereafter, any residual waste should be landfilled.
                                                                                                                      At the end of 2014/15, the City of Johannesburg
The eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality is at the forefront                                                           recorded an amount of 14.9% overall waste
of integrated waste management with its management of                                                                 divert­ed from landfill sites by both commercial and
the Buf­felsdraai landfill footprint and the management of                                                            city interventions. This is achieved under the City’s
its buffer. The Buffelsdraai landfill is managed as a closed                                                          pro­gramme for sustainable waste management
loop system meaning that anything that comes onto the                                                                 through avoidance, reduction, recycling and reduced
site should not leave in any form. The waste is compacted                                                             disposal of waste. Johannesburg also collects methane
and covered every day to minimise the chances of odour                                                                in its biggest landfill sites to avoid green­house gas
release or fly and vermin breeding. Land­fill gas is extracted                                                        emissions and improve air quality around the landfills.    Orange Farm Garden Site Sorting Facility
and is currently used for flaring, thus reducing methane’s
GHG potential. In the near future, the City plans to use the     eThekwini Buffelsdraai project
gas as fuel for vehicles or to generate electricity.                                                                  The City of Tshwane is pursuing a similar approach
                                                                                                                      with the develop­ment of the Kwaggasrand Material
The City of Cape Town multi-purpose Kraaifontein Waste                                                                Recovery Facility on the buffer of a recently
Management Facility (KWMF) is the first large-scale                                                                   decommissioned landfill site, offering the City a viable
‘green-fields’ refuse transfer station (1 000 tonnes/day) in                                                          and comprehensive alternative to the antiquated and
South Africa that is integrated with a mechanised materials                                                           costly practice of landfilling.                            Graphic view of Tshwane Kwaggasrand MRF

recovery facility (100 tonnes/day). It receives co-mingled
recyclables that are separated and collected at source.                                                               The Lephalale Local Municipality has suc­   cessfully
As a fully integrated waste management facility, it also                                                              maintained a cleaner environment in the context
encompasses a public drop-off, a greens’ management                                                                   of a fast growing secondary city by implementing
facility, offices, a workshop, wash-bays and provision for                                                            various tools, such as community partnerships called
future ‘energy-from-waste’ technologies. The facility allows                                                          “adopting a street” and “polluter pays” principle.
                                                                 The Kraaifontein Waste Management Facility in Cape
the integration of activities to avoid costly transportation     Town, showing new containers on the apron
                                                                                                                      These ensure that companies dispose of their waste
and handling of waste as well as its diversion from landfill,                                                         responsibly and there is strict enforcement of waste
thereby indirectly supporting the growth and employment                                                               by-laws.
opportunities in a growing and sustainable recycling                                                                                                                             Lephalale waste community-based recycling
industry.

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                    17                                                                                                                                                                                              18
3.1.4 Low Emission Urban Development                                                                                                         3.1.5 Sustainable Transport

Spatial   planning, infrastructure development and                                                                                           At the heart of low carbon development is the functionality of our urban environments. One of the greatest
transport combine to form a critical component of                                                                                            sources of dysfunction is the lingering effect of Apartheid-styled spatial planning, forcing enduring
urban development, and as a mitigation response the                                                                                          disconnections between places of work and residence. Long and expensive travel is a hallmark of many
aim is to promote low carbon urban development.                                                                                              South African households’ realities and also contributes to the mushrooming of informal settlements as
                                                                                                                                             people struggle to access economic opportunities.

