SSnow and Ice Control Review April 2019 Frank Blues - City of ...

SSnow and Ice Control Review April 2019 Frank Blues - City of ...
Snow and Ice Control Review
        April 2019

       Frank Blues
SSnow and Ice Control Review April 2019 Frank Blues - City of ...
Snow and Ice Control Review
April 23, 2019

City of Prince George
1100 Patricia Boulevard
Prince George, BC

Attention: Dave Dyer, P.Eng. General Manager Engineering and Public Works

Subject: Snow and Ice Control Review

Dear Dave,
Please find attached my final Review of Snow and Ice Control Operations for the City of Prince George.
Snow and ice control operations is an expensive core city service and as such it is appropriate to
conduct periodic reviews to ensure the City stays abreast of industry best practices and aware of
opportunities that can improve the sustainability and delivery of its services. As requested, the review
addresses the following areas:

       1. Winter Operations Planning
       2. Delivery of Winter Services (Service Levels and a review of the Snow and Ice Control Council
       3. Snow and Ice Control Policy - Proposed
       4. Winter Operations Technology and Winter Services Reporting
       5. Municipal Winter Organizational Structures
       6. Risk-based Winter Operations Budgeting

This review is not an in-depth examination of each of the review areas but the review should stimulate
executive discussion around the materials presented to determine their value to the City and their
relative priority for further development.

I have appreciated the opportunity to share my thoughts on the current operations which often come
under scrutiny when budget or performance issues arise despite the significant variability of winter
weather and the resulting management and operational challenges it can present.


Frank Blues

cc Gina Layte Liston, Director Public Works

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Snow and Ice Control Review


Page                           Description

 4     Executive Summary

 7     Invitation to review snow and ice control – scope of work

 8     Winter Operations Planning

 9     Snow and Ice Control Services

 14    Snow and Ice Control Policy - proposed

 16    Winter Services Technology and Winter Services Reporting

 20    Organizational Structures for Winter Operations

 21    Snow and Ice Control – Risk Based Budgeting

 24    Table of Canadian Winter Cities and Services for Comparison

 26    Appendix A - Additional Items of Interest

       Appendix B - Francis (Frank) Blues, brief outline of
       management and snow and ice control experience

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Snow and Ice Control Review
Executive Summary
The City snow and ice control services were criticised in the local media for their “poor” response to a
snowfall event in late December 2018/early January 2019:

Jan 2, 2019: How about that snow removal – An online poll of Citizen Readers on recent snow removal
Jan 4, 2019: Mayor defends city snow removal – An outline of the Mayors response to media criticism

The City invited Frank Blues a retired 30-year veteran of managing Prince George’s various Public Works
activities to review strategic elements of the City’s current snow and ice control program.

The City’s current Council Procedure on Snow and Ice Control has been in place in one form or another
for over 30 years during which time it has been amended many times as changes were made to the
services delivered, but never overhauled to develop and separate council policy from operational
standards(service levels) and procedures. For example, the document originally outlined the service
levels for roads and sidewalks. Civic facility service levels were simply added in separately rather than
integrated or aligned into one cohesive area of municipal services with a similarly integrated approach
to the management and assignment of resources. The current document started life as a council policy
and was later referenced as a council procedure due to the largely operational content of the

The City requested that the review be expanded to include a comparison of services with other
Canadian municipalities with similar winter challenges. Using population, snowfall and winter
temperatures, other cities including London, Greater Sudbury and Thunder Bay in Ontario, St John’s
Newfoundland and St John in New Brunswick were reviewed for comparison to Prince George.

The areas of review included:
   x Winter Operations Planning
           o A sample of a Winter Management Plan is discussed to ensure the necessary planning
               is in place, the plan is reviewed annually and the information (knowledge) is
   x Delivery of Winter Services (Service Levels and a review of the Snow and Ice Control Council
           o The current winter service levels are reviewed and new tables of winter services for 1)
               Snow Removal, 2) Ice Control and 3) Calls for Winter Service are included in a simplified
   x Snow and Ice Control Policy
           o A proposed new Snow and Ice Control Policy is included for consideration.
   x Winter Operations Technology and Winter Services Reporting
           o With the recent introduction of Cityworks, new work management software and Global
               Positioning Systems (GPS) equipment on vehicles and equipment, there is new
               capability in reporting the performance of winter operations thereby improving the
               accountability and transparency in the delivery and reporting of winter services.

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       x   Municipal Winter Organizational Structures
               o With only a limited review of organizational structures in the comparison communities
                  it becomes quickly apparent there is no one way to effectively and efficiently organize
                  the delivery of winter services across the community. The mix of minor and major
                  facilities, roads, sidewalks and lanes with varying degrees of pedestrian and traffic types
                  and volumes adds up to a complex set of logistical challenges with competing priorities
                  and demands across the community. There are minimal recommendations for change
                  in this area other than to stress the continuing need to integrate staff and equipment
                  training with succession management planning to ensure the continuity in the delivery
                  of quality services through the development of skilled and knowledgeable staff
       x   Risk-based Winter Operations Budgeting
               o Snow and ice control budgeting is most challenging due to the variability of winter
                  weather. The proposed method of budgeting accommodates long term adjustment due
                  to the impacts of climate change and inflation related to the cost of equipment and
                  materials that may not track at the same rate as the Consumer Price Index (household
                  inflation). It is important to recognize the range of potential winter costs from mild to
                  severe calendar-based winters and where along that continuum should Prince George
                  budget. An appropriate risk based annual budget together with Winter Reserve Funds
                  should minimize the risk of funding issues. The continuing reduction of locally available
                  and reliable rental equipment with trained operators will continue to pose challenges
                  into the future as the local resource sector continues to contract.

    Other Considerations and Findings:
    Municipal agencies in Ontario were more aligned in the delivery of services due to a provincial guide;
    classifications using traffic volumes and road speeds, and among other things, the minimum municipal
    maintenance standards for snow and ice control.

