Page created by Brenda Love
Using Labor
 Market Data to
iMprove stUDent
The Aspen InsTITuTe would like to thank Elisa Rassen and
Kathy Booth of the RP Group, who worked in partnership with
Erika Falk and Josh Wyner to research and craft this guide.

We deeply appreciate those organizations that provided funding
for the development of this guide and for the Aspen Prize for
Community College Excellence:
• America Achieves
• Bank of America Charitable Foundation
• Bloomberg Philanthropies
• The Joyce Foundation
• JPMorgan Chase Foundation
• Lumina Foundation
• W.K. Kellogg Foundation

We would like to extend a special thanks to Google and the
Lumina Foundation for their support of a convening—at Google’s
Washington offices in June 2012—of community college leaders,
policymakers, and guidance counselors on the use of labor
market data. Learning from that convening played a central role
in the creation of this guide.

The Aspen InsTITuTe’s College exCellenCe progrAm

The Aspen Institute’s College Excellence Program aims to advance
higher education practices, policies, and leadership that signifi-
cantly improve student outcomes in four areas:
• CompleTIon. Do students earn degrees and other meaningful
  credentials while in college?
• equITy. Do colleges work to ensure equitable outcomes
  for minority and low-income students, and others often
• lAbor mArkeT. Do graduates get well-paying jobs?
• leArnIng. Do colleges and their faculty set expectations
  for what students should learn, measure whether they are
  doing so, and use that information to improve?
Using Labor
 Market Data to
iMprove stUDent

Never before has the link between a                                       choices that offer the best return on                                    there are great divergences in labor
college education and postgraduate job                                    their investments of time and money.                                     market returns for different credentials.
prospects been more important. College                                    They are questioning whether a college                                   Although they can easily determine that
graduates are employed more often and,                                    education is worth pursuing and which                                    nurses almost always earn more than
on average, earn significantly more than                                  of their increasing number of choices for                                hairdressers, they may not know that a
those without college degrees.1 During                                    higher education will be both affordable                                 radiation therapist with an associate’s
recent years, as students have moved                                      and likely to result in a good job.                                      degree earns an average of $75,000 per
into a challenging job market, a college                                                                                                           year,4 while a veterinary technician, who
education has remained the most reliable                                  Trying to meet the needs and expectations                                also needs an associate’s degree, earns
defense against unemployment.2                                            of both states and students, community
                                                                                                                                                   an average of only $30,000.5
                                                                          colleges are often caught in the middle.
At the same time, investments in higher                                   States are cutting budgets while students
                                                                                                                                                   Although states can gain access to the
education can no longer be taken for                                      expect courses to remain available and
                                                                                                                                                   labor data they need to make informed
granted. States—facing their own finan-                                   tuition to stay low. Especially in states
cial and economic challenges—are                                          where cuts have been too rapid to be                                     decisions, colleges often cannot. Too
making choices about how much and                                         replaced by new tuition or other revenue                                 often, they have inadequate information
where to invest in higher education.                                      sources, colleges are making tough                                       to determine which degrees from their
Several are examining which state expen-                                  choices, assessing which course offer-                                   colleges lead to high-wage jobs. Commu-
ditures will most likely enable students to                               ings and programs they should maintain                                   nity colleges need more and better infor-
graduate with the skills needed to fill jobs                              to meet students’ needs and which to cut                                 mation on students’ post-graduation
that will help states’ economies grow.3                                   to keep the institution financially viable.                              professional lives to understand how well
                                                                                                                                                   their educational programs are equip-
Students too are increasingly consid-                                     Like their students and state officials,                                 ping students to thrive professionally and
ering how to make higher education                                        community college leaders know that                                      achieve economic self-sufficiency.

                                                                          like their students and state officials,
                                                                          community college leaders know that
                                                                          there are great divergences in labor
                                                                          market returns for different credentials.

1   Carnevale, A. P., Rose, S. J., & Cheah, B. (2011). The college payoff. Washington, DC: Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce. Retrieved from

2   Carnevale, A. P., Jayasundera, T., & Cheah, B. (2012, August). The college advantage: Weathering the economic storm. Washington, DC: Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce. Retrieved

3   See, for example, the labor market findings resulting from a partnership between the Tennessee Higher Education Commission and College Measures in a recent report, Schneider, M., & Vivari, B. (2012, September).
    The earnings power of graduates from Tennessee’s colleges and universities. Rockville, MD: Retrieved from

