Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination

Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination
Three-Year Report 2006-2008

                   Capacity Building

                    Leibniz Center for
                    Tropical Marine
Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination
Three-Year Report                           2006-2008


                             Introduction    3

                        Research Projects    7

                       Featured Research    17

        Capacity Building and Cooperation   25

              Services and Administration   29

                               Appendix     33
Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination
Published by:
Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology • Fahrenheitstraße 6 • 28359 Bremen • Germany

Prof. Dr. Venugopalan Ittekkot • Dr. Susanne Eickhoff • Dr. Christiane Schnack

ZMT Staff • MIKA Photography, Hamburg • Harald Rehling, Bremen • Ralf Günther, WGL
Cover: Maggy Nugues

møller grafik, Bremen

ASCO Sturm Druck, Bremen

Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology • Fahrenheitstraße 6 • 28359 Bremen • Germany
Phone: ++49 (0)421 23 800 21 • Fax: ++49 (0)421 23 800 30 •

Bremen 2009

Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination
Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination
The period of reporting saw the second eval-      last for a period of three years. The status of
               uation of the ZMT by the German Council of        these professorships will be reexamined after
               Science and Humanities (Wissenschaftsrat)         an evaluation during 2009-2010. In 2008,
               and its recommendation for the ZMT to be          the Center advertised four additional new
               accepted as a member of the Leibniz Associa-      professorships: two of which concern reef
               tion. The final decision on this was taken by     ecology and biogeochemistry (in cooperation
               the Bund-Länder Kommission in October             with the University of Bremen), the other
               2007. The ZMT became an associate member          two ecological modeling and social sciences
               of the Leibniz Association in October 2007        (in cooperation with the Jacobs University
               and is a full member since January 2009. The      Bremen). Joint appointment committees for
               membership was accompanied by a change            the positions are expected to complete their
               in the legal status of the ZMT and included a     work by the end of 2009.
               modification of its name to “Leibniz Cen-
               ter for Tropical Marine Ecology” (Leibniz-        The increasing demand for work space asso-
               Zentrum für Marine Tropenökologie GmbH            ciated with these developments is being met
               – ZMT). The ZMT is currently in the process       by renting an additional floor in the annex
               of establishing an institutional structure that   and by constructing a three-story extension
               takes into account the recommendations            to the annex for laboratory and office space.
               of the Science Council based on its evalu-        The construction is expected to be com-
               ations. It involves changes in the scientific     pleted by the end of 2009, on time for the re-
               and organizational structure of the ZMT,          cruitment of new research groups associated
               the recruitment of new personnel as well as       with the newly advertised professorships.
               the acquisition of additional space and new
               infrastructure.                                   Meanwhile, the ZMT continued to imple-
                                                                 ment its long-term joint research projects in
               Immediately after the evaluation, two new         cooperation with universities and research
               professorships were installed in cooperation      institutions in Indonesia, China, southern Af-
               with the University of Bremen in the fields of    rica, and Vietnam. These projects addressed
               marine botany and social sciences. The coop-      issues related to the use and protection of
               eration agreement with the University is to       coastal and marine systems and collected

Introduction   4
Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination
scientific information needed for the devel-      is also envisaged with the Institute of Marine
opment of integrated coastal management           Sciences of the University of Dar Es Salaam
strategies. The research has contributed to       in Zanzibar, Tanzania, where the impact of
enhance our understanding, for example, of        changes in the East African monsoon on
marine biodiversity in tropical waters, the       coastal ecosystems is the focus of research.
link between coastal degradation and hu-
man health, possible responses of coral reef      Bilateral activities of the ZMT formed an
ecosystems to thermal stress under various        important contribution to the work of
nutrient regimes as well as of the impact of      international organizations such as the IOC-
peat-soil degradation on aquatic systems in       UNESCO (Intergovernmental Oceanographic
the tropics.                                      Commission of the UNESCO) and SCOR
                                                  (Scientific Committee on Problems of the En-
The ZMT’s research efforts were accompa-          vironment), especially in the field of capacity
nied by joint measures with our partners to       building. The ZMT continued its cooperation
foster capacity building in the field of marine   with the NAM S & T Centre under the joint
sciences. Thus, it continued to contribute        fellowship program facilitating short-term
to the English language Master’s program          stays for young scientists from developing
offered at the University of Bremen, ISATEC       countries to work at the ZMT’s laboratories
(International Studies in Aquatic Tropical        in Bremen. Its network of institutions in Asia
Ecology). Together with the Leibniz Insti-        ACEMON (Aquatic Ecosystems of Monsoon
tute for Marine Sciences in Kiel, the ZMT         Asia) exchanged information on coastal
coordinates the implementation of a Master’s      research during its annual meetings.
course in marine sciences at the Universities
of Bremen and Kiel and the Ocean University
in Qingdao, China. The Center also orga-
nized summer schools and special training
courses in China, Indonesia, and Vietnam
under ongoing projects. Through the Ger-
man Operational Center of the International
Ocean Institute, hosted by the ZMT, the
ZMT participated in the development of a
course in fisheries science in Papua New

The ZMT is currently involved in the devel-
opment of new long-term projects in the
regions of southern Africa and China. These
efforts are based on discussions with new
partners during the visits of delegations
of the Federal Ministry for Education and
Research (BMBF) to South Africa, Namibia,
and China. In the region of southern Africa, a
new project (DESIGN – Desert-Sea Interac-
tions in the Ecology and Biogeochemistry of
the Namibian Coastal Waters) was devel-
oped in cooperation with the University of
Namibia and its Marine Research Centre            The ZMT was also a partner in organizing
(SANUMARC) in Henties Bay. It is a contri-        several regional, national, and international
bution to the BMBF’s Earth System Research        events, such as the World Ocean Conference
Initiative “The Southern Africa Research Alli-    in Manado, Indonesia, the German exhibi-
ance”, involving many institutions in Germany     tion “Germany and China – Moving Ahead
and southern Africa. In China, the ZMT is         Together” in Guangzhou, the presentation
taking part in projects within the overall        of the MADAM project at the Fiema exhibi-
initiative on “Central Asia: Monsoon Dynam-       tion in Brazil, the “Joint NAM S&T – ZMT
ics and Geoecosystems”. Close cooperation         Workshop on Coastal Ecosystems: Hazards

                                                                                                   5   introduction
Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination
Management and Rehabilitation” in Purwok-       Overall, the ZMT continued to develop while
               erto, Indonesia, the European Coral Reef        strengthening its research and capacity build-
               Conference in Bremen, a workshop on semi-       ing capabilities, thereby taking into account
               enclosed basins jointly with SCOR, SCOPE        the recommendations of the German Council
               and IAPSO at the Hanse Wissenschaftskolleg      of Science and Humanities. Its efforts were
               in Delmenhorst, and a lecture series plus       supported by the State of Bremen and the
               exhibition for the public in Bremen within      Federal Ministry for Education and Research.
               the “Year of the Reef” activities.              We are particularly grateful to the support
                                                               and help we received from our partner insti-
                                                               tutions in the tropics in this regard.