Municipalities that are part of ICLEI–Local
                                                                                                                                             While spatial transformation will take several decades to achieve, municipalities are developing
Governments for Sustainability’s Urban Low Carbon
                                                                                                                                             Integrated Rapid Public Transport Networks that at least ease the travel burden for long distance
Economic Development Strategies (LEDS) Programme
                                                                                                                                             daily commuters by offering them a safe, efficient, comfortable and affordable mode of transport.
are also demonstrating the virtues of approaching
planning from a low carbon perspective. Both Steve
Tshwete Local Municipality and KwaDukuza Local                                                                                               Integrated rapid public transport networks
Municipality for example, were supported to develop
long-term low emission visions. Whilst such visions                                                                                          The City of Johannesburg’s history has created a spatially, socially and economically disconnected and
may seem intangible, they come to life through                                                                                               segregated City. The Corridors of Freedom attempts to transform the City by rebuilding inclusive and
practical exercises such as greenhouse gas emissions                                                                                         efficient liveable spaces around a public transport backbone of rail and bus rapid transit system. The
Inventories, which enable municipalities to understand                                                                                       implementation of the system known as Rea Vaya and the urban transformation potential around it is
the source of such emissions and how these may then                                                                                          estimated to save 1.6 million tCO2eq by 2020. This will be achieved through the replacement of the old
be addressed. Practical interventions such as the                           Steve Tshwete Local Municipality- Masakhane (Working Together)   municipal bus fleet with cleaner buses, the significant reduction of privately owned vehicles and minibus
                                                                            Scenario for Low Emission Development
greening of municipal facilities assist in developing a                                                                                      taxis, and related programmes such as the creation of non-motorised transport networks and inter-modal
foundation of best practice to inspire further low carbon                                                                                    transfer facilities to support cycling and walking.
development.
                                                                                                                                             In a similar vein is the City of Tshwane’s Rapid Transit system, known as A Re Yeng, which is
                                                                                                                                             under development to provide for the transport needs of large communities residing in areas
                                                                                                                                             that are far from both the CBD and from their traditional work areas. The City launched phase
                                                                                                                                             1A in December 2014, with buses operating at a high frequency for extended periods of time.
                                                                                                                                             This bus rapid transit system currently links the Pretoria CBD with Hatfield, as well as linking
                                                                                                                                             various educational and research institutions, hospitals, embassies and government departments. The
                                                                                                                                             service is unique in that it provides free Wi-Fi to commuters at all stations and inside the buses.

                                                                                                                                             Bus rapid transit systems (BRT) in different cities; Johannesburg; Cape Town and Tshwane respectively

                                                                            KwaDukuza Local Municipality- House of Wealth Scenario for Low
Left: Steve Tshwete Scenario Planning; Right: KwaDukuza Scenario Planning
                                                                            Emmision Development
Workshop

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                          19                                                                                                                                                                                                                         20
Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality is also in the process of constructing its Integrated Rapid Public       Eco-mobility: an important element
Transport Network. Owing to funding constraints, the municipality has elected to roll out the system in       of sustainable transport
phases, taking into consideration transport system bottlenecks, accessibility of previously disadvantaged
communities and future development such as the aerotropolis initiative around the O.R Tambo International     No matter what public transport and non-motorised transportation is provided, certain behaviours like the
Airport.                                                                                                      use of single-occupancy private vehicles are difficult to shift. The City of Johannesburg in partnership with
                                                                                                              ICLEI embarked on a month-long campaign known as the Eco-mobility Festival to promote eco-mobile
The current Phase 1 links Tembisa in the north to Kempton Park, including O.R Tambo International             urban transport systems. The Johannesburg Declaration on Eco-mobility in Cities, prepared by ICLEI and
Airport, and Vosloorus in the south, which is situated some 55 kilometres away. Eventually the system will    the City of Johannesburg and endorsed, by city leaders and experts from five continents, emphasises that
comprise a network of trunk routes, non-motorised transpot complementary and feeder routes, stations,         no greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategy is complete without the inclusion of low carbon urban
pedestrian bridges, depots and a transport management centre, all designed to be universally accessible       transport solutions.
to include people with disabilities.
                                                                                                              One of the objectives of the Festival was to encourage citizens to change their behaviour and transport
My City buses in Cape Town provide similar rapid public transport service which is connected to a cycling     choices by leaving their cars at home and using alternative modes of transport, such as public buses and
route to encourage non-motorised transport. The City also runs a Smart Driver Training Programme for the      trains, bicycles and light electric vehicles, or engage in car sharing and car-pooling options.
fleet staff to link driving habits to environmental impact. This is measured through various indicators and
has shown significant reduction in carbon emissions. eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, George Local        West Street, which is the central axis of Sandton and considered to be the richest square mile in South
Municipality and other municipalities are constructing their own rapid bus transport systems. In total, 13    Africa, was turned into an eco-mobile boulevard. The number of pedestrians increased to five times the
municipalities are engaging in bus rapid transport systems to improve their public transport networks.        normal volume, with almost 2500 pedestrians walking on West Street during peak hours. By giving priority
                                                                                                              to walking and cycling on streets and public spaces, it was shown that walking is safe, comfortable and
The City of Tshwane has also committed to reducing emissions from the transport sector thus improving         beneficial to one’s health. Furthermore, it allows engagement with one another and with the environment.
air quality through the introduction of low and ultimately zero emission buses in its fleet by signing the
C40 Clean Bus Declaration. The current fleet of buses operates on low emission diesel Euro V engines and                                                                     South Africa’s cities are energy-inefficient
the next fleet order is moving towards Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines. A minimum of 30% of the                                                                         with high transport energy demands and
expected total operational fleet of 350 buses will be powered by CNG engines and the balance with Euro                                                                       expenditure with a widespread dependence
V/V1 diesel engines.                                                                                                                                                         on private vehicles. Transport is typically
                                                                                                                                                                             responsible for at least half of South Africa’s
                                                                                                                                                                             total energy use in urban areas and around
                                                                                                                                                                             one-third of urban GHG emissions.