4   Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012, April 6). Retrieved from
5   Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011, May). Retrieved from
the PurPose of this guide
    This guide aims to advance colleges’                                     The examples in this guide come from
    understanding of how to access and use                                   community colleges, gathered primarily
    labor market data to improve student                                     through explorations related to the
    success. The three sections that follow                                  Aspen prize for Community College
    provide:                                                                 excellence. However, four-year colleges
                                                                             are also facing budget challenges and
    • A description of how colleges can use                                  increasing expectations to deliver
      labor market data.                                                     measurable results. Against this back-
                                                                             drop, this guide can also assist four-
    • An inventory of available data sources.                                year colleges as they seek to understand
                                                                             labor market outcomes for bachelor’s
    • Recommendations for what colleges                                      degree programs.
      can do to improve labor market data
      use and access.

    the Power of labor market data
    The need to track the employment and                                     However, the availability of rigorous
    earnings of graduates is by no means                                     empirical data has not kept up with
    new to community colleges. They have                                     increased institutional demand.6 Even
    reported information about job outcomes                                  though most community colleges survey
    for graduates of their career and tech-                                  students graduating from CTE programs
    nical education (CTE) programs to federal                                about subsequent employment, low
    and state agencies for decades. In recent                                response rates and biases inherent in
    years, colleges have also increasingly                                   self-reporting limit the reliability of such
    examined data on regional job trends                                     reports.7 Moreover, such surveys are
    to align their program offerings with                                    typically conducted only on graduates of
    projected labor market needs. Some                                       CTE programs, and aim to gather infor-
    colleges are now even experimenting                                      mation on students only immediately after
    with providing students such informa-                                    they graduate. Community and four-year
    tion to help them choose a major, both                                   colleges rarely inquire about labor market
    as a way to increase the chances of                                      outcomes for general education degree
    graduation and to improve the chances                                    graduates or investigate the results
    that students’ choices will lead them to                                 beyond the first year after graduation for
    living-wage jobs and strong career paths.                                those receiving any credential.

    6   Several states operating independently or in conjunction with the Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems (SLDS) Grant Program (a federal
        grant system designed to aid states in designing and implementing longitudinal pre-k through workforce data systems) have begun to
        collect these data. However, even in cases where states have data there is often a lack of capacity to analyze and understand how these
        data can be used.

    7   This criticism should not be read to suggest that colleges should never use survey data, but rather that steps can be taken to improve
        its reliability (as described in the section below about Monroe College) and that it should be supplemented by other labor market data
        described below.

new And emergIng                                                       sion led the Department of Education                                      and thereby increase chances for
sourCes oF dATA                                                        to rewrite its “gainful employment”                                       graduation and by enhancing the likeli-
                                                                       regulations and limits the availability                                   hood they will choose a degree aligned
Today, there is a growing opportunity                                  of year-to-year updates, the 2012 data                                    to a well-paid, available job.
for colleges to access useful labor                                    sets provide a snapshot colleges can use
market data. States have long collected                                to assess the effectiveness of some of                                 • Advocate for the college by using data
employment data for purposes of admin-                                 their programs compared to the same                                      on graduates’ employment outcomes
istering unemployment insurance (UI),                                  programs at other institutions.9                                         to demonstrate to the state and others
and now several have started to match                                                                                                           that investments in the college are
UI records with those of college gradu-                                The emergence of these new data sets                                     worthwhile, and will go beyond broad-
ates to generate aggregate employment                                  suggests the dawning of a new era in                                     ening access to delivering graduates
and wage data.8 Twenty-two states have                                 which labor market data will be increas-                                 able to contribute to their families,
even signed up to share those records                                  ingly available to colleges, their students,                             communities, and states.
with one another, meaning those states                                 and many other actors seeking to
now have access to information about                                   measure and improve student success.                                   To be clear, labor market data cannot alone
the job outcomes of students who leave                                                                                                        provide all of the labor market information
the state. Although effective and effi-                                                                                                       colleges need to make good decisions. As
cient systems for getting these data to                                usIng These dATA                                                       the remainder of this guide makes clear,
colleges are still in their infancy in most                            To InForm ChAnge                                                       although labor market projections and
states, advanced examples, such as the                                                                                                        results can provide critical facts to assess
system used in Florida, illuminate the                                 Labor market data provide informa-                                     the viability and efficacy of a program,
potential value of pushing for increased                               tion that many stakeholders on college                                 they cannot provide important nuances
access to this important resource.                                     campuses—including the president, vice                                 about local labor markets and trends.
                                                                       presidents, deans, department chairs,
In addition to UI data, proprietary data-                              faculty, staff, and students—can use to                                As many effective community college
bases are being used to aggregate job                                  understand and improve the link between                                leaders have long understood, deep and
postings from the internet, providing                                  what colleges offer and what happens to                                regular engagement with employers and
colleges with a new window for under-                                  students after they graduate. Specifically,                            others in their communities is essential
standing labor markets in their commu-                                 labor market data can be used to:                                      to understanding how to match student
nities. By shedding light on job openings                                                                                                     education with job needs. If graduates
that actually exist at any given time, these                           • Decide which college programs to                                     are not getting jobs, discussions with
data sources can help colleges and their                                 offer and how many graduates a                                       employers can help a college understand
students better understand the connec-                                   college should aim to produce to fill                                what skills students lack and change the
tion between certain credentials and the                                 available jobs related to the program.                               curriculum accordingly. If graduates’
employment opportunities and wages                                                                                                            wages are increasing, employers can
those credentials might command.                                       • Assess program effectiveness,                                        help a college understand whether the
                                                                         signaling whether a college’s programs                               trend is likely to continue, informing deci-
A third data set was released in June of                                 provide the necessary skills, both in                                sions about how and whether to expand
2012, when the Department of Education                                   terms of specific competencies and                                   a program and if so by how much. And if
released “gainful employment” reports,                                   appropriate rigor, for students to                                   jobs in a sector are drying up, employers
containing job placement rates for 3,695                                 succeed after they graduate.                                         can help colleges understand the likely
vocational programs at 1,336 institutions,                                                                                                    trajectory of the future labor market,
including community colleges, public and                               • Help students make informed choices                                  informing what programs the college can
private four-year colleges, and for-profit                               about which programs to enter, both by                               create or expand to replace declining job
colleges. Although a 2012 court deci-                                    accelerating student decision-making                                 opportunities.