    All of the cities reviewed had well documented expectations for the delivery of snow and ice control
    services for roads and sidewalks and only St John’s Newfoundland discussed service levels for civic
    facilities or park trails as has been outlined in Prince George. Key observations are outlined under:

x   None of the communities reviewed has a Snow and Ice Control Policy to identify Council’s expectations
    of Staff rather than simply identifying a list of operational procedures and standards.
x   All reviewed communities use the road classification system approach to priority setting.
x   Transit routes and in some cases transit stops and shelters are considered high priorities.
x   *Some community Priority 1 routes commenced clearing with 5-10cm accumulated and were cleared
    (passable) within 12 hours.
x   *Some residential roads are cleared when snow accumulation is 8 – 10cm and are completed anywhere
    from 8–72 hours after the arterial and collector routes are completed.
x   Sidewalks are plowed when snow accumulations reach 5-8cm and are completed anywhere from 8-12
    hours after the start of plowing for sidewalks on arterial and collector roads, and up to 4-7 days after
    the streets have been widened.
x   London Ontario has 42 sidewalk machines to clear 1500km of sidewalk (35km of sidewalk/machine). It
    begins clearing at 8cm of snowfall and expects completion within 24 hours. Businesses are responsible
    for clearing the sidewalk in front of their business.
x   London Ontario is the only community to mention Parks trails clearing when snow >8cm.

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x   Snow windrows/banks clearance times are not stipulated in any of the compared communities.
x   The City of St John has a well-developed Winter Management Plan that lists various winter planning
    activities, the position responsible and activity completion dates. The linked plan may provide a good
    template for the City of Prince George.
x   Communities in Ontario have referenced the Municipal Benchmarking Network when referring to
    winter benchmark statistics. The City of London includes their own measure of the budgeted number
    of “Event Days” and compares this to the actual as a measure of the severity of winter. In contrast, the
    City of St John, New Brunswick uses a Storm Severity Index to compare winter storm events.
x   Cities in Ontario do not mention snow clearing in their plans for civic facilities. None of the cities
    compared have a bare pavement standard for snow removal/ice control at facilities.

    Note * It is worth noting that while some communities may have road clearance times significantly less
    than Prince George it is likely completed using a truck plow or similar piece of equipment. This can be
    problematic on curbed streets and in deeper snowfall conditions at intersections or across driveways
    where the plowed snow can be difficult to negotiate.

    Recommendations and Conclusions:

       1. Develop a Winter Management Plan similar to that developed by the City of Saint John, New
          Brunswick, to integrate winter operational planning across all facilities into one comprehensive
          document which assigns responsibility for planning activities with their completion dates.
       2. Replace the current Council Procedure on Snow and Ice Control with:
              a. A Council Policy on Snow and Ice Control to provide guidance to staff on Council
              b. Tables of Minimum Service Levels for the delivery of winter services with associated
              c. Updated internal winter operational procedures arising out of the proposed changes
       3. Implement Winter Services reporting at the strategic level to improve communications and
          staff accountability.
       4. Consider the development and implementation of Risk Based Budgeting to reduce the
          financial impact of the volatility of winter weather and risk of a severe winter.

    The City of Prince George prides itself on being the Northern Capital of British Columbia and has a long
    history of excelling in the delivery of winter services to meet the community’s expectations. There are
    no shortage of challenges in living up to these expectations for a timely and effective response to
    winter storms – all the while striving to deliver high quality service for the lowest cost possible. The
    first winter storms are particularly challenging as the community gets to grips with winter road
    conditions and city employees, some new to their position are expected to perform like veterans.

    Trying to generally compare costs can be like comparing apples and oranges due to the many variables
    including differing weather conditions, maintenance standards, traffic volumes, etc. Benchmarking
    activities can however yield significant benefits allowing direct comparisons of services and related

    Given these challenges it is imperative that City staff are well trained and organized in the planning,
    execution and reporting of winter services. Hopefully this review will provide additional thought and
    stimulate discussion and innovation for the process of continuous improvement while balancing the
    demands for service with the resources available.
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Invitation to Review Snow and Ice Control
In early January 2019 Frank Blues was invited to meet with Senior City Staff and the Mayor in follow up
to negative public and media response to the City’s Snow and Ice Control operations in late December

Frank offered to assist the City with reviews of:
     1.        Winter Operations Planning:
     The development of a simple checklist of items to ensure the timely completion of those activities
     and the reporting of the checklist status to Senior Management/Administration prior to the onset
     of winter. The checklist and related activities would have target dates for completion, actual
     dates of completion, and the names of those assigned the various activities.
     2.        Delivery of Winter Services:
     Using a “SMART” (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Repeatable, Time-Based) approach to the
     development of standards/Council Procedures. Following a review of the Snow and Ice Control
     Council Procedures, there are a number of areas where this approach could help clarify the
     services to be delivered.
     The City is considering the re-introduction of a Heavy Snow Declaration and related procedures.
     There could be some benefit from an improved understanding of what is a “normal winter” or
     “normal snow event”. Can we talk about climate change impacts without a clear understanding
     of what is “normal” or what might be considered a 1 in 5-year or a 1 in 10-year event?
     3.        Winter Operations Reporting:
     Is there opportunity for improved reporting of winter operational activities? Much if not all of
     the data requirements for improved reporting are input to Cityworks (work orders for each snow
     clearing priority, and GPS data being generated by City equipment). This information could then
     be made available internally (Service Centre, Claims Management, Communications, etc.) and
     externally if desired.

The scope of work was expanded by requesting the following:
      4.       Create a Summary Review that provides information on four to five municipalities
      across Canada and their Snow policies, this should include any snow accumulation triggers,
      timeframes, compact snow levels on roads and sidewalks, and if they include civic facilities, trails,
      etc. What impacts these timeframes? Is it clearing and cleaning/removal or are they separate?
      5.       What technology do other communities use to track the work? What barriers did they
      have to overcome? What were the greatest benefits? Costs?
      6.       What is the winter organizational structure of other municipalities? Is it all done in
      one Division or multiple divisions? If you speak to staff from those communities, please include
      the contact information for them.

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Winter Operations Planning
During the review of how other communities manage Snow and Ice Control the Winter Management
Plan developed by the City of St John, New Brunswick is noteworthy with the following contents:

This document is reviewed and updated annually before the onset of winter and incorporates any
changes from the previous year. It is also used as a comprehensive review and reference tool for staff
engaged in and supporting winter operations. It has the capacity to comprehensively outline the
planning, service objectives, services delivered, and other aspects of managing winter services as noted
and/or desired.

Additional sections can be added to include:
    x   Snow and Ice Control Policy
    x   Snow and Ice Control Route Restriction and Regulation Bylaw No. 8625, 2014
    x   Civic Facilities, parking lots
    x   Park Trails and parking lots
    x   Winter activity benchmarking and/or reporting
    x   Etc.