               The ZMT maintains a global network of partners in tropical countries with which it conducts
               its research and capacity building activities. The map shows countries with which the ZMT has
               been conducting research projects during the reporting period.

introduction   6
Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination
Research Projects

       Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems – SPICE       08

   Land-Sea Interactions in Coastal Ecosystems of Tropical China – LANCET        10

                                    Ecosystem Functioning of Rehabilitated
                           Versus Natural Mangroves in the Can Gio Reserve       11

                         Ocean-Reef Coupling in the Andaman Sea – ORCAS          11

                 Investigation of the Spatial Connectivity of Fish Populations
                              between and to Estuarine and Coastal Habitats      12

                Investigation of the Distribution of Zoo- and Ichthyoplankton
                                      in the Angola-Benguela Frontal System      12

                           River Inputs and their Impact on Reef Ecosystems
                                          along the Coast of Central Vietnam     13

        Role of System Biogeochemistry on the Distribution and Abundance
   of Vibrio-organisms in Karnaphuli River Estuary, Bangladesh – BIOVIBAN        13

                         Climate Variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation:
     Implications for Natural Coastal Resources and Management - CENSOR          14

              Impact of Nitrogen Effluents from Sugar-Cane Monoculture
                            on Water Quality and Biogeochemistry of the
      Mundau-Manguaba Lagoon and adjacent Coastal Waters off East Brazil         14

      Environmental Assessment in Tsunami-affected Andaman Islands, India        15

        Development of Feed and Quality Improvement for Tropical Shrimps         15

                                                            High-PUFA Algae      16

Breeding and Rearing of Ornamental Organisms under Controlled Conditions         16
Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination
Science for the Protection of
                                      Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems – SPICE
            2003- 2010     Duration

               Indonesia   Country

                   Main partners
 Universities and research institu-
      tions in Germany (Bremen,
       Bremerhaven, Geesthacht,
  Hamburg, Jena, Kiel, Oldenburg,
     Warnemünde) and Indonesia
(Bandung, Bogor, Gondol, Jakarta,
 Makassar, Palembang, Pekanbaru,
Purwokerto, Semarang, Surabaya)
                   BMBF    Funding

        Integrated project with six
subprojects, coordinated by the ZMT

                                      The ZMT coordinates SPICE, the bilateral           dynamite fishing and land-based pollution.
                                      German-Indonesian research project that            The work on reef ecosystems has been ex-
                                      addresses the scientific, social and economic      tended to include aspects of marine botany.
                                      aspects of the protection and sustainable          After a survey of the dominant microalgae on
                                      use of Indonesian coastal waters and their         the reefs, the photosynthetic characteristics
                                      resources. The SPICE Program was initiated         were determined along gradients in depth
                                      in 2003, with the first phase carried out in       and anthropogenic impact. This information
                                      2003-2007. It provided significant informa-        forms the basis of ongoing experimental
                                      tion on the structure and function of coastal      work related to the impact of eutrophication
                                      ecosystems covering mangroves, coral reefs,        and to mechanisms of physiological adapta-
                                      coastal pelagic systems, and peat swamps,          tion to combined abiotic stress factors.
                                      and on their alterations due to human
                                      interventions. These results have already          Understanding Ecological and Socio-
                                      found their way into management strategies         Economic Dynamics and their Inter-
                                      currently being developed by the regional          action in the Segara Anakan Lagoon
                                      planning authorities.                              The principal aim is to establish a biogeo-
                                          Phase II started in 2007 and will last until   chemical, ecological, and social scientific data
                                      2010. Based on the information and experi-         base for the sustainable use of the largest
                                      ence gained in the first phase, the focus on       mangrove ecosystem on the island of Java.
                                      natural sciences is complemented by social         Seasonal measurements are being made of
                                      science. The aims are to better understand         biogeochemical and ecological processes
                                      the social dimension of coastal ecosystem          in the lagoon. Because of their role in the
                                      changes, analyze social-ecological dynamics,       internal recycling of carbon and nutrients
                                      and improve the links between research and         in mangroves and tidal flats, benthic com-
                                      decision-making.                                   munities are receiving special attention. The
                                          In four of the six research clusters within    project also succeeded in establishing links
                                      SPICE, the ZMT also conducts its own re-           to authorities and stakeholder groups. The
                                      search with partners in Indonesia:                 work will continue in close cooperation with
                                                                                         the socioeconomic group at the ZMT.
                                      Coral Reef-Based Ecosystems and
                                      Resources                                          Transfer of Natural and Anthropogenic
                                      The work is being carried out in coral reef        Material from Land to Coastal Sea
                                      ecosystems and adjacent sea grass meadows          Indonesia holds the largest share of tropi-
                                      in South Sulawesi, which are influenced by         cal peat lands worldwide which is strongly

                  research projects   8
Three-Year Report 2006-2008 - zmt Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology Research Capacity Building Coordination
affected by deforestation and drainage. Our
study in the Siak River, Sumatra, aims at iden-
tifying and quantifying environmental impacts
of peat soil leaching on the water quality in
the river and the coastal ocean. Results show
that the organic carbon fluxes are enor-
mous and lead to light limitation in coastal
areas, thus contributing to reduced primary
productivity. The study has been extended to
other peat-draining rivers of Sumatra, which
will allow to ascertain the representativeness
of previous results.

Biogeochemical Fluxes in the
Indonesian Seas
This project investigates the influence of
monsoons and climatic anomalies associated
with El Niño events on the upwelling system
off the Javanese coast, which is an important
fisheries region. Initial results show that El
Niño events strengthen upwelling along the
Javanese coast and could increase fisheries
yield. Also, carbon dioxide emissions from
the upwelling system are strongly controlled
by freshwater introduced by small rivers
during the wet season. Further studies will
examine the functional relationships between
the strength of the biological pump and the
freshwater discharge in upwelling systems.

Seasonal Variability in the Impact of
Carbon and Nutrient Inputs from
Brantas River on the Madura Strait
The aim of this project is to develop an auto-
matic measuring system for the assessment
of water quality in the Madura Strait. The
ZMT participates in the project through the
collection of spatio-temporal datasets on the
impact of the influx of nutrients and organic
substances from the Brantas River on the
water quality of the Madura Strait.