8   See for example, Schneider, M., & Vivari, B. (2012, September). The earnings power of graduates from Tennessee’s colleges and universities. Rockville, MD: Retrieved from http://www.

9   Association of Private Colleges and Universities, v. Arne Duncan, Secretary of The Department Of Education, and United States Department of Education (2012), Retrieved from

How colleges
    Are usIng lAbor
    MArket dAtA to
    IMprove student
    Labor market data play a powerful role in providing
    analytic information that cannot be gathered elsewhere
    and in ensuring higher levels of student success in
    several key ways. To help colleges understand how this
    information can become a springboard for institutional or
    programmatic change, we have provided below examples
    of colleges that are currently using employment and wage
    data to improve outcomes for students.

    developIng progrAms TAIlored                  The college decided not to pursue a new
    To speCIFIC Job opporTunITIes                 veterinary technician program, even
                                                  though such a program would have been
    In Watertown, South Dakota, Lake Area         directly responsive to student demand.
    Technical Institute (LATI) frequently         Instead, LATI enhanced an existing agri-
    receives requests from state agen-            cultural program with an option to focus
    cies, industry, and students to open          on working with large animals.
    new programs. A college committee
    meets regularly to evaluate the potential     Many colleges cite student demand as
    of new programs through a compre-             the singular justification for opening
    hensive assessment of labor market            or maintaining a program, leading to
    needs, student demand, and the college’s      initiation of new programs that increase
    capacity to provide a high-quality            enrollment and bring in revenue without
    educational experience that will lead to      ensuring that real jobs are available after
    students’ long-term success.                  graduation. By looking at data, leaders at
                                                  LATI avoided this pitfall.
    In response to significant student inquiry
    in recent years, LATI looked into launching   LATI’s decision reflects something
    a veterinary technician program. A thor-      important about how the college defines
    ough review of the labor market, including    its core mission: to provide students
    examination of data from the state            with high-quality education while on
    employment agency and conversations           campus and to make sure that graduates
    with regional employers, revealed two         can flourish professionally after gradu-
    important insights: (1) demand was low        ating. To achieve this goal, leaders at the
    for traditional small animal veterinary       college have come to understand that
    technicians, and (2) there was a strong       faculty and staff cannot just look at what
    need for expertise with large animals.        happens within the four walls of the