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Snow and Ice Control Services
The City’s current Council Procedure on Snow and Ice Control has been in place in one form or another
for over 30 years during which time it has been amended a number of times as changes were made to
the services delivered, but never overhauled to develop and separate council policy from maintenance
standards and operational procedures. For example, the document originally outlined the service levels
for roads and sidewalks. Civic facility service levels were simply added in separately rather than
integrated or aligned into one cohesive area of municipal services with a similarly integrated approach
to the management and assignment of resources. The current document started life as a council policy
and was later referenced as a council procedure due to the largely operational content of the

This review integrates the various service levels into tables that should make for easier reference and
identification of the various priority activities grouped under the following headings:

    x   Snow Control
    x   Ice Control – New
    x   Requests for winter service - New

Snow Control Service Levels - Revised
 Priority Description                                Minimum Metrics             Timelines
          Arterial Roads and Curb Adjacent
          Downtown Central Business District
    1     roads, Lanes and Sidewalks
          Major Facility Entrances, Pedestrian
          Surfaces and daily parking areas.          When        accumulated
                                                                             Complete within 48
          City Off-Street Parking.                   snowfall reaches 75mm
                                                                             hours after the end of
          Collector Roads and Curb Adjacent          Max 25mm compact
                                                                             a snow event
          Sidewalks                                  snow
          Priority Hills
    2     Commercial & Industrial Roads and
          Transit Bus Routes that are not in
          Priority 1
          Residential Roads, Lanes and Curb
          Adjacent Sidewalks                         When        accumulated     Complete within 72
          (Lanes may be closed if impractical to     snowfall reaches 120mm      hours    after    the
          plow)                                      Max 25mm compact            completion of Priority
          Minor Facility entrances, pedestrian       snow                        2 areas
          surfaces and parking areas
          Major Park Pathways, Trails and
                                                     When        accumulated
          Parking Lots
                                                     snowfall reaches 120mm
    4     Event Parking Areas (Unless a major                                As resources allow
                                                     Max 25mm compact
          event is imminent then raise priority to
          clear before the event)

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                                                                               Extend completion
            Heavy Snowfall Declaration.
                                                  Issued when                  times by 24 hours for
            Advance start time for nighttime snow
    i)                                            accumulation reaches         each 100mm of snow
            clearing/removal in Priority 1 areas
                                                  XXXmm                        over the specified
            from 1am to 11pm

Ice Control Service Levels - New
Description                       Minimum Metrics                              Timelines
Anti-Icing (Liquid Salt)          Up to 24 hours in advance of a forecast      Selectively used up to
may be applied to Priority 1 road snow event with a 60% or greater             24 hours in advance of
& parking lot surfaces            probability of occurring and when surface    a Priority 1 snowfall
                                  temperatures are warmer than minus 20        event
Pre-Wetting (Liquid Salt)         Applied to 100% of abrasives and Road        In use any time
                                  Salt prior to application to road and        abrasives or road salt
                                  pedestrian surfaces                          are applied
Road Salt (Rock Salt)             Immediately following snow removal           Selectively used to
                                  from priority 1 and 2 areas when surface     melt snow and ice
                                  temperatures are warmer than minus 7
Abrasives                         Normally applied to road intersections,      Selectively used to
Winter Crush                      stops, hills and bends and pedestrian        improve traction on
Winter Sand                       surfaces in priority 1, 2 and 4 areas when   roads and pedestrian
                                  ice forms.                                   surfaces

                                   May be applied to Priority 3 Areas when
                                   conditions merit.

Requests for Winter Services - New
Description                        Metrics                                     Response Timelines
Traffic & Pedestrian Safety        No of Requests for Service                  XXX hours
Property Damage                    No of Requests for Service                  XXX hours
Priority 1 snow related Activity   No of Requests for Service                  XXX hours
Priority 2 snow related activity   No of Requests for Service                  XXX hours
Priority 3 snow related activity   No of Requests for Service                  XXX hours
Priority 4 snow related activity   No of Requests for Service                  XXX hours
Ice Control non-safety related     No of Requests for Service                  XXX hours

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The descriptions, metrics and timelines for winter service requests are included for illustrative
purposes only and can be replaced by existing call types where available or supplemented with
additional call types as necessary. It is worth noting that Call Centre Services are not part of the existing
Snow and Ice Control Council Procedure nor Snow and Ice Control budget but could be included in
metrics if desired as a support activity.

Service Level Discussion:

This review focuses on the key service levels related to Snow and Ice Control and Service Requests as
noted in the tables above. It does not discuss the additional items that make up the existing Council
Procedure on Snow and Ice Control. If a new Policy is adopted as proposed later in this review then any
remaining snow and ice control information in the existing procedure can be reviewed, updated and
included as necessary in a new/updated Snow and Ice Control document.

Minimum Metrics:
The table heading under Metrics has been adjusted to Minimum Metrics to help readers understand
that services may be delivered on a higher frequency or in lighter snow conditions when conditions
allow and resources are available. For example it is to be expected that sidewalks will be cleared when
snow accumulates to the noted service level. It is also normal between storms that sidewalk machines
will “patrol” sidewalks and clear any light accumulations and spread abrasives or salt as the condition
requires. This is also true of road “patrols” that run routinely between storms and sander/plow trucks
plow lighter accumulations and spread abrasives and/or salt as conditions require.

Priority 1:
Arterial Roads:
These are described in the current Council Procedure as Main Arterial Roads. To confirm which arterial
roads are included (or not), reference must be made to the Snow and Ice Control Route Restriction and
Regulation Bylaw No. 8625, 2014 or to the Snow Clearing Map available on the City’s website. From
the Procedure it is not immediately clear which arterial roads are not included as priority 1 routes. If a
road has been classified as arterial based on the road function and/or the traffic volume then why can’t
this be simplified to include all arterial roads as priority 1. Further, the term Main Arterial Road as used
in the Bylaw is confusing when the listed roads includes a mix of arterial, collector and local roads as
identified in the transportation network?

Sidewalks have been included and associated with the adjacent roadway at the various priorities.
Current snow control activities normally include the clearing of snow from sidewalks as part of the
adjacent roadway snow removal activity. This alignment and integration is suggested for a number of
    x Snow cleared from a sidewalk must be stored somewhere for removal and this is currently
         pushed to the curb for clearing with the roadway.
    x Sidewalk machines often clear the sidewalk immediately ahead of road clearing operations to
         avoid leaving snow on the street from sidewalk clearing – particularly in Downtown where this
         can impede pedestrian access from the adjacent parking lane/stall.