Governance and Management of Coastal
Social-Ecological Systems
The project will examine the social and
economic aspects of the use of resources
associated with the mangrove and coral
reef ecosystems in Indonesia. It will concen-
trate on two SPICE research regions where
preliminary information from natural science
projects is available: Spermonde Archipelago
in Sulawesi and Segara Anakan Lagoon in

                                                  9   research projects
Land-Sea Interactions in Coastal Ecosystems
                                  of Tropical China – LANCET
        2006- 2009    Duration    LANCET examines the role of land-sea
              China   Country     fluxes on tropical coastal ecosystems of
               Main partners      the Chinese island of Hainan. The results
       Universities in Germany    are expected to provide detailed scientific
(Bremen, Hamburg) and China
 (Shanghai, Qingdao), research    information on a tropical system that has
   institutes in China (Haikou,   been poorly studied. Furthermore, they will
                     Hangzhou)    make a contribution to the current initiatives
               BMBF   Funding     of the Hainan government by providing the
                       details    necessary scientific database for developing
     Integrated project with 5
                                  adequate coastal management strategies. The
  subprojects, coordinated by
                     the ZMT      LANCET studies are being conducted in 5
                                  subprojects, 3 of which are being led by ZMT
                                  scientists. The overall coordination of the        fishes. They move between different coastal
                                  project is also with the ZMT.                      habitats in close proximity, like mangroves,
                                                                                     seagrass beds, sandy beaches, and coral reefs.
                                                                                     Knowledge about this connectivity is funda-
                                                                                     mental for designing effective conservation
                                                                                     and management strategies. The project aims
                                                                                     at describing the status of fish communities
                                                                                     and the analysis of the connectivity between
                                                                                     ecosystems in an intensively fished estuary.

                                                                                     Fluxes and Transformation of Nutrient
                                                                                     and Organic Matter from Watershed to
                                                                                     the Coastal Sea
                                                                                     The goal of this study is to show how human
                                                                                     activities on land alter river-water quality
                                                                                     and the biogeochemistry of receiving coastal
                                                                                     waters. Thus, conversion of mangrove forests
                                                                                     to aquaculture leads to an increased release
                                                                                     of sediments, nutrients, and pollutants into
                                                                                     coastal waters. Sewage effluents change the
                                                                                     natural pattern of riverine carbon and nutri-
                                                                                     ent fluxes. Riverine and estuarine environ-
                                                                                     ments as well as seagrass beds along the
                                                                                     coast are being investigated with a view to
                                  Current Status and Regulatory Func-                assessing the impact of land-based activities.
                                  tions of Hainan Coral Reefs
                                  Once flourishing coral reefs of Hainan are
                                  coming under increasing pressure from
                                  sweeping coastal development. Understand-
                                  ing the response of corals to these pres-
                                  sures is crucial for predicting their resilience
                                  in the face of natural and anthropogenic
                                  disturbances. Substrate cover, composition,
                                  photosynthetic activity as well as physiologi-
                                  cal properties of several coral types are being
                                  studied. In all coral types, water and zoo-
                                  plankton samples are collected to assess the
                                  quality of the ambient environment.

                                  Status of Shallow-Water Fish
                                  Tropical shallow-water habitats function as
                                  important nursery and feeding grounds for

              research projects   10
Ecosystem Functioning of Rehabilitated Versus
Natural Mangroves in the Can Gio Reserve
This project investigates the question wheth-   A second phase has been approved by the         Duration   2004- 2009
er reforested mangroves are comparable in       DFG for a period of two years. It investi-      Country    Vietnam
terms of function and structure with natural    gates the regeneration of mangrove forests      Main partner

mangrove forests, by studying the biogeo-       that were damaged by cyclones and lightning     Vietnam National University
chemistry and ecology of benthic organisms.     within the context of the implemented man-      Funding   DFG
The first phase of the project ended in 2007.   agement practices.                             	details  Subproject of the
                                                                                                integrated project “Land-Ocean
                                                                                                Atmospheric Interactions in the
                                                                                                Coastal Zone of Vietnam”,
                                                                                                coordinated by the ZMT

Ocean-Reef Coupling in the Andaman Sea – ORCAS
The project investigates the oceanic pro-       investigate the impact of temperature and pH    Duration   2006- 2009
cesses that affect the turnover of material     changes on calcification and on the primary     Country    Thailand
and energy in offshore coral reefs of the       and secondary production in the reef system.    Main partner

Andaman Sea. Of particular interest are         Since the principal investigator changed to     Phuket Marine Biological Center
internal ocean waves of enormous amplitude      the AWI in Bremerhaven in 2008, the project     Funding   DFG
(80 m) and their impact on the material and     is now being conducted from there, while the
energy cycling of the coral reefs. The work     ZMT offers support to the students for their
is being carried out by Ph. D. students who     research.

                                                                                         11     research projects
Investigation of the Spatial Connectivity of Fish Populations
                                     between and to Estuarine and Coastal Habitats
           2006-2009 Duration        Offshore populations of the weakfish            understanding of recruitment processes will
                Brazil Country       Cynoscion acoupa are being investigated using   aid in the urgent need for a better manage-
                  Main partners      chemical fingerprints from otoliths and ge-     ment of the heavily exploited fish stocks.
            Universities of Belem
                       and Recife    netic markers to determine the spatial con-     Connectivity between estuarine and coastal
              IB / BMBF   Funding
                                     nectivity of the fish between estuaries along   habitats is quantified for the first time for
                                     the northeast Brazilian coast. An improved      C. acoupa.

                                     Investigation of the Distribution of Zooplankton and
                                     Ichthyoplankton in the Angola-Benguela Frontal System
                 2008   Duration     The ZMT’s long-term cooperation with
Namibia, South Africa   Countries    South Africa and Namibia was continued
                  Main partners      with focus on the Angola-Benguela Frontal
University of Bremen, Marine and     System. A major event was the expedition
   Coastal Management Institute
                   (Cape Town)       of the Maria S. Merian to the region. The
              IB / BMBF   Funding
                                     aim was to trace the development of com-
                                     munities in upwelling cells and to conduct
                                     physiological studies on organisms to obtain
                                     information on their adaptation to changing
                                     environmental conditions. This work is
                                     to be continued within the framework of
                                     the BMBF Project “GENUS”, which will be
                                     funded early in 2009.

                 research projects   12
River Inputs and their Impact on Reef Ecosystems
along the Coast of Central Vietnam
The project studies the flux and seasonal       this project is a major goal. Sediment and      Duration   2006- 2009
variability of suspended matter, sediments      nutrient investigations were carried out and    Country    Vietnam
as well as carbon and nutrient elements, and    water and reef samples collected in two         Main partner

their possible impact on the reef ecosystems    regions. To observe changes in coral growth     Institute of Oceanography
                                                                                                (Nha Trang)
of central Vietnam. Processing long-term        and environmental conditions, markings and
                                                                                                Funding   IB / BMBF
data sets in conjunction with those obtained    loggers were placed which allow observa-
from the measurements being made within         tions to proceed for up to 2 years.