college. As LATI Vice President Michael        Because of this investigation, Cabrillo          In response, Cabrillo set out to improve
Cartney notes, examining labor market          reduced the size of its program to               program quality. It thoroughly rede-
data from a wide range of sources is           reduce the odds that its students                signed the medical assisting program,
simply “a way of life” at LATI. As a result,   would be prepared for jobs that did not          increasing emphasis on the foundational
the vast majority of LATI students either      exist. “Our labor markets are regional           English and math skills that employers
are continuing their education or are          rather than local,” Pfotenhauer said. “In        noted were lacking. It also shifted the
employed after graduating.                     medical assisting, as in other fields, it        program to a cohort model with greater
                                               became clear to us that there would              structure than before, an approach that
                                               be many advantages to our students,              was showing higher success rates for
rIghT-sIzIng exIsTIng progrAms                 to employers, and to the college, to our         similar students in other CTE programs.
                                               coordinating with other medical assisting
Labor market data can also be extremely        programs across the region.”                     Although it is too soon to assess the ulti-
valuable to college administrators                                                              mate impact of this redesign, Cabrillo has
looking to evaluate the extent to which                                                         recently completed the first semester
existing programs are producing the            ImprovIng progrAm quAlITy                        of the new medical assisting program,
appropriate number of graduates for                                                             and results have exceeded expectations.
existing labor market opportunities.           Information about the labor market and           Importantly, college and program leaders
Enrollment had always been strong in           employer needs can do more than just             know exactly where to look to figure out
the medical assisting program at Cabrillo      assist colleges in matching program              whether the changes they have imple-
College in Santa Cruz, California, but         enrollment to projected job openings.            mented work: post-graduation surveys
feedback from an annual survey of grad-        When Cabrillo College discovered that            and labor market information, paired
uates of the program revealed that many        its students were not finding employ-            with active and ongoing engagement
were not getting jobs in the field.            ment in the medical assisting field at a         with employers. With this knowledge and
                                               rate commensurate with expectations, it          a commitment to improving outcomes,
Located in Northern California, Cabrillo is    triggered a deeper investigation.                the college has established the condi-
one of 26 community colleges in the region,                                                     tions for further advances in student
                                               Cabrillo reached out to employers to             success.
many of which offer medical assisting
programs. When Cabrillo accessed labor         understand these poor student employ-
market data from two proprietary data-         ment outcomes. Pfotenhauer explains, “A
                                                                                                ClosIng progrAms wITh
bases, reached out to employers, and           frank discussion with employers revealed
                                                                                                low reTurns
reflected on the total number of medical       that they did not feel our program was
assistants produced across the region, the     keeping up with the increasingly high
                                                                                                Colleges can use labor data to under-
college saw that the market was saturated.     standards required for success in this
                                                                                                stand which of their programs have the
Looking back, the college’s dean of CTE        occupation.” The college followed up by
                                                                                                greatest positive returns on graduates’
Rock Pfotenhauer noted, “We didn’t pay a       inviting over 20 representatives from area
                                                                                                employment and earnings, and which
great deal of attention to these data while    employers to a lunch meeting. “We came
                                                                                                should be closed because those returns
the economy was growing and unemploy-          away from this difficult conversation with
                                                                                                are too small. Such analysis is especially
ment was low, but when the recession           a clear understanding that we needed to
                                                                                                important at a time when colleges are
began, it became clear that we could no        increase the rigor of our program, particu-
                                                                                                facing severe financial challenges.
longer assume that program completion          larly in the area of the fundamental skills of
would result in employment.”                   English and math,” Pfotenhauer describes.

Monroe Community College in Rochester,                                   Monroe recently closed its massage                                   how much jobs in those fields pay. For
New York uses a variety of data sources                                  therapy program because labor market                                 example, Montgomery County Community
when evaluating the viability of its CTE                                 data made clear that there were simply                               College in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania uses a
programs, including a proprietary labor                                  not enough jobs for graduates to warrant                             proprietary labor market computer appli-
market database, information from the                                    keeping that pathway open. Regular                                   cation as one of several tools to assist
Department of Labor specific to its region,                              reviews ensure that programs offered to                              students in choosing programs. Students
census data, feedback from industry advi-                                students provide the chance for strong                               can search potential occupations to assess
sory boards, and survey responses from                                   labor market outcomes and robust                                     earning potential, current and projected
recent graduates.10 The college’s insti-                                 career pathways.11                                                   job opportunities in the region, and which
tutional researcher interprets this infor-                                                                                                    education and training programs at Mont-
mation, producing reports that Monroe’s                                                                                                       gomery will prepare them for those jobs.
administration reviews regularly.                                        helpIng undeCIded                                                    Montgomery faculty and staff use this
                                                                         sTudenTs Choose                                                      application as a springboard for discus-
Based on these reports, college leaders                                                                                                       sion with their students, referencing it in
assess not just whether their programs                                   Studies show that college students who                               student orientation materials, handouts
are preparing students for available jobs,                               choose a program of study have higher                                provided to students seeking employment
but also whether those jobs will offer                                   completion rates than those who remain                               guidance, and one-on-one appointments
opportunities for advancement. Monroe                                    undecided. This makes intuitive sense;                               with counselors.
Vice President Todd Oldham describes                                     students without a specific goal will have
the questions used to evaluate program                                   a harder time choosing courses and                                   Similarly, Central Lakes College in
viability: are students getting jobs, are                                have less clarity about why they should                              Brainerd, Minnesota provides employ-
those jobs providing a strong living wage,                               complete a degree.                                                   ment and wage data to students through
and do those jobs offer opportunities for                                                                                                     an online tool provided by the state and
advancement and growth over the long                                     Understanding that accelerating deci-                                in a career-planning course. During the
term? Oldham emphasizes the college                                      sions can increase graduation rates,                                 course, students complete an assign-
focuses on one key question: “What is                                    community colleges are helping unde-                                 ment designed to identify their desired
the pathway we are putting students on?”                                 cided students choose degree programs                                lifestyle and then use software to deter-
                                                                         by making available information about                                mine the level of wages they will need
If that pathway results in a dead end,                                   how many jobs exist in different fields,                             to support that lifestyle. Understanding
the college shuts it off. For example,                                   how much those fields are growing, and                               the wages they want to earn, students
                                                                                                                                              explore different careers of interest that
                                                                                                                                              might offer those wages and the employ-
                                                                                                                                              ment outlook for different specific jobs.13