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    x    Clearing snow from the curb area minimizes storm drainage problems resulting from covered
         catch basins.
    x    The current Service Level of 5cm for clearing snow from sidewalks can be challenging,
         particularly when sidewalk equipment is tightly integrated to, and works immediately in
         advance of road clearing activity.
    x    Occasionally, sidewalk equipment operators are temporarily re-assigned to larger equipment
         positions if those operators are not available for various reasons. The larger equipment is
         typically a part of a road clearing team.
    x    There is no current timeline response for sidewalk snow clearing.

Snow at Facilities in general has typically been cleared by Parks crews for many years and were/are
considered separate to the maintenance of roads and sidewalks. Despite the inclusion of the Facility
service levels in the Snow and Ice Policy there are a number of inconsistencies between the service
levels for roads and sidewalks and facilities. For example the current procedure indicates that “Park
Facilities and Pathways…..shall be cleared when accumulations exceed 100mm in depth.” This standard
is higher than residential areas that are cleared at 120mm. Clearly this is an oversight but is indicative
of the lack of integration of these services being delivered by different divisions.

Major Facilities:
Consideration should be given to developing a hierarchy of Civic Facilities that differentiates the various
priorities for the delivery of snow and ice control. This can be as simple as defining Major and Minor
facilities, for example, the Aquatic Centre or City Hall versus smaller facilities with only a few customers
by comparison. Consideration should also be given to defining Event Parking at major facilities that
may need clearing in advance of events but can be deferred at other times – this is an existing
consideration but should be formalized. Note that reference to “bare pavement” has been removed.

Off Street Parking:
This includes off street surface parking lots and multi-storey parking structures. I believe this is
currently delivered by a combination of city Parks staff who look after major civic facilities and parking
lots, Civic Facilities staff who contract for off street parking and multi-storey parking structures and
Minor Facilities staff who look after their own snow and ice control. Are these areas coordinated to the
extent that snow and ice control standards are clear and consistently applied across all areas? Is
performance monitored and reported? Is it integrated from a training, standards, performance and
reporting perspective?

Hospital District:
The Hospital District has been a recent addition to the Snow and Ice Control Procedure to address a
concern for the high volume of daytime on-street parking on streets adjacent to the University Hospital
of Northern BC (UHNBC). The hospital parking lot has been expanded along Edmonton Street to
accommodate increased parking demand. A multi-storey parking structure has been constructed on
Lethbridge Street but is restricted to hospital staff parking. Hospital parking facilities are typically at
capacity during the day but has minimal occupancy at night. Roads adjacent to UHNBC are cleared as
part of Priority 2 – transit routes. It is proposed to reduce the Hospital District parking from Priority 1
to 3 but leave the existing parking restrictions in place to allow clearing of adjacent roads at night.

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Priority Hills:
Priority Hills have been removed from Priority1 and reassigned to Priority2.
This re-assignment avoids the need for equipment to travel over un-cleared collector roads to reach
many of the priority hills and the poor perception it creates of uncoordinated work activity. By
realigning priority hills with collector roads, the collector road can be cleared first followed by the
priority hills thereby clearing the entire route from the arterial roads to the priority hills in the proposed
priority order for maximum benefit to the greatest number of road and sidewalk users. An example of
this revision would apply to Aberdeen Road which currently has 3 priority one hills intersecting
Aberdeen – Inverness, Walker, Skyline and McAndrew off Skyline.

Priority 2:
Collector Roads:
Collector roads have an important function of connecting local roads to arterial roads. Traffic volume
and functional requirements contribute to its designation. This is also reflected in the width of the road
(wider than a local road) and that there is normally a sidewalk on one side of a collector road. The
current Procedure is silent on collector roads. Cowart Road is a collector road that is not a bus route
yet is shown on the snow route map as a priority 1 road. Whether it is a priority 1 or 2 it would still be
cleared within the first 48 hours following a 75mm snowfall. Why call it a main arterial route under the
bylaw when it is functionally a collector road? This is inconsistent across the various mapping resources
available on the city website.

Bus Routes:
It may be helpful to clarify that the bus routes noted are BC Transit bus routes and not school bus

Priority 3:
Residential Sidewalks:
Residential sidewalks are a relatively recent addition to the City’s infrastructure resulting from
Developers constructing sidewalks in new subdivision development. The Report to Council in January
2017 titled Enhanced Sidewalk Snow Clearing and Removal highlighted the issues arising and Council’s
decision to include isolated sections of residential sidewalks located near existing sidewalk networks.

Minor Facilities:
Minor Facilities are a proposed designation to be defined based on the number of customers typically
visiting the facilities on a daily basis and any other criteria that may need to be considered to
differentiate these facilities from major facilities such as City Hall or the Aquatic Centre. The current
procedure treats all 57 or so facility entrances equally and identifies priority parking lots and pathways.
It’s doubtful the City has the resources to sustain this level of service with all facilities requiring equal
priority and treatment? Note that reference to “bare pavement” has been removed.

Priority 4:
Major Park Pathways Trails and Parking Lots:
Are the Major Parks noted in the existing policy similarly classified in the Parks Master Plan which
classifies parks as City, District or Neighbourhood and if not should they be? Do the park pathways,
trails and parking lots currently cleared and treated fit the winter functional requirements consistent
with the plan objectives? Does the Parks Master Plan address this? If not should this be considered
further to ensure a sustainable strategy is clearly developed and outlined rather than simply continue
with past practice?
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Heavy Snowfall Declaration:
Most of this discussion has been outlined in the section titled Defining Snowfall Events. Suffice to say
a heavy snowfall event can be triggered by either a single snowfall event or a consecutive day snowfall
so both conditions should be evaluated along with the expected return frequency to ensure the
proposed snowfall accumulation and return period can be shown to be reasonable to the business
community who must balance the needs of customers visiting nighttime and daytime establishments.

Ice Control Service Level Table - New:
This is a proposed new addition to the City’s listing of service levels. Hopefully it describes the services
delivered and the associated service levels. This table should be modified as necessary to reflect
current practices. Ice control is a significant winter service that deserves recognition of the services
delivered and the expected timing of their delivery.

Service Level Table for Requests for Winter Service - New:
This is a potential new addition to the procedures in support of winter service delivery. The examples
provided are for illustrative purposes only. This service is not funded from the Snow and Ice Control
budget however it is a service that is directly linked to snow and ice control services and should be
recognized as such. Considering the very high number of calls to the Service Centre related to snow
and ice control this is arguably an area of service delivery that deserves a higher profile. It also confirms
the City’s commitment to deliver the service and increases the accountability of the City by reporting
its performance in meeting the service levels outlined. The Descriptions, Metrics and Response
Timelines should be modified as required to reflect the current or desired practice.