Role of System Biogeochemistry on the Distribution
and Abundance of Vibrio-organisms in the Karnaphuli
River Estuary, Bangladesh – BIOVIBAN
This one-year project investigates the inter-                                                   Duration   2007- 2008
actions between hydrochemical dynamics of                                                       Country    Bangladesh
tropical estuaries and cholera outbreaks in                                                     Main partner

the region. The project contributes towards                                                     International Centre for
                                                                                                Diarrhoeal Diseases Research
a better understanding of the distribution
                                                                                                Funding    DFG
of Vibrio cholerae in coastal ecosystems and
the observed cyclicity in cholera outbreaks
related to hydrology and climate. Based on
the results obtained, a new proposal is being
submitted to the DFG.

                                                                                           13   research projects
Climate Variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation:
                                        Implications for Natural Coastal Resources and
                                        Management – CENSOR
            2004- 2008      Duration    CENSOR is an interdisciplinary research
                    Peru    Country     project, which aims at assessing and modeling
                     Main partner       the impact of climate variability induced by El
National Agrarian University (Lima)     Niño on the Humboldt Current Large Marine
                       EU   Funding     Ecosystem and its species assemblages and
                             details    resource users. The ZMT is responsible for
  Integrated project with 14 partici-
   pating institutions from Germany,
                                        the data integration, dissemination, and mod-
       France, Spain, Chile, Peru and   eling with different approaches, like tropho-
    Argentina, coordinated by AWI,      dynamic models which describe holistically
                                        the biomass flow structure of the ecosystem
                                        and simulate use scenarios. Workshops,
                                        symposia, and post graduate training courses
                                        were organized for data dissemination and in-
                                        tegration. The project scientists were also in-
                                        volved in the development of a management
                                        plan for coastal resources in northern Peru.
                                        The concluding workshop of this project was
                                        held in September 2008.

                                        Impact of Nitrogen Effluents from Sugar-Cane
                                        Monoculture on Water Quality and Biogeochemistry
                                        of the Mundau-Manguaba Lagoon and adjacent
                                        Coastal Waters off East Brazil
            2006- 2009      Duration    Increased river inputs of nitrogen to coastal     transformation, and fate of the nitrogen from
                   Brazil   Country     waters are a major problem in many areas          sugar-cane monoculture plantations and its
                     Main partner       of the world. Though an essential nutri-          environmental effects on the biogeochem-
    Fluminense Federal University       ent, nitrogen in high concentrations causes       istry and ecology of east Brazilian coastal
         (Niteroi/ Rio de Janeiro)
                                        eutrophication and damages coastal ecosys-        waters.
                    BMBF    Funding
                                        tems. The project investigates the sources,
      Subproject of the integrated
      project “POLCAMAR –The
   Impact of Pollutants from Sugar
   Cane Monoculture on Estuaries
 and Coastal Waters of Northeast
       Brazil”, coordinated by the
             University of Bremen

                   research projects    14
Environmental Assessment in Tsunami-affected
Andaman Islands, India
This project aims to study the impact of       outside the Park, where strong erosion sug-     Duration   2005- 2008
climate and extreme events on coral reefs      gests that reef degradation started years ago   Country    India
adjacent to the Andaman Islands. Several       and cannot be related to the December 2004      Main partner

visits to the Andaman Marine National Park     event. The ZMT investigates coral cores         Institute of Ocean Management
showed considerable degradation differences    retrieved from both areas.
                                                                                               Funding   IB / BMBF
between reefs found at the National Park and

Development of Feed and Quality Improvement
for Tropical Shrimps
The experiments in this project were related   derived from soya, lupine, peas, etc. Tests     Duration   2004- 2008
to the fish feed and biomonitoring of the      conducted with cheaper substances such as       Main partners

shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The aim was       grain distillery waste showed that additives    Polyplan GmbH, Algatec (Bremen),
                                                                                               Institut für Getreideverarbeitung
the development of special shrimp feed         could enhance its uptake and assimilation       GmbH (Potsdam)
containing various amounts of total protein    rates. The research results are currently be-   Funding
and a reduced amount of fishmeal, a major      ing used by the industrial project partner to   Bremer Innovationsagentur,
protein source in commercial shrimp feed.      build a pilot plant for feed production.        AG industrieller Forschungs-
Fish protein was replaced by plant protein

                                                                                          15   research projects
High-PUFA Algae
          2008-2010    Duration    The project aims at the optimization of the
                Main partners      production of polyunsaturated fatty acids
  AquaCare GmbH (Dortmund),        by conducting experiments with a variety of
           Ceramics (Bremen),
    TeLa GmbH (Bremerhaven)        algae and varying the environmental and pro-
                                   duction conditions. Within the project, the
               AG industrieller    ZMT will cooperate with new partners from
       Forschungsvereinigungen     the industry, e.g. Aquacare-Herten, Tela-
                                   Bremerhaven, and Ceramics-Bremen.

                                   Breeding and Rearing of Ornamental Organisms
                                   under Controlled Conditions
          since 2004   Duration    The purpose of this project is to promote      With these, the focus is on photosynthesis,
                Main partners      conservation of the coral reefs by breeding    respiration, and calcification under varying
          University of Bremen,    selected ornamental species and thus avoid-    abiotic conditions, and on the influence of
       Ecomaris GmbH (Büsum)
                                   ing wild catches. The work focuses on three    nutrients on animal growth. The produc-
ZMT, Bremer Innovationsagentur     areas: water quality management, brood-        tion of live feed (Artemia, Rotaria, copepods
                                   stock management, and nutritional research.    and algae) for the rearing of larvae is being
                                   Experiments concentrated on clownfishes,       continuously optimized.
                                   seahorses, and particularly on giant clams.

               research projects   16
Featured Research


             Collapse of a New Living Species of Giant Clam in the Red Sea    18

            Links between Coastal Processes and Vibrio Cholerae Dynamics
  in the Indian Subcontinent: Seasonality and Relation to Cholera Incidence   20