studies show that college students who                                                                                                        ouTreACh To poTenTIAl sTudenTs

choose a Program of study have higher                                                                                                         Monroe Community College uses labor
                                                                                                                                              market data to connect prospective

comPletion rates than those who remain                                                                                                        students with career and technical
                                                                                                                                              programs that lead to jobs with good
                                                                                                                                              salaries. The college’s work begins
undecided.                                                                                                                                    when leaders examine data that reveal
                                                                                                                                              which programs currently offered by the
10 Although the quality of many surveys is hampered, in part, by low response rates, Monroe has achieved an aggregate response rate on
                                                                                                                                              college link directly to local hiring oppor-
   its graduate surveys of 70%. The college sends an email survey to its graduates six months after completion, followed by a mailed survey   tunities and strong wages. It then makes
   to those who have not responded, and a phone survey to capture feedback from the remaining students. Phone calls are conducted by
   an external agency.                                                                                                                        this information, which is embedded in
11 Monroe reports that it has shuttered approximately 13 programs since 2008.                                                                 an easy-to-use web-based tool, available
12 Jenkins, D. (2011). Get with the program: Accelerating community college students’ entry into and completion of programs of study.         to potential students.
   New York: Community College Research Center. Retrieved from

13 Central lakes use of labor data began in response to a mandate from the state legislature requiring all colleges in the Minnesota State
   Colleges and Universities system provide labor market and wage data to students in all diploma/certificate programs available for
                                                                                                                                              To reach potential students, the college
   financial aid. The state Department of Employment and Economic Development (DEED) provides these data to the colleges.                     works with partners who regularly
interact with prospective students, such        school students and over 150 employer         Valencia College in Orlando, Florida
as the Rochester City School District’s         representatives, who engage students in       created a brief video that provides infor-
Office of Adult & Career Education              hands-on activities to simulate what it is    mation on labor outcomes to demon-
Services (OACES). The OACES program             like to work in over 100 different career     strate the specific value a degree from
selects a group of participants who             areas. At the entrance to each career         their college provides.14 The video shows
have attained college-ready reading and         cluster area, staff members distribute        that one dollar spent by a student on
writing skills and have an interest in          wage and career outlook information to        tuition increases their earnings by an
further education. Monroe then provides         interested high school students. Rebecca      average of $5.60. It reveals that most of
these students a free professional aware-       Best, the college’s dean of workforce,        Valencia graduates have a job or have
ness course that uses the web-based             economic, and regional development,           transferred to a four-year school imme-
career tool to teach them how to select         believes the Bridges Career Explora-          diately after completing their community
a career path by taking into account job        tion Day has had a powerful impact:           college credentials. The video also notes
demand and wages. Because it works              “Students feel that all of this information   that Valencia graduates add $781 million
with adults seeking a high school degree        has helped them greatly to narrow down        to the economy annually, which results
or GED, OACES helps Monroe through              their career choices prior to graduating      in a return on every dollar invested by
this program reach many students who            from high school.”                            Florida taxpayers of 8.9%.
have traditionally been unemployed.
                                                                                              The California Community Colleges
According to Monroe Vice President              AdvoCATIng For The vAlue oF                   Chancellor’s Office has also used data
Todd Oldham, this strategy aims to drive        CommunITy Colleges                            on the economic value of a commu-
students toward high demand occupations                                                       nity college education as an advocacy
where the local economy is experiencing         Community college leaders can also            tool on behalf of its colleges. Five years
skills gaps. His years in the field have        use labor market data to demonstrate          ago, the Chancellor’s Office worked
taught him that many who could benefit          the value of their institutions to legis-     with state legislators to allow postsec-
from such occupations are unaware of            lators and other key decision-makers.         ondary education institutions access to
job openings, the salaries they offer, or       In today’s fiscal climate, students,          labor market data in the state Employ-
the credentials needed to secure them.          their families, and states are making         ment Development Department. Now,
The class and the tool offered by Monroe        tough decisions about where to spend          by aggregating employment and earn-
are designed to help both high school           limited dollars. In the face of competing     ings outcomes data for graduates of
students and adults seeking new training        demands, students and states alike            the system’s 112 community colleges,
see clear pathways to existing jobs they        need to know that their choices will be       the Chancellor’s Office has been able
may have never thought about and then           cost-effective and result in significant      to assess the statewide return-on-in-
to pursue the higher education needed           returns. Specific labor market outcome        vestment for specific certificates and