Snow and Ice Control Policy - Proposed
A policy is “a principles-based framework setting out how you go about achieving your strategic and
business objectives in a controlled and compliant way: the HOW”.

The existing Council Procedure on Snow and Ice Control contains a mix of strategic and business
objectives, maintenance standards and operational procedures that has evolved over the last few
decades by simply adding in additional details i.e. for civic facilities and parks, etc.

The policy should provide broad guidance to staff on their key objectives in the development, delivery
and reporting of snow and ice control services.

The various service levels that are proposed in tabular form should perhaps be removed from the policy
document and placed in the annual budget document where the desired service levels can be aligned
with the proposed budget. This also provides for an annual review by Council of service levels and any
budget related issues during the annual budget process.

Operational procedures information should be removed from the policy and redirected to the various
departmental procedures that provide specific direction to staff on the delivery of winter services.
These procedures are expected to change over time as new equipment and methods are developed
and incorporated into the various work processes but should not require review by Council.

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Based on the foregoing approach a proposed Snow and Ice Control Policy is outlined under:

Snow and Ice Control Policy - Proposed

Purpose and Application:

The purpose of the Snow and Ice Control Policy is to confirm the importance of the delivery of
sustainable snow and ice control services to the economic, environmental and social well-being of our
residents and businesses. It will also establish guidelines for the development, implementation, review
and performance reporting of these services.

The Community expects the City to deliver a timely, measured and prioritized response to winter
weather conditions to support the mobility of people and goods across the community.


The following actions will help guide the City in the development, implementation, maintenance,
review and reporting of its snow and ice control plans and support systems:

     x   Define the levels of snow and ice control services to be delivered using best management
         practices in support of Council’s Mission.
     x   Identify the optimum mix of internal/external resources to deliver the desired services.
     x   Plan financially for the defined levels of service and the risk of costs exceeding the annual
         budget due to the variable nature of winter.
     x   Identify and address the effects of climate change
     x   Implement equipment training and succession planning to ensure that City operations are
         optimized and that support staff are trained and available when required.
     x   Develop a communication plan for the timely release of winter services information and
         service performance reporting in advance of and during the winter season.

Related Documents (Optional):

Snow and Ice Control Service Levels
Snow and Ice Control Route Restriction and Regulation Bylaw No. 8625, 2014

                                          Page 15 of 33                             23 April 2019
Snow and Ice Control Review
Winter Operations Technology and
Winter Services Reporting
The recent implementation of Global Position Systems/Automated Vehicle Location (GPS/AVL)
technology in City equipment and the implementation of Cityworks work management software has
significantly improved the City’s capacity to report on its response to snowfall events and ice control

The Council Procedure for Snow and Ice Control contains the various service levels for responding to
snowfall events. It seems reasonable then that standardized processes would be developed for
reporting the City’s response to these events.

Operational/Tactical Reporting:
When investigating the use and development of Cityworks, the City’s work management program, one
community demonstrated how it illustrated progress in winter clearing by assigning work orders to
organizational areas such that a work order was opened when work commenced and was closed when
work was complete in the area(s). The area(s) was identified in the city GIS system and was made
publicly available on the city website so the community could see and track work progress. In Prince
George we currently use Garbage Zones to help identify residential snow clearing. However, we also
have neighbourhoods(subdivision areas) identified in the city GIS system, perhaps these
neighbourhoods could be used to report progress on winter snow clearing in residential areas. I believe
these neighbourhoods can be associated with a work order for residential snow clearing such that
neighbourhood progress can be tracked individually and reported in real-time online? Once the
Residential snow clearing work order is created it can be duplicated for future use without the need to
re-create the work order from scratch every time it is to be used.

An outline dated August 2013 of how the City of Springfield, Massachusetts, tracks and reports
progress in responding to a winter storm event is outlined under:

                                                                 Detailed information supplied by in-
                                                                 the-field inspectors gives an overview
                                                                 of the progress in each section of the
                                                                 City. Streets in blue are reported as
                                                                 plowed where-as streets in red are not
                                                                 plowed. Information provided by the
                                                                 map enables plows to be redeployed
                                                                 to sections of the City getting done
                                                                 slower. Snow Control is also able to
                                                                 use the map to handle calls from
                                                                 residents as to specific information
                                                                 about their street.

                                                                 Jan 2017:
                                                                 Additional        development          of
                                                                 Springfield’s winter storm          event
                                                                 tracking is outlined at this link

                                          Page 16 of 33                                23 April 2019
Snow and Ice Control Review

Strategic Reporting:
During the final stages of the Cityworks Project some effort was put into developing a Strategic Report
for snow control that would:
     x Identify snowfall accumulation on a daily basis with data available from Environment Canada
     x Identify the start and end dates of the various priority responses to snowfall events (X-axis)
         together with the number of days involved in each priority response
     x Be date-based meaning you could specify any period to be reported.

The basic report could be further developed to show daily temperatures high/low/average to
investigate the potential for snowfall events to melt rather than be cleared.

Given the high interest in reporting on snow and ice control activities perhaps the priority assigned to
this work should be raised to develop and implement the reports now. The same reporting
methodology could also be used to track and report spring road sweeping activity.

A sample of a draft report that may be developed for the strategic reporting of Snowfall Event
Performance is shown under:

In the example presented above, the start and end dates of snow removal activity was controlled
through the opening and closing dates of work orders which are also used to collect cost information.
There may be alternative ways to manage the collection of this information which should be
investigated to evaluate any benefits associated with the alternative(s). The weather data in this
example was extracted from the Environment Canada website.
                                          Page 17 of 33                              23 April 2019
Snow and Ice Control Review

Municipal Benchmarking Network Canada:
The “Municipal Benchmarking Network Canada is a partnership between Canadian municipalities who
believe in the power of measurement to inspire continuous improvement in the delivery of services to
our communities.” An extract from their Final Report for 2017 Streets Maintenance is included under:

Fig. 28.4 Total Cost for Winter Maintenance of Roadways per Lane km Maintained

This measure represents the total cost for winter maintenance of a single lane km. It includes all
functions included in clearing and maintaining the roadway, and is not inclusive of sidewalk snow
clearing and parking lots.

Montreal: The service thresholds for responding to weather incidents, and the volume and type of
snow removal required due to population density, contribute to Montreal’s higher cost.