                                                                                                                                                                             “It is worrying to know that emissions from urban
                                                                                                                                                                             transport are growing worldwide. Changing
                                                                                                                                                                             transport policies and patterns is crucial to win
                                                                                                                                                                             the climate battle and keep us under the 2°C
                                                                                                                                                                             threshold. Cities and regions are at the forefront
                                                                                                                                                                             of this transition” said Monika Zimmermann,
                                                                                                                                                                             Deputy Secretary General of ICLEI– Local
                                                                                                                                                                             Governments for Sustainability.

           A Re Yeng CNG-powered fleet

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The City of Tshwane has also been very active in the eco-mobility space
                                which features strongly in its sustainability outreach programme, known as
                                Tshwane Green. The aim of this outreach programme is to approach each
                                key sector– individuals, households, communities, schools, businesses
                                and municipal officials – with a targeted strategy to inculcate behaviour
                                change.

                                In the last 18 months, the municipality through its City Sustainability Unit
                                has initiated a variety of innovative events to promote eco-mobility.

A first event on the ‘eco-mobility programme’ was a fun ride known
as the Tshwane Green Ride in October 2014 that covered the distance
between Mamelodi and Rietondale. Through this event, a first
township-based cycling club known as Tshwane Urban Riders was                                                  The City of Tshwane electric vehicles fleet
profiled high up on the map. Through a partnership with Tshwane
Urban Riders a year later, the Unit facilitated the establishment of a                                         Concluding comments
cycling club in Eersterust, a historically disadvantaged community in
the east of the City, equipping the community with a fleet of bicycles                                         The lion’s share of mitigation responses are found within metropolitan municipalities which is unsurprising
that now sees children riding regularly on the weekends.                                                       given metros’ propensity for greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity. However, research shows
                                                                                                               that economies of secondary cities such as Saldanha Bay, Rustenburg, Polokwane etc are growing fast
The Earth Hour Capital Challenge held in March 2015 followed the                                               and if the associated development is not climate-proofed and sustainable, more harm than good may
                                                                           Tshwane Green Ride 2014
success story of the Tshwane Green Ride. It raised the profile of public                                       occur. Therefore, any effort by South Africa to cut greenhouse gas emissions requires a change in service
transport as a means to support low-carbon development. Students                                               delivery models especially by local government The projects that have evolved since COP17 demonstrate
from the Tshwane University of Technology were paired with the City                                            that the metros and some of the secondary cities have really taken this need for change to heart and are
officials and required to use all available modes of public transport to                                       willing to go the extra mile to promote sustainable service delivery and lead by example.
navigate a series of destination checkpoints across the City.
                                                                                                                         “This momentum on the implementation of mitigation options both locally and globally provides
The winning team was the one that emitted the lowest emissions. The                                                     valuable lessons for our municipalities. The current energy supply constraints, rising electricity
event was organised in the run up to the announcement of Tshwane                                                        prices as well as falling PV system costs facilitate an environment for large-scale uptake of PV
as South Africa’s Earth Hour Capital 2015. The City was selected by                                                     technology, waste-to-energy and increased energy efficiency measures in the near future” said
a panel of international experts in recognition of its sustainability                                                            Sithole Mbanga, Chief Executive Officer of the South African Cities Network.
initiatives. The latest initiative in this eco-mobility programme is
the procurement of 10 electric vehicles to form part of the City’s
messenger fleet and solar powered charging stations to be installed
throughout the City.