to take advantage of those opportunities.       data for graduates can help a college         degrees and the system as a whole.
                                                show the benefits of a college education      For example, recent data indicate that
Currently, Monroe is applying this strategy     to prospective students, to companies         three years after attaining a community
to fill a deficit of skilled professionals      seeking an educated labor force, and          college degree, California students grad-
in advanced manufacturing in the area           to state government officials aiming          uating earn nearly twice as much as they
around the college. According to Oldham,        to expand economic opportunity and            were earning before college. Vice Chan-
most residents think manufacturing is a         enhance state tax revenue.                    cellor Patrick Perry observes that this
“dead profession.” Through the tool and                                                       kind of information has been enormously
classes it offers, Monroe is beginning to       Importantly, such analyses can be used        helpful in lobbying for continued invest-
reverse this perception, providing addi-        to prove the value of job retraining          ment in higher education in an incredibly
tional strong job skills to students, filling   programs that do not issue degrees or         constrained fiscal environment.
employer needs for a labor force with           certificates, as these programs are often
relevant training, and strengthening the        not included in conventional success
local economy along the way.                    metrics. By comparing the wages of
                                                students before and after such training,
Central Lakes also uses labor market data       colleges can demonstrate that programs
to inform prospective students. Each year,      of study that may not result in a completed
the college’s Bridges Career Exploration        degree nonetheless improve the wages of       14 Valencia College. (2012). Valencia counts. Retrieved from
Day draws more than 2,300 regional high         students who go through the program.   

Inventory of sources
of lAbor MArket dAtA
There are a wide variety of data sources available to both colleges and students that can
illuminate student employment outcomes as well as local, statewide, and national labor
markets. Although not every data source summarized below is available to all colleges,
each is now being used by many US colleges. Below is an inventory of data sources that
colleges may want to consider as they explore the connection between their programs
and labor market outcomes.

                              unemploymenT InsurAnCe dATA                                             In most states, colleges can request
                                                                                                      employment and wage data about groups
                              Unemployment insurance (UI) is a                                        of graduates. To protect the privacy of
                              combined federal and state program                                      individuals, wage and employment data
                              to assist unemployed workers, and is                                    are typically provided as averages. For
                              funded by taxes on employers based on                                   example, a college can send the state
                              reported payroll amounts. Every state                                   a list of all students who graduated in
                              has UI laws and systems that are similar                                2005 with a degree in nursing and the
                              in most respects (due to federal require-                               state can send back its calculation of the
                              ments). Each quarter, states collect from                               number of students who were employed
                              employers the social security numbers                                   and their average quarterly wages
                              and wages of almost all non-self-em-                                    without indicating any specific gradu-
                              ployed workers. The state then uses                                     ate’s employment status or earnings.
                              these data to calculate unemployment
                              compensation for individuals who lose                                   As discussed below, UI data availability
                              their jobs and file for benefits.                                       varies by state, depending primarily on
                                                                                                      access limitations written into state law
                              Because of this mandate, states house                                   and the capacity of the state to provide
                              a vast amount of information about who                                  reports to colleges. In addition, some
                              is working for whom, for how long they                                  states can provide data on graduates
                              have been working, and how much they                                    who have moved out-of-state, because
                              earn. By linking UI data to records of                                  they either have regional data sharing
                              graduating students, colleges can learn                                 agreements or have signed on to the
                              about the percent of their graduates who                                federal data sharing agreement known
                              are working, how long they have been                                    as the Wage Record Interchange System
                              employed, and how long they had to wait                                 2 (WRIS2).16
                              between graduating and their first jobs.
                              Wage data in UI records include average                                 A well-constructed guide released by
                              starting earnings, average current earn-                                the Collaboratory and FHI360 provides
                              ings, and growth in earnings before and                                 detailed, step-by-step instructions and
                              after program completion. These data                                    tools for colleges seeking to acquire and
                              cover the great majority of workers in                                  use UI data.17
                              each state, cover many years, and tend
                              to be more accurate than most other
                              data sources.15

                              15 These data sets have a few limitations: First, not all employees are covered (e.g., agricultural and railroad employment are omitted).
                                 Second, these data do not include the number of hours that were worked to earn the reported wage, when within the quarterly employment
                                 date started, or the occupation of the worker.