If there is an interest in further examination of the cost of Prince George winter road maintenance of
a single lane km it’s likely this can be developed once the benchmark activity parameters are known
and applied to the Prince George situation. Again, caution must be exercised in these types of
comparisons despite benchmarking efforts but it will provide improved insight rather than a gross
comparison of costs as outlined under for the cities that may reasonably be compared to Prince

                                         Page 18 of 33                             23 April 2019
Snow and Ice Control Review

                                      Comparison of Annual Snowfall &
                                    Costs/Capita for Snow and Ice Control
                           $160.0                                                                           400

                           $140.0                                                                           350

                           $120.0                                                                           300

                                                                                                                  Annual Snow (cm)
                           $100.0                                                                           250
   $ / Capita

                            $80.0                                                                           200

                            $60.0                                                                           150

                            $40.0                                                                           100

                            $20.0                                                                           50

                             $0.0                                                                           0
                                               Thunder                         St. John's   Saint John
                                     George               Sudbury   London
                                                 Bay                           Newfoun         New
                                     British              Ontario   Ontario
                                               Ontario                           dland      Brunswick
                $/Capita             $114.9     $47.3      $32.2    $36.7       $137.7        $102.1
                Annual Snow(cm)       142       163         263      194         335           240

It is worth noting that the three Ontario cities included in the above chart also participate in the
Municipal Benchmarking Network.

Prince George currently has the following Snow and Ice Control activity budgets:

           x    120220 – Snow Dump Mtce – Gen Charges
           x    120240 – Snow Plow & Rmv – Grader/Plowing
           x    120290 – Ice Control
           x    120300 – Sdwlk Snw Plw/Ice Cntrl-Outsid
           x    120306 – City Facilities Snow/Ice Contr
           x    120395 – Winter Sand Pickup

It is suggested that these budgeted activities be reviewed and revised as required to meet the
objectives arising out of this review. For example should snow removal be tracked and reported
separately from snow clearing? It is appreciated that costs can be tracked using work orders inside the
above accounts which makes for easier budget management, however this does not support
transparency in budgeting and reporting costs for key winter activities.

                                                 Page 19 of 33                              23 April 2019
Snow and Ice Control Review
Organizational Structures for Winter Operations
Prince George’s organizational structure and assignments for winter operations is outlined under:

Prince George Engineering and Public Works:

                                                  City Manager                                  Divisional
                                                                                              assignment of
                                                                                              snow clearing
                                                   Gen Manager                                responsibility
                                                  Eng & Pub Wrks

                               Dir Engineering                     Dir Pub Wrks.

                                                                   Parks & Solid   x     Civic Facilities
                                Engineering                           Waste        x     Parking Lots
                                                                                   x     Park Trails

                                Asset Mgmt.                            Fleet

      x   Multi-Storey                                                             x     Roads
          Car Parks
                               Civic Facilities                       Roads        x     Lanes
      x   Off Street Parking
                                                                                   x     Sidewalks

As can be seen the City of Prince George has most of its snow clearing assigned to the Roads and Parks
divisions. The Civic Facilities division is responsible for the contracted snow removal from the City off
street parking facilities including the multi-story parking structures. It should be noted this is also
supplemented by staff from Community Services who may clear and salt/sand the pedestrian areas
immediately in front of doorways to community facilities.

The other communities surveyed have a similar approach to Prince George with a mix of in-house
resources and/or contracted services looking after snow control for Roads, sidewalks, trails, parking
lots and pedestrian surfaces around civic facilities.

From an organizational structure perspective there may be some value in considering moving the
responsibility for multi-storey car parks and off street parking lots to the Parks division. Parks have staff
that are dedicated to snow removal in winter from similar facilities and would have expertise and
knowledge of the appropriate methods for salting and the use of abrasives when required. It may also
allow for further integration and perhaps some adjustment of service delivery by re-prioritising the off
street parking lots with city facility parking lots and the resources used for snow clearing whether it is
in-house, rental equipment or a contracted service. This adjustment would also free up Civic Facilities
staff to focus on managing the civic buildings, their area of expertise.

                                                  Page 20 of 33                                         23 April 2019
Snow and Ice Control Review

Snow and Ice Control – Risk Based Budgeting

For budget purposes and to identify target dates for equipment/staff readiness it is first necessary to
identify the dates for the onset and end of winter operations.
It is suggested that the onset of winter can be defined as the date when the 30-year average daily
temperature drops below 0o Celsius.
Another key date may be the date when City equipment, equipment leases and staffing must all be in
place is when the 30-year average daily high temperature remains below 0o Celsius. This is important
if snow has fallen and the temperatures remain below zero then the snow is less likely to melt.
A similar approach could also be used at the end of winter operations to ensure an appropriate wind

These dates have been used in the past to help define winter using temperature records for the
preceding 30years. It is worth noting that Environment Canada uses a 30-year period for the purpose
of calculating climate normals and averages.

With respect to budget, once you have defined the start and end dates of winter operations this sets
the parameters for winter operational budgeting.

Defining Snowfall Events
It is important to be clear when developing service levels (maintenance standards) that lead to
expectations for service delivery. In the case of snow and ice control, much of the knowledge of snow
conditions and noteworthy events are in the collective memory of staff who may have worked through
those conditions/events. An alternative approach to improving the definition of service levels might be
the statistical analysis of snowfall records to improve our understanding of past winter weather events
and their statistical significance to help inform the development of service levels with an improved
understanding of the risks of various snow events happening. For example:

     x   If Priority 1 areas are cleared when snow accumulations exceed 75mm, how many events
         might be expected per calendar year on average. This might be different from a snow season
     x   If we wish to consider a “Heavy Snowfall Declaration”, what is the likelihood of this event
         happening? Once per year or once every five years?

This approach is not perfect due to the beginning of the year at January 1 which may have been
immediately preceded by a snowfall event and has been truncated at December 31. The same can
happen at the end of the calendar year where a snow event is truncated which may have led to a
consecutive day snowfall event.

To the best of my knowledge there are no Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for snowfall. If
sufficient data exists for Prince George, then this might be something worth considering developing. A
simple reference then to the IDF curves would yield the return periods of snowfall of various intensities
and durations.