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3.2 Adaptation                                                                              Adaptation response can be catergorised into the following thematic areas

                                                                                                 •   Integrated adaptation response
South Africa’s NCCRP clearly emphasises that climate change will place additional                •   Biodiversity
stress on South Africa’s agricultural systems and water security, whilst placing greater         •   Water management
pressure on disaster relief and management systems and resources. More intense                   •   Food security
storms and floods, droughts and fires are already apparent, and extreme climatic
events are causing severe damage to the agricultural sector with a devastating               3.2.1 Integrated Adaptation Response
impact on the country’s rural poor. Marginalised groups in South Africa are
already experiencing a range of stressors, perpetuated by socio-economic
disparities that still exist in some parts of the country, both urban and rural.                     A transversal approach to building adaptation response is needed in order to reduce
Climate variability and change is an existing additional stressor anticipated                        climate vulnerability and increase the resilience and adaptive capacity of vulnerable
to increase in intensity – and adaptation measures that will support more                            communities, particularly in the rural and peri-urban areas. There are two sets of
resilient rural communities in the short and longer term are crucial.                                   projects that demonstrate a holistic approach to building adaptation response. The
                                                                                                           first is building resilience in the Greater uMngeni Catchment and the second set
South Africa’s Long-Term Adaptation Scenarios, which were published                                         targets the Mopani and Namakwa District Municipalities, two areas that are under
in 2013, offer a fresh insight into the rate and extent of climate                                            considerable threat of climate change impacts.
change impacts on biomes, ecosystems and biodiversity in South                                                 In the first project uMgungundlovu District Municipality – Building Resilience
Africa. In particular, they describe the potential vulnerability of                                                in the Greater uMngeni Catchment, the overall objective is to reduce
South Africa’s nine biomes (and their biodiversity) to the                                                           climate vulnerability and increase the resilience and adaptive capacity in
                                                                                                                         rural and peri-urban settlements. Through an integrated adaptation
 projected climate change over the medium and long term
                                                                                                                              approach, this project targets small-scale farmers in productive
(2020-2050).                                                                                                                 landscapes in the uMgungundlovu District that are threatened by
                                                                                                                          climate variability and change.
Amongst others, the Scenarios draw out the adaptation
response options for South Africa, highlighting the importance
                                                                                                                          The project has adopted a suite of complementary project
of mainstreaming the potential of biodiversity and ecological
                                                                                                                           interventions, focusing on: i) early warning and response systems;
infrastructure to achieve sector-specific adaptation and
                                                                                                                            ii) a combination of ecological and engineering infrastructure
development outcomes/benefits. They further indicate
                                                                                                                               solutions specifically focused on vulnerable groups in rural
that the appropriate and specific types of local action
                                                                                                                                and peri-urban settlements; iii) integrating climate variability
required would need to be further defined in biome
                                                                                                                                and change responses into agricultural practices and
specific adaptation plans.
                                                                                                                                  infrastructure; and iv) disseminating adaptation lessons
                                                                                                                                    learnt and policy recommendations, to facilitate upscaling
Local governments are at the forefront of building their
                                                                                                                                   and replication. This is a five-year project that was launched
communities’ resilience in adapting to the effects of
                                                                                                                                   in January 2015 and ends in October 2020. It is funded
climate change.
                                                                                                                                  through the Adaptation Fund of the South African National
                                                                                                                                 Biodiversity Institute.