                              16 See Appendices C and D for more information on WRIS2.

                              17 Feldbaum, M., & Harmon, T. (2012). Using unemployment insurance wage data to improve program employment outcomes: A technical
12                               assistance guide for community and technical colleges. The Collaboratory and FHI360,
bureAu oF lAbor sTATIsTICs dATA                                The Census bureAu                           are well-paying jobs in specific local
                                                               longITudInAl employer-                      economies and whether such jobs are
The US Bureau of Labor Statistics                              household dynAmICs progrAm                  growing or contracting. The tool allows
(BLS) regularly collects data on employ-                                                                   for searches by age and gender.
ment and earnings of US workers. Two                           The Longitudinal Employer-Household
websites provide colleges with readily                         Dynamics (LEHD) program combines            The QWI Online tool also allows users to
accessible information on average wages                        wage data from state agencies, including    compare total employment, new hires,
by occupation and by geographic area.                          UI data, with information from the Census   and average monthly earnings for their
                                                               Bureau.18 Included in this program are      individual locations to statewide results.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook                              tools that colleges can use to determine    The tool allows users to narrow the
(OOH) is a web-based tool that provides                        labor market needs and wages in their       results by age, gender, industry, and
a variety of information useful to both                        communities, regions, and states.           geographic location.
colleges and their students. For example,
OOH provides comprehensive informa-                            The Industry Focus tool allows colleges     These data are usually updated quarterly
tion about hundreds of major occu-                             to search states, counties, and metropol-   and lag actual labor outcomes by 9-12
pations, including national projected                          itan areas and gather, for each employ-     months, and they contain industry but
growth (2010-2020), total number                               ment sector, number of employees,           not occupational data. These tools and
of jobs, and median income. In addi-                           growth in employment, number of new         their corresponding tutorial are avail-
tion, it offers an easy-to-use tool for                        hires, average monthly earnings, and        able from the homepage: http://lehd.ces.
job-seekers, allowing them to explore                          other data that will reveal whether there
career areas through a search using one
or more of the following parameters:
median pay, education/training level, and
projected growth. This tool is available
                                                               by linking ui data to records of graduating
Another web-based tool, the Overview
of Wage Data by Area and Occupation,
includes detailed wage data that can be
                                                               students, colleges can learn about the
reviewed by occupation and geographic
area. It allows users to select a region
                                                               Percent of their graduates who are working,
or state, find a robust list of occupa-
tions, and gather information about                            how long they have been emPloyed, and how
employment rates and median wages
in the region for each occupation. This                        long they had to wait between graduating
resource is available at http://www.bls.
gov/bls/blswage.htm                                            and their first jobs.
18 A subset of these data is contained in the Local Employer
   Dynamics (LED) program.

pAysCAle.Com                                    dational and specialized skills employers   gAInFul employmenT dATA
                                                are looking for, and the credentials and is a proprietary company           certifications they are seeking. These      In June of 2011, the federal govern-
that gathers wage data by having individ-       data—generated from techniques that         ment required colleges with non-degree
uals fill out self-reports on salary, career,   capture nearly all job postings on the      programs to report to the Department
and educational background.19 The site          internet—can be particularly useful for     of Education the percentage of former
has collected information from more than        colleges seeking to build more effective    students repaying their loans and the debt-
30 million people. Although it provides         programmatic responses to local labor       to-earnings ratio of graduates. Released in
free information on estimated salaries          market needs. They also provide demand-     June 2012, the information includes the
to individuals who fill out their survey,       side information that can be useful to      debt and earnings for students gradu-
it charges others who want to research          colleges conducting analyses of state and   ating from 3,695 vocational programs at
salaries for different positions. PayScale      local labor market supply and demand.20     1,336 institutions. Still in its first year, the
has ranked more than 1,000 US colleges                                                      data sets have been criticized by some
by their college tuition return on invest-                                                  as lacking coverage of many community
ment, although community colleges are           oTher prIvATe lAbor mArkeT                  college programs. Moreover, a 2012 court
not included in this ranking. The ranking       dATA provIders                              order striking down the gainful employ-
shows the cost of enrollment and the                                                        ment regulations led the Department
estimated average lifetime earnings for         There are a number of proprietary labor     of Education to rewrite its regulations,
graduates of each institution. Individuals      market data providers that offer data-      adding years to the process and slowing
can also search for the average salary for      based tools and customized services.        the availability of future data. Nonetheless,
BA graduates by college attended. Finally,      The best known is Economic Modeling         the 2012 data offer a unique way to assess
students can search various degrees (AA         Specialists Intl. (EMSI), which regu-       the relative quality of different programs
and AS included), majors, and occupa-           larly combines data from federal, state,    within a college and similar programs at
tions to determine average salaries.            and private sources in a database from      different colleges. The full data set can
                                                which it pulls information relevant to      be found at  and the debt to earnings ratios
“reAl-TIme” employer                            EMSI has data analytic systems on           can be accessed through the Chronicle of
demAnd dATA                                     local labor market information and has      Higher Education at .
Burning Glass and both sell         to provide students with customized
aggregated information on the number of         regional wage information, including        19 Because the data are collected from people who use the website
job postings within a given geographic          number of projected jobs, employment           and self-report wages, these data should be used cautiously.