                                           Page 21 of 33                              23 April 2019
Snow and Ice Control Review
In December 1993, Stanley Associates Engineering completed a Preliminary Assessment of Snow
Disposal which assessed the practice of snow disposal in Prince George and evaluated options,
including snow melting for snow disposal as land disposal sites (Hudson Bay Slough, River Road and
Carrie Jane Gray Park) were removed from service. Part of this study evaluated snowfall data for a 10
year period on an annual and monthly basis and a daily basis for a five year period. Daily snowfall and
consecutive day snowfall criterion were developed as outlined under:

                 Parameter                                         Snowfall in cm
                 Annual Min Snowfall                             151.2
                 Annual Mean Snowfall                            213.7
                 Annual Max Snowfall                             306.4
                 Daily Median Snowfall                           10
                 Daily Design Snowfall                           17
                 Daily Extreme Snowfall                          30
                 Consecutive Day Median Snowfall                 40
                 Consecutive Day Design Snowfall                 61
                 Consecutive Day Extreme Snowfall                92
               e: Some discussion also included allowances for snow melting naturally

It might be advisable to undertake a similar 30-year analysis using records from Environment Canada
(Prince George Airport) to develop similar statistical data that corresponds to our service levels for

     x   What is the annual number of daily snowfalls > 7.5cm?
     x   What is the annual number of Consecutive Day Snowfalls >7.5cm?
     x   What is the annual number of daily snowfalls > 12cm?
     x   What is the annual number of Consecutive Day Snowfalls > 12cm?

This analysis is not very difficult and could be completed using the existing weather records. The Service
Levels could be established as a variable to review various service levels and their frequency of events
per year.

When considering a Heavy Snowfall Declaration, what return period/frequency may be reasonable?
   x One Heavy Snow Event per year?
   x Is a 20cm snowfall in a single day or a Consecutive Day Event considered a heavy snowfall?

Risk Based Budgeting
Now that the onset and end of winter has been defined and a 30-year analysis of the number of
“trigger” snowfall events for each of the 30 years determined it is now possible to consider the budget
impacts of the selected service levels for snow clearing. One way of approaching this is outlined under:

                                           Page 22 of 33                               23 April 2019
Snow and Ice Control Review
Develop a chart of the number of snowfall events for the 30-year period and the service levels selected
including the Heavy Snowfall event(s):

                                                 Service Level: 75mm
    Y-axis Label is the No. of Snowfall Events

                                                    Median No of snow Event at year 15

                                                          Consider budgeting annually for
                                                           No of events at year18 = 60%
                                                             mark of the 30yr period

                                                                Consider establishing the Snow Reserve
                                                                for the No of events at year 24 = 80% or
                                                                    higher of the 30-year period. The
                                                                 reserve should then have the capacity
                                                                to handle the increase in the number of
                                                                 events between the 60% and the 80%
                                                                      mark for the 30-year period.

                                                 Lowest                                              15    18       24          Highest
                                                 Values                                                                         Values
                                                           Each of the 30years is presented along the X-axis from low to high

                                                                           Number of Consecutive Day Events/year

                                                                           Number of Single Day Events/year

Establish the daily Fixed Cost of Snow and Ice Control
Fixed costs are costs that are independent of output. These remain reasonably constant throughout
the winter. Fixed costs may include:
     x Cost of manpower and equipment that is typically deployed
     x Cost of winter materials – sand, fracture, salt, brine, etc.

Establish the daily Variable Costs for Snow Control for each of the service level events that may include:
     x Daily cost of responding to a 75mm snowfall event for each Priority area
     x Daily cost of responding to snowfall events at Major Facilities
     x Daily cost of responding to snowfall events at Minor Facilities
     x Etc.

Based on the risk levels selected for the number of annual snowfall events using 30-years of data you
can now estimate the fixed and variable costs to help establish a calendar year budget. You can also
identify the number of “event days” budgeted which can be compared to actual if desired to help
explain any differences in budgeted costs and actual costs. This can also improve the costing model by
calibrating the budgeted costs to actuals for each of the years of record. This will also help address
some of the unknowns such as the number of event responses involving overtime and the number of
snowfall events that may melt rather than need to be cleared.

                                                                                             Page 23 of 33                         23 April 2019
Snow and Ice Control Review

Table of Canadian Winter Cities and Services for Comparison

City                      Prince George                                          Thunder Bay                                        Sudbury                                           London                                              St. John's                                           Saint John
Province                  British Columbia                                       Ontario                                            Ontario                                           Ontario                                             Newfoundland                                         New Brunswick
Population                74,003(2016 Census)                                    107,900(2016 Census)                               161,531(2016 Census)                              383,822(2016 Census)                                108,900(2016 Census)                                 67,575(2016)
Road Inventory - laneKm   1700                                                   1994                                               3560km                                            3625km/720 Cul de Sacs                              1400                                                 1160
Sidewalk Inventory - Km   193.5                                                  449                                                425                                               1500                                                Clears 134 km of the City’s 700 km of sidewalks.     240(61% of 372Km inventory)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               50+Km in major parks and waterfront trails. Also
Trail Inventory - Km      102.4                                                  32                                                 Trails not maintained Nov 1 – April 30            Yes – but most are closed in winter                 125
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               groom some trails for skiing/snowshoeing
                          6 ice sheets/2 pools                                   6 arenas / 3 pools                                                                                   11 arenas/3 indoor pools
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 large sports community centres
Facility Inventory        4 Fire halls/Civic Ctr./Art Gallery                    11 Community Centres                               14 arenas/5 pools                                 19 neighbourhood/4 Comm. Centres                                                                         3 arenas and 1 pool
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 community centres
                          City Hall/RCMP Station                                 2 Seniors Centres                                                                                    7 gymnasiums
Ann Avg. Snow - cm        142.0                                                  162.9                                              263.4                                             194.3                                               335 (Max 648cm in 2000/2001)                         239.6
Avg. January Temp - oC    -7                                                     -7                                                 -13                                               -5                                                  -3.5                                                 -7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We do not use work orders or other to track snow
                                                                                 No formal WO system at this time but will use                                                                                                                                                                 We use work requests to track our overall
                                                                                                                                    No Work Order system at this time. Implementing   High level Work Order .i.e. Road Plow, Sidewalk     clearing. We are trying some things with our
Management Tools          Work Orders                                            Hansen system once implemented.                                                                                                                                                                               expenses for snow plowing, snow removal, ice
                                                                                                                                    Hansen software and WO system                     Plowing                                             sidewalk crew this year but nothing formal is in
                                                                                 Winter costs are tracked from timesheets in SAP.                                                                                                                                                              cutting, winter pothole patching etc…
                          $8.5M (2019)                                           Has Winter Rd Maintenance Reserve                  Winter Operations ready November 1st                                                                                                                       $5.8M Streets
Snow & Ice Budget                                                                                                                                                                     Snow Control $14.085M(2019)                         $15M
                          Snow/Ice Reserve @ 25% Ops Budget                      Snow & Ice Control $5.8M                           Snow & Ice Control $5.8M                                                                                                                                   $1.1M Sidewalks