Coral Photophysiology in Response to Thermal Stress and Nutritional Status    21

       Tropical Peat Soil Degradation: Impacts on the Aquatic Environment     23
Collapse of a New Living Species of Giant Clam
                        in the Red Sea
 Claudio Richter        Giant clams belong to the most spectacular         depleted stocks and thus contribute to the
Hilly Roa-Quiaoit       but also the most endangered marine inver-         conservation of genetic resources in the Red
           et. al.      tebrates. The large size of giant clams – their    Sea.
                        shells can measure up to 1.4 m - is due to              Morphology has been the foundation of
                        microalgae living in very high densities in the    taxonomy for centuries but has often failed
                        colorful clam mantle tissues. They provide         to delineate between species with overlap-
                        the energy to precipitate the large amounts        ping and variable phenotypes. The incorpo-
                        of calcium carbonate composing the shell. In       ration of molecular and ecological data has
                        many places, their large size and easy acces-      greatly sharpened our ability to draw species
                        sibility was the reason for overfishing and the    boundaries. T. costata features a deeply fold-
                                                                           ed, almost zig-zag dorsal shell margin, while
                                                                           its two Red Sea congeners show only weakly
                                                                           sinusoidal margins. We quantified the mor-
                                                                           phological similarities by five morphological
                                                                           parameters. Analysis of similarity showed a
                                                                           highly significant separation of T. costata from
                                                                           the other two species. The morphological
                                                                           differences were corroborated by phyloge-
                                                                           netic analysis of molecular data. With a frag-
                                                                           ment of the mitochondrial rRNA gene, we
                                                                           found a clear delineation between T. costata
                                                                           and its sympatric congeners, but virtually no
                                                                           difference between replicate specimens, sup-
                                                                           porting monophyly of T. costata.
                                                                                Although seasonal times of reproduction
                                                                           are not diagnostic features per se and may
                                                                           vary between years and regions, we found
                                                                           marked differences between the Red Sea
                                                                           species: T. costata differed from its conge-
                                                                           ners in an early and only brief reproductive
                                                                           period in spring, coinciding with the seasonal
                                                                           plankton bloom. The timing of reproduction
                                                                           suggests a planktotrophic development of
                                                                           the larvae, contrasting the food-independent
                                                                           larval development in the summer-spawning
                        collapse of the natural stocks. The diversity      T. squamosa and T. maxima.
                        of giant clams is extremely low, only seven             T. costata represents less than 1% of the
                        extant species of Tridacna are known.              present stocks. Underwater surveys carried
                            Our studies within the “Red-Sea Or-            out in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea
                        namentals Program” provided evidence for           showed that T. costata must be considered as
                        a morphologically, genetically, ecologically,      critically endangered. Only six out of a thou-
                        and paleoecologically distinct new species of      sand live specimens belonged to the new spe-
                        giant clam in the Red Sea: Tridacna costata. Its   cies. Overall, Tridacna stocks have plummeted
                        oversight in one of the best-investigated reef     to less than 5% of their sizes in the 1980s and
                        provinces illustrates the dearth of knowledge      1990s because of artisanal reef-top gathering
                        on marine biodiversity. The Red Sea program        for meat and shells. As opposed to T. maxima
                        was initiated in cooperation with the Marine       and T. squamosa, which have a broad vertical
                        Science Station at Aqaba in 2002. Its goal was     range of distribution, T. costata is restricted to
                        to study the life cycle of giant clams with the    the reef top. This fact, along with its narrow
                        prospect of breeding them in order to supply       reproductive window and plankton-dependent
                        the growing aquarists’ demand for the prized       larval development, make T. costata particu-
                        blue T. maxima, and possibly also re-stock the     larly vulnerable to overfishing.

    featured research   18
One of the striking features of the Red Sea      trajectory of decline prior to this period      	publicationS

is that, in many places, one can time-travel     provides the first circumstantial evidence
                                                                                                  Richter, C., Roa-Quiaoit,
into the past by means of exposed coral-         that humans were not only using but also de-     H., Jantzen, C., Al-Zibdah,
reef terraces towering up to tens of meters      pleting reef resources. Declining marine and     M., Kochzius, M. (2008).
above the present-day sea level. We carried      terrestrial resources, by human and climatic     Collapse of a new living species of
                                                                                                  giant clam in the Red Sea,
out surveys along the shores and well-dated      factors, respectively, may have acted in con-    Current Biology, 18(17),
emerged reef terraces of Sinai and Aqaba,        cert to thwart the precocious but short-lived    1349-1354.
showing that T. costata constituted more than    colonization of the Near East by anatomically
                                                                                                  Roa-Quiaoit, H., (2007)
80% of the giant clam stocks prior to the last   modern but technologically primitive humans      The Ecology and Culture of Giant
interglacial (125,000 years ago), after which    at the end of the last interglacial.             Clams (Tridacidae) in the Jordanian
its proportion plummeted to less than 5% in                                                       Sector of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea,
                                                                                                  PhD Thesis
freshly discarded shell middens.
    The wealth of paleolithic artifacts in
emerged reef terraces in the southern and
central Red Sea indicates that modern hu-
mans have been exploiting Red Sea mollusks
for at least 125,000 years. Shells matching
our description were also among the fossils
in other Red Sea areas, suggesting that the
new species, by virtue of its dominance,
conspicuousness, size, and accessibility, has
played an important role in the diet of hu-
man gatherer communities during the last
    Along with early shellfishing evidence in
other areas, this has spurred speculation that
the dispersal of anatomically modern humans
out of Africa into the Red Sea and adjacent
regions 100,000 years ago was driven largely
by competition for marine resources. Our
discovery that T. costata was already on a

                                                                                           19     featured research
Links between Coastal Processes and Vibrio Cholerae
                                         Dynamics in the Indian Subcontinent: Seasonality and
                                         Relation to Cholera Incidence
                     Ruben Lara          Water-driven diseases such as cholera are         determine the relationship of cases of chol-
                                         still an important cause of morbidity and         era with chlorophyll, as well as sea-surface
                                         mortality in many developing countries in         temperature, ocean height, nutrients, salinity,
                                         Asia, Africa, and Latin America due to the        and turbidity. The sporadic appearance of
                                         lack of safe water supply and poor hygienic       cholera epidemics can now be at least partly
                                         practices. The current cholera pandemic,          related to climate-ocean coupling events,
                                         which started in 1961, is the most extensive      such as the “El Niño phenomenon”.
                                         in geographic spread and duration. During             The detection of reservoirs like man-
                                         1994, cholera epidemics were reported from        groves, marshes, or corals, where these and
                                         over 90 countries. The bacterium Vibrio chol-     other potentially dangerous microorganisms
                                         erae is the causative agent of cholera. Vibrios   can prosper, represents a huge potential for
                                         are aquatic bacteria of marine and estuarine      promoting interactions between tropical
                                         origin. They can also cause diseases in fish,     coastal research and biomedical science. For
                                         shrimp, corals, and other aquatic organisms.      the last three years, the ZMT has been carry-
                                              In tropical areas, coastal ecosystems        ing out a cooperation with the International
                                         and their basins are rapidly changing due to      Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research in
                                         anthropogenic pressure and global warming.        Dhaka, Bangladesh, studying the relationship
                                         Thus, in such health-related issues, basins       between the biogeochemistry of estuaries
                                         must be the natural units for vulnerability       and wetlands, and the abundance and diver-
                                         assessment and coastal management. Integra-       sity of Vibrio organisms. Furthermore, we
                                         tive, comparative approaches are needed           investigate the effect of climatic catastrophic
                                         for the understanding of functional links         events such as cyclones and landslides on the
                                         between the morphology of different estuar-       abundance of pathogenic bacteria in estuar-
                                         ies, marshes, and mangroves, flooding and         ies. An upcoming cooperation project with
                                         biogeochemical regimes, pathogen life cycles,     the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric
                                         and the incidence of disease.                     Diseases in Kolkata, India, will continue and
                                              There are converging approaches in the       extend this approach to other large estuaries
                                         investigation of tropical marine ecosystems       which are affected by dams and pollution.
                                         and human diseases. These include the                 There is an increasing awareness of
                                         research on the same bacterial genus (Vibrio)     the need of enhancing interdisciplinarity in
                                         which is responsible for both coral bleaching     biomedical research, particularly through
                                         and cholera, the use of remote sensing of the     the integration with environmental sciences.
                                         ocean-surface temperature, climate research,      Cholera and other water-driven diseases
                                         and an emerging, epidemiological thinking         are not an exclusive problem of develop-
                                         common to these approaches. Traditionally,        ing and/or tropical countries. There have
                                         the association between water temperature         been cholera epidemics in Europe until the
                                         and coral bleaching has been stressed, and        beginning of the 20 th century. More recently,
                                         only recently it has been discovered that this    there have been reports of skin infections
                                         is probably triggered by a Vibrio bacterium -     in swimmers produced by Vibrio organisms
                                         and that it could be transmitted by a coral-      in Sweden (seawater) and The Netherlands
                                         feeding worm acting as “vector”.                  (freshwater). Slight changes of environmental
                                              On the other hand, the study of cholera      factors such as water temperature, pH, or
                                         disease has drifted into marine and estuarine     nutrient content can dramatically change the
Lara, R.J., Neogi, S.B., Islam, M. S.,   research. The association of V. cholerae with     amount and diversity of the microbial com-
Mahmud, Z. H., Yamasaki, S., Nair,
                                         plankton has been established only recently,      munity. Thus, increased efforts are required
                          G.B. (2009)
   Influence of Catastrophic Climatic    allowing an analysis of the epidemic pat-         to detect these changes in an early stage to
 Events and Human Waste on Vibrio        terns of cholera. Since the zooplankton has       avoid the spread of the disease.
        Distribution in the Karnaphuli   been shown to harbor the bacterium, and
                 Estuary, Bangladesh,
         EcoHealth, DOI: 10.1007/s1      zooplankton blooms follow phytoplankton
                    0393-009-0257-6      blooms, remote sensing can be employed to