area by occupation and industry, the foun-      trends by occupation, and job postings.     20 Real-time data like these should be treated with caution
                                                                                               because they can overstate openings when one job is posted in
                                                                                               multiple places or remains posted after the job has been filled.

IMprovIng Access to And
use of lAbor MArket dAtA
Most of the resources described above are available to every college. However,
wage data from unemployment insurance systems matched to the records of college
graduates, are not routinely available to colleges in all states. Policy makers can and
should take steps to increase the availability of labor market data in forms that colleges
can readily use, can easily be compared to outcomes for similar colleges and programs,
and protect the privacy of individual graduates. However, this is a guide for colleges,
not policy-makers. So what can colleges do now to increase their ability to access and
utilize labor market information?

requesT wAge dATA And Advo-                   program to fill needed jobs skills or close                                contact information. Legislation that was
CATe For beTTer, CleArer ACCess               a program that was providing students                                      passed in California that granted the
                                              little economic opportunity.                                               Chancellor’s Office access to UI data can
As noted above, better access to wage                                                                                    be found in Appendix B.
data would enable colleges to more fully      By asking for these data, colleges can
understand how to build strong paths          help loosen legal restrictions on data
to good jobs for their students. Today,       access. To the extent colleges have                                        AdvoCATe For your sTATe
some states provide this information          trouble accessing data, such requests
                                                                                                                         To shAre dATA regIonAlly
to colleges readily, but others have put      will advance the understanding of which
                                                                                                                         or nATIonAlly
in place significant hurdles that make it     changes are needed in state law and
difficult or nearly impossible for colleges   state analytic capacity. Once needed
                                                                                                                         One challenge with using UI data to
to gain access. For example, Michigan         changes are understood, colleges
law limits colleges’ access to UI data        can band together through their state                                      assess the employment and earnings
to circumstances in which a college           systems or associations to advocate for                                    outcomes for graduates is that state
is acting as a surrogate for a public         increased access, using the denial of                                      UI systems only track graduates who
official doing research.21 A reasonable       their reasonable requests as evidence                                      are employed in state. Thus, colleges
reading of this language could easily         that reforms are needed. Appendix A                                        generally cannot gather labor market
prevent a college from accessing data         gives a list of agencies that oversee UI                                   information on graduates who leave the
that would show the need to build a new       data in all 50 states, along with their                                    state for jobs.

                                              colleges can band together through their
                                              state systems or associations to advocate
                                              for increased access, using the denial of
                                              their reasonable requests as evidence that
                                              reforms are needed.
                                              21 Employment Security Act, Section 4210.11 (viii). Data are “available for use in connection with research projects of a public service nature
                                                 to a college, university, or agency of this state that is acting as a contractor or agent of a public official and conducting research assists
                                                 the public official in carrying out the duties of the office” Retrieved from

Some states have solved this problem         AdvoCATe wIThIn your sTATe For                                          buIld CApACITy For InTerpreTIng
by creating regional data sharing            regulAr, ConsIsTenT reporTIng                                           And dIssemInATIng uI dATA wIThIn
agreements under which participating         on wAge ouTComes                                                        Colleges
states can access information about
their colleges’ graduates who work in        The process of gathering and assessing                                  Whether wage data are gathered by
bordering states.22 Colleges and their       UI data that is useful to college admin-                                colleges individually or provided by
associations and systems should advo-        istrators and educators requires tech-                                  states or systems, having the infor-
cate for the creation and expansion of       nical expertise. To ensure efficiency                                   mation is just