                          October 15 to April 15                                 November 15 – March 31                             Dec 1 – March 31                                  November 1 – April 15                               Early January to Early Spring
Parking Ban                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Temp Parking Bans 12:00am – 7:00am
                          No parking Priority 1 Routes 10pm-7am                  No parking on Priority Routes 2-7am                No parking on any roads, lanes                    Winter parking restrictions                         12:30am to7:30am

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Roads: Winter rd., S/W maintenance
                                                                                                                                    Not all snow banks are removed if not affecting   Snow bank removal not part of normal service but
                                                                                 Pickup, Blowing or Benching after all clearing                                                                                                           Parks: Winter facility, park, park’g lot             Storm Severity Index Used
Clearing & Removal        Windrow removal times not stipulated                                                                      sightlines                                        can be done downtown
                                                                                 completed. Snowbanks removed when required.                                                                                                              Blowing/Removal after clearing complete.             Removal after Storm Response
                                                                                                                                    Do not clear driveways                            Do not clear driveways                              Do not clear driveways (30,000).

                                                                                 Snow & Ice Operations are 24/7                                                                       Follows Provincial Standards. for Hwy Maint.        Pr. 1: Major/Minor Art./Steep Hills
                          Snow & Ice Operations are 24/7                         Arterial & Collector Roads:                                                                          Snow & Ice Operations are 24/7                                                                           PR.1: Emerg routes, main sts, hwy conn’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pr.2: Coll./Bus Routes/School Areas
                          7 sander truck plows                                                                                      Main Art. & Sec. Collectors:                      City is divided into 62 areas & uses:
                                                                                 Plow > 5cm                                                                                                                                               Pr3: Local Streets, Incl. Cul-de-sacs                Plow >10cm
                          7 graders                                                                                                 Std. is bare or near bare
                                                                                 Plow Priority Routes at 2am                                                                          27 road salt/sanders                                Pr4: City Maintained Private Lanes                   Passable < 8hrs post storm
                          4 S/W machines                                                                                            plow > 5cm
                                                                                 Approx. 7hrs to complete after start                                                                 42 sidewalk plows, and                              Plow trucks >5 10-25cm                       Pr.2: Major Bus routes, school dist., community
                          One Loader/Blower                                                                                         salt at Beginning of storm
                                                                                 Roads standards – bare if possible                                                                   Main Art. & Sec. Collectors Including Bus Routes:   Complete initial pass within 12hrs                   centres, business dist.
                          2 anti-Icing trucks                                                                                       2-4 hrs to complete salting
                                                                                 Residential & Sec Routes:                                                                            Plow > 5cm, cleared in 12hrs                        Sidewalks:                                           Plow >10cm
                          Main Art, Hospital, Downtown & Facilities:                                                                Residential & Rural Roads:
                                                                                 Plow >10cm                                                                                           Complete plowing in 6 – 8 hrs?                      Priority clearing Art/Coll within 1.6km of schools   Passable < 8hrs
Levels of Service         Art. >7.5cm, 25mm compact                                                                                 Std. is snow-packed & sanded
                                                                                 7.5cm, bare pavement                                                                            Plow > 8cm
                                                                                 Residential after Art & Coll.                                                                        Residential & Cul De Sacs:                          Begin after streets pushed back                      Pr.3: Coll, minor bus routes, industrial
                          Hospital Rds. >7.5cm                                                                                      8-24hrs to complete after storm ends
                                                                                 One lane passable in residential                                                                     Plow > 10cm, cleared in 24 hrs                      Complete in 4-7days                                  Plow >10cm
                          Facility parking >7.5cm, bare pavement                                                                    Sidewalks:
                                                                                 Downtown:                                                                                            Sidewalks:                                          Downtown business responsible for S/W – cost         Passable < 12hrs
                          Facility entrance. >5cm, bare pavement                                                                    Std. is snow-packed & sanded
                                                                                 1 removal cycle/yr.                                                                                  Plow > 8cm, cleared in 48hrs                        share with City                                      Widened/Anti-Iced < 72hrs post storm
                          Complete in 48hrs after snow stops                                                                        Plow/Sand > 8cm
                                                                                 10 work days for removal                                                                             Std. is snow-packed                                 Facilities (by Parks Div.):                          Pr.4: Residential
                          Remaining Bus Routes, Comm./Ind.:                                                                         Complete within 24 hrs after storm ends
                                                                                 Sidewalks:                                                                                           Complete plowing in 24 hrs?                         Pr 1: All facilities/parking lots                    Plow >10cm
                          Plow > 7.5cm                                                                                              Bus Stops:
                                                                                 plow > 5cm                                                                                           Business clears sidewalk(Bylaw)                     Pr 2-4: various stepped areas                        Passable < 12hrs
                          Complete in 48hrs after snow stops                                                                        Std. is snow-packed & sanded
                                                                                 Art & Coll. is priority – 14hr                                                                       Residents encouraged to clear S/W                   Clearing & ice control >7cm                          Widened/Anti-Iced < 96hrs post storm
                          Residential, other facilities/Trails & Parking Lots:                                                      Complete by end of night1 if  12.5cm, 50mm compact                                                                               See Salt & Sand Standards in Appendix
                                                                                 S/Walks are not salted                                                                               Plow > 8cm                                          times                                                During storm: Plow/Blow Pr. 1 & 2
                          Complete in 72hrs after priority 2 complete
                                                                                 Severe Snow statement                                                                                Std. is snow-packed                                 Ice Control: (Complete < 3hrs)                       13 S/W plow routes. with assigned Op
                          Sidewalks: Plow >5cm
                                                                                 See Service Level Table in Appendix                                                                                                                      Sand on gravel roads
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Salt on paved rds. excl. near wells

                                                                                                                                                    Snow Plowing                                                                                   City Web Site – Snow Clearing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Website Opening Page for Winter
Snow Website                        Snow & Ice Control Procedure                                Winter Operations                              Snow Removal & Disposal                          Snow Control Business Plan 2012                         Policies & Procedures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Winter Management Plan
                                                                                                                                                  Salting & Sanding                                                                                   Service Level and Priority

                                                 Page 24 of 33                                                  23 April 2019
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