                   featured research     20
Coral Photophysiology in Response to Thermal Stress
and Nutritional Status
                                                                                                       Esther M. Borell

Coral bleaching, the dissociation of corals        experiments which were carried out at the
and their zooxanthellae (symbiotic unicellular     Hasanuddin University Marine Field Station
algae) and/or loss of chlorophyll in response      in southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia. In both
to elevated seawater temperature can lead          experiments, corals were either starved, i.e.
to extensive coral mortality and loss in           deprived of organic particles or fed daily with
biodiversity. It is generally accepted that the    freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii.
foremost causes of bleaching involve chronic           The first experiment assessed the effect
photoinhibition of zooxanthellae and the           of zooplankton feeding versus starvation
subsequent formation of damaging reactive          on the bleaching susceptibility, the photo-
oxygen species. Photoinhibition is coupled         synthetic activity, and the photoprotective
to levels of antioxidant activity and rates of     mechanism in the temperature-sensitive
protein repair, processes which incur high         species Stylophora pistillata under elevated
metabolic costs in terms of nitrogen de-           temperature. It was carried out over a
mands and energy expenditure.                      period of 10 days employing pulse-amplitude-
    Since heterotrophic abilities of corals can    modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorometry.
vary considerably between reef habitats and        The second experiment was run for 15 days
species, understanding how food availability       in order to investigate the potential interac-
affects the susceptibility of corals to bleach-    tions between zooplankton feeding, basal
ing does provide important information             metabolic functions (photosynthesis and
aiding the prediction of the effects of increas-   respiration), energy status (lipid concentra-
ing temperature on the coral community             tions), total protein concentrations, and the
structure in relation to water quality. Using      bleaching susceptibility of S. pistillata and the
different methodological approaches, the           more temperature-tolerant species Galaxea
objectives of this study were to investigate       fascicularis.
the prediction that exogenous food increases           As predicted, starved S. pistillata in Ex-
the thermal tolerance of the symbiotic as-         periment 1 displayed strong signs of chronic
sociation. This was tested in two feeding          photoinhibition, which was reflected by the

                                                                                                 21    featured research
significant decline in nocturnal recovery rates   this hypothesis, further biochemical and
                                        of photosystem II. This was paralleled by the     molecular investigations are needed.
                                        progressive deterioration of non-photochem-            Near-shore environments are often
                                        ical quenching, an important photoprotec-         characterized by heavy loads of terres-
                                        tive mechanism. Fed corals by comparison          trial discharges of nutrients and sediment,
                                        maintained higher levels of photoprotection,      which result in turbid, nutrient-rich waters
                                        which coincided with significantly higher         smothering coral tissues and reducing light
                                        rates of nocturnal photosystem recovery.          penetration, i.e. the key resource of scler-
                                        Sustained photosynthesis of fed corals was        actinian corals. As such, turbid waters are
                                        accompanied by a reduced loss in pigmenta-        commonly considered as a stress factor for
                                        tion compared to starved corals. The tissue       corals. Although coral populations can suffer
                                        of starved corals in both experiments ap-         high levels of mortality in regions with high
                                        peared pale relative to fed corals.               nutrient loads, this is not necessarily always
                     Publications           The combined results of these experi-         the case. Near-shore fringing reefs frequently
                                        ments indicate that exogenous food can play       feature corals which are adapted to thrive in
   Borell, E.M., Bischof, K. (2008)
      Zooplankton feeding sustains      an important role in reducing the photophys-      this type of environment, yielding a high coral
       photosynthesis in Stylophora     iological damage of zooxanthellae that typi-      cover, growth rates and diversity. Suspended
     pistillata under thermal stress.   cally leads to bleaching. Although the results    sediment and inorganic nutrients can be rap-
             Oecologia 157, 593-601
                                        of this study provide no indication of the un-    idly converted into particulate organic mate-
          Borell, E.M., Bischof, K.,    derlying biochemical mechanisms as to how         rial. Against the background of rapid environ-
   Yulantri A., Richter, C. (2008)      additional resources could have modulated         mental change, turbid coastal environments
          The effect of heterotrophy
                                        the thermal resistance of the photosynthetic      may therefore buffer the stress susceptibility
       on photosynthesis and tissue
composition of two scleractinian cor-   apparatus, it is conceivable that zooplankton     and enhance the fitness of some coral spe-
                  als under elevated    provided a direct source of nitrogen to the       cies. This would have important ecological
                        temperature.    zooxanthellae, facilitating enhanced rates of     implications for the persistence and dynamics
    Journal of Experimental Marine
           Biology and Ecology 364,     protein repair and reduced photophysiologi-       of coral reef communities in the future.
                            116-123     cal damage of the zooxanthellae. To verify

                  featured research     22
Tropical Peat Soil Degradation: Impacts on the
Aquatic Environment
                                                                                                   Tim Rixen
                                                                                                   Antje Baum