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In the second set of projects that are currently being developed in the increasingly warmer and drier              The Programme seeks to enhance the conservation and management of natural wetland resources through
Mopani District Municipality and Namakwa District Municipality, the overall goal is to ensure that local           increased awareness of wetlands and the integration of biodiversity considerations into local government
communities in the project focal areas have reduced vulnerability and increased resilience to the anticipated      planning and decision-making. In the long-term, the Programme aims to contribute to disaster risk-
impacts of climate change. The objective is to incorporate climate adaptation response strategies into             reduction and resilience to climate change.
local practices so that assets, livelihoods and ecosystem services are protected from climate induced risks
                                                                                                                                             Figure 3: Municipalities in the Wetland South Africa Programme
associated with expected droughts, seasonal shifts and storm-related disaster events.

Through the programme, (i) small grants will be provided to vulnerable communities to deliver
tangible and sustainable benefits; (ii) Local institutions will be empowered to identify and implement
adaptation response measures and (iii) lessons learned will facilitate future up-scaling and replication.
These programmes are financed by the Small Grants Facility for Enabling Local Level Responses to Climate
Change of the Adaptation Fund.

3.2.2 Biodiversity
B iodiversity is crucial to ecosystem health, and healthy ecosystems are central to human well-being.
There are two sets of interventions being undertaken by local government in a bid to address the integrity
of biodiversity. The first is wetland rehabilitation and the second is alien clearing programmes.
                                                                                                                   The second national intervention with local                 Invasive alien plants are a major threat to
                                                                                                                   application and relevance is the Working for                biodiversity in catchment areas, potentially
Wetlands are regarded as the third most important support system on earth. They are part of the natural
                                                                                                                   Water (WfW) Programme, which includes the                   disrupting the delicate natural balance in
infrastructure for gathering, managing and purifying water, hence they improve water quality. They play
                                                                                                                   identification and eradication of invasive alien            ecosystems and adding to the effects of climate
a vital role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation through storm-water culmination, flood
                                                                                                                   species. This intervention is labour-intensive and          change. As we depend on biodiversity for water,
impact reduction and erosion control.
                                                                                                                   a source of employment.                                     food, wood, clean air, medicine and much more, it
                                                                                                                                                                               is vitally important that this resource is protected.
                                                                                                                   Invasive alien vegetation refers to plants brought
                                                                                                                   to South Africa from other countries, both                  The West Coast District Municipality has embarked
                                                                                                                   intentionally and unintentionally, that cause               on a project to remove approximately 10% of
                                                                                                                   human, environmental or economic harm.                      alien invasive species within the municipality. It
                                                                                                                   Without natural enemies, these plants reproduce             serves as an implementing agent for various alien
                                                                                                                   and spread rapidly, taking valuable water and               eradication projects within its area of jurisdiction
                                                                                                                   space from indigenous plants. Many alien plants             on an internal baseline budget as well as with
Local action for biodiversity programme                                                                            consume more water than local plants, depleting             funding from WfW and through the Expanded
                                                                                                                   our valuable underground water resources. Dense             Public Works Programme.
A partnership between ICLEI and IUCN has culminated in the Local Action for Biodiversity: Wetland South            alien vegetation can also provide plenty of fuel for
Africa Programme, which is implemented between January 2015 and October 2017.                                      veld fires, making them exceptionally hot, which            Achievements to date include clearing of large
                                                                                                                   damages the burnt areas’ soil structure.                    areas previously highly infested with exotic
Its aim is to enhance the conservation and management of natural wetland resources across South Africa                                                                         invaders, which reduces the fire hazard and water
by assisting 11 district and local municipalities to build institutional capacity and develop local policies for                                                               consumption within riverine areas.
integrating biodiversity across local government departments.

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