The exponentially rising population of the       and peat fires in 1997. SPICE and the field
world and the growing demand for space,          work in the peatlands started in 2004. Dur-
food, energy, etc. are the main drivers of       ing the first phase, the work focused on the
global change which have become so acute         Siak River in central Sumatra. In the second
that even a new geological epoch, the            phase, the working area was expanded and
Anthropocene, was introduced. However,           now includes all the six major peat-draining
global change has many local facets which        rivers in eastern Sumatra in order to get a
need to be analyzed and studied in order to      more representative view on environmental
develop sustainable management strategies        changes.
for each individual region and ecosystem.             On seven expeditions to the peat-drain-
Southeast Asian peat lands, covering ~10% of     ing rivers water and sediment samples and
the Indonesian land mass, are, for example,      also peat samples from the catchment soils
a very sensitive ecosystem of global impor-      were taken and analyzed for various param-
tance regarding the emission of greenhouse       eters, e.g. dissolved organic carbon (DOC),
gases into the atmosphere, as seen during        dissolved nutrients and oxygen. Furthermore,
the strong drought induced by El Niño in         experiments on the degradation of dissolved
1997. At this time, the peatlands emitted 1.7    organic carbon were carried out.
x 1015g of carbon, representing 74% of the            Our first data indicate that the Siak owes
global annual mean CO2 emissions caused by       its brown color to dissolved organic matter
land-use changes. Peat-soil degradation in-      (DOM) leached from the surrounding, heav-
creased dramatically during the last 40 years.   ily disturbed peat soils. The DOC concen-
If the present rate of deforestation remains     trations in the Siak are among the highest
constant, ~90 % of the original peat swamp       reported worldwide and are even four times
forests will disappear within the forthcoming    higher than those of the Rio Negro which
~140 years.                                      is often considered as the world’s classi-
     The joint Indonesian/German project         cal black water river. Extrapolated to the
“Science for the Protection of Indonesian        entire Southeast Asian peatlands, our results
Coastal Marine Ecosystems” (SPICE) aims at       indicate that the numerous small Indonesian
studying the environmental impacts of peat-      peat-draining rivers contribute approximately
soil degradation on the aquatic ecosystems       10% to the global riverine DOC export into
in eastern Sumatra. The first idea of SPICE      the ocean - which stores approximately 20%
was born at an international conference          more organic carbon than the terrestrial
organized by the Indonesian government in        vegetation including the tropical forests.
Jakarta shortly after the catastrophic forest

                                                                                             23    featured research
The high DOC concentrations were also             from the plantations doubled the dissolved
                                       associated with high DOC decomposition            inorganic nitrogen concentrations in the Siak.
                                       rates, reducing the oxygen concentrations in      The low light and oxygen levels reduce the
                                       the Siak dramatically. Model results indicate     photosynthetic production of organic matter
                    Publications       that an increase of the DOC concentrations        and hence the nutrient uptake in the river
                 Baum, A. (2008)
                                       by ~15% could already lead to oxygen-poor         which, in turn, increases the riverine export
       Tropical blackwater biogeo-     (anoxic) conditions in the Siak. The develop-     of nutrients into the coastal ocean. Neverthe-
      chemistry: The Siak River in     ment of these anoxic zones, also called dead      less, despite the anthropogenic impact, the
      Central Sumatra, Indonesia.
                                       zones, can lead to a mass mortality of fish as    nutrient concentrations and thus their export
  PhD thesis, University of Bremen,
                             pp. 121   has already been observed in the Siak. This       into the ocean was still much lower than
                                       emphasizes the sensitivity of the Siak to the     observed elsewhere in non-blackwater rivers
               Baum, A., Rixen, T,     peat-soil degradation which is assumed to         because of the low rate of nutrient leaching
                 Samiaji, J. (2007)    increase DOC concentrations in the rivers.        from the nutrient-poor peat soils.
        Relevance of peat draining
                                           Eutrophication caused by anthropogenic             The results obtained during the SPICE
      rivers in central Sumatra for
         riverine input of dissolved   inputs of dissolved inorganic nutrients is        project showed that peat-soil degradation
    organic carbon into the ocean.     considered to be the main reason of the           and anthropogenic wastewater discharges
       Estuarine Coastal and Shelf     observed spread of the dead zones in aquatic      strongly affect the ecological balance of the
              Science 73, 563-570.
                                       habitats around the industrial world, and         Siak River. Since anthropogenic activities on
                                       could also be observed in the Siak. In addition   tropical peat soils are predicted to continue
Rixen, T., Baum, A., Pohlmann, T.,
   Balzer, W., Samiaji, J., Jose, C.   to industrial and urban wastewater discharg-      or even increase in the upcoming decades,
                             (2008)    es, agricultural run off played an important      further studies are needed to improve our
    The Siak, a tropical blackwater    role, as was seen during the period of oil-       understanding of the impact of peat-soil
           river in Central Sumatra
             on the verge to anoxia.   palm fertilization at the end of the rainy sea-   utilization on the very sensitive blackwater
     Biogeochemistry 90, 129-140.      son, when an enhanced washout of nitrogen         ecosystems.

                 featured research     24
Capacity Building
and Cooperation

 International Studies in Aquatic Tropical Ecology – ISATEC   26

                Sino-German Initiative on Marine Sciences     26

                                            PhD Programs      26

                     Special Courses and Summer Schools       26

                              ACEMON Research Network         28

                                      ICSU SCOR, SCOPE        28

                                         NAM S&T Centre       28

                                            IOC-UNESCO        28

                                IGBP-LOICZ, IGBP-IMBER        28

                        International Ocean Institute (IOI)   28
Capacity Building
                    The ZMT is involved in teaching at the           Sino-German Initiative on Marine
                    University of Bremen, giving lectures and        Sciences
                    courses in ecological, biogeochemical, and       Activities in this project aim at contribut-
                    socioeconomic subjects. The scientific staff     ing to the development of an international
                    also supervises both internal and external       education and intensifying scientific exchange.
                    thesis students. In the period from 2006 to      Starting in 2005, a Sino-German Master
                    2008, 20 doctoral theses and 16 diploma          Program in Marine Sciences was jointly
                    theses were successfully completed. A total      developed by the ZMT and other research
                    of 34 doctoral theses and 6 diploma theses       institutions in Bremen and Kiel, together
                    are currently underway. Furthermore, the         with the Ocean University of China (OUC)
                    ZMT develops joint education programs with       in Qingdao. It offers Chinese and German
                    partner countries such as China.                 students a two-term study in specific fields
                        Other capacity building activities like      of marine sciences at the partner university
                    specialist training courses, summer schools,     abroad, with the possibility of obtaining
                    and on-the-job training were offered both in     a MSc Double Degree. The first Chinese
                    Bremen and in partner countries. The ZMT         students, who spent an academic year in Bre-
                    also hosted a number of internships in its       men, have already completed their studies
                    laboratories for students and pupils.            at the OUC and have obtained the Master’s
                                                                     degree. A second group of eight students of
                                                                     the University of Bremen have begun study-
                                                                     ing at the OUC as a part of the program in
                                                                     winter term 2008/09.
                                                                         Among further activities are annual sum-
                                                                     mer schools intended to strengthen contacts
                                                                     and promote the mutual acquaintance with
                                                                     the teaching methods of each contributing
                                                                     partner. Since 2008, the ongoing cooperation
                                                                     is extended to include PhD programs under
                                                                     an agreement signed between the OUC and
                                                                     the University of Bremen.

                                                                     PhD Programs
                                                                     The ZMT hosts a large number of PhD candi-
                                                                     dates from its partner countries and Ger-
                                                                     many, who carry out their thesis research
                                                                     within the ZMT’s research projects. During
                                                                     the period of reporting, 20 students com-
                                                                     pleted their doctoral thesis, whereas 34 PhD
                                                                     theses are still in progress. The Center also
                                                                     contributes to the International Graduate
                    International Studies in Aquatic Tropical        School ”Global Change in the Marine Realm”
                    Ecology – ISATEC                                 established at the University of Bremen in
                    ISATEC is a two-year international MSc           2007, as a part of the German Excellence
                    study program on aquatic tropical ecosys-        Initiative. The Graduate School educates
                    tems which was jointly set up by the ZMT         young scientists in a stimulating research
                    and Bremen University in 1999. Most of the       environment and enables them to be part of
                    teaching in the program is done by the ZMT       the worldwide effort aimed at dealing with
                    staff. Postgraduates are trained in theoreti-    issues of global change early in their doctoral
                    cal and applied tropical aquatic ecology, with   training.
                    emphasis on concepts and methodologies for
                    the sustainable use and conservation of tropi-   Special Courses and Summer Schools
                    cal aquatic ecosystems. The program was          Together with scientists from partner institu-
                    coordinated by the ZMT until 2007, when the      tions, the ZMT conducted special courses
                    Faculty of Biology of Bremen University took     from the modular series “The Sea and its
                    over coordination.                               Resources” at partner institutions in Brazil,

capacity building   26
Indonesia, and Vietnam. In cooperation with
the NAM S&T Centre from India, a work-
shop cum seminar on “Coastal Ecosystems:
Hazards Management and Rehabilitation” was
conducted in Purwokerto, Indonesia. At the
Phuket Marine Biological Centre in Thailand
a training course was held on the subject of
“Participatory Management in IKZM”.
    In the scope of Sino-German cooperation,
annual summer schools were organized in
Bremen and Kiel (2006), Büsum (2007), and
Qingdao (2008), covering the subjects “Im-
pacts of Global Change on Shelf-Open Ocean
Systems”, “Processes in Coastal Zones”, and
“Oceans under Stress”. Another summer
school flanking a conference on „Coastal and
Disaster Management for Extreme Events
Impact Mitigation“ was conjointly organized
by the ZMT and the Center for Coral Reef
Research in Makassar, Indonesia.

                                               27   capacity building
Cooperation: Networks and International Organizations
              ACEMON Research Network                         Together with the NAM S&T Centre and
              The ACEMON (Aquatic Ecosystems of Mon-          Indonesian universities a workshop was
              soon Asia) network was established by the       organized on “Coastal Ecosystems: Hazards
              ZMT in 2004, with the support of the BMBF.      Management and Rehabilitation” in Indonesia.
              It gives the ZMT and its partner institutions
              in Asian countries affected by monsoons the     IOC-UNESCO
              opportunity to develop joint research and       The ZMT participated in the activities of the
              training activities for an integrated manage-   Intergovernmental Oceanographic Com-
              ment of their coastal ecosystems. This co-      mission of the UNESCO related to capacity
              operation involved the publication of results   building in the WESTPAC (Western Pacific)
              arising from workshops and training courses     region. Research projects like SPICE and the
              conducted in Indonesia and Thailand during      ACEMON Network contribute to the en-
              the previous years. In 2008, the work was fo-   hancement of the marine-research capacity
              cused on developing a special program in the    in the WESTPAC (Western Pacific) region.
              region to study coral reefs, which received     A new project on coral reefs including the
              approval from the IOC-WESTPAC. Three            ZMT as a partner was initiated by the IOC-
              workshops are planned within the project for    WESTPAC.
              the next two years.
                                                              IGBP-LOICZ, IGBP-IMBER
              ICSU SCOR, SCOPE                                The ZMT contributes to both biogeochemi-
              The ZMT contributes with its activities to      cal and social science aspects of the investiga-
              scientific committees such as SCOPE and         tions of LOICZ. Cooperation was intensified
              SCOR of the International Council for Sci-      since one member of the ZMT scientific staff
              ence (ICSU). The Center hosts the chair of      is a member of the LOICZ International Sci-
              the national SCOPE Committee in Germany         entific Steering Committee.. Together with
              and of the new committee on capacity build-     LOICZ and SCOR, the ZMT is now devel-
              ing established by SCOR.                        oping plans how to enhance the impact of
                  The SCOPE project on the silicon            capacity building activities. In addition, plans
              cycle was completed with a publication by       for joint activities with respect to regional
              Island Press. In 2007, the ZMT also orga-       programs are being discussed.
              nized, together with SCOPE and SCOR, a
              workshop on semi-enclosed basins at the         International Ocean Institute (IOI)
              Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg in Delmenhorst.       The ZMT hosts the German Operational
              ZMT scientists continued their cooperation      Center of the International Ocean Institute
              with the SCOR working group on hypoxia.         since October 2002. A member of the ZMT
              Also, the ZMT established new contacts          staff is the director of the Operational Cen-
              with the ICSU Regional Office for Africa,       ter and is also chairing the Board of Opera-
              pursuing the objective of helping to develop    tional Centre Directors that is responsible
              capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Currently it    for the IOI strategy development. The ZMT
              develops plans to cooperate with the newly      contributes its expertise to networks run by
              established Centre of Excellence for Reef       the IOI and its OceanLearn program. During
              Research at the University of Dar Es Salaam     the last three years, the ZMT cooperated
              in Zanzibar and the SANUMARC Marine             with the IOI in a GTZ project to support
              Research Centre in Henties Bay, Namibia.        capacity building in the fisheries sector in
                                                              Papua New Guinea together with the Na-
              NAM S&T Centre                                  tional Fisheries Authority. A fisheries study
              In the scope of its cooperation with the        program was developed and implemented
              NAM (Non-aligned Movement and Develop-          at the Vudal University in Papua. The ZMT
              ing Nations) Science and Technology Centre,     also coordinated the participation of children
              the ZMT offers within its projects training     from two Bremen schools in a Youth Parlia-
              to excellent young scientists from developing   ment organized by the IOI in Malta.
              countries in the tropics. As yet, four candi-
              dates have been chosen and will stay at the
              ZMT for three months.

cooperation   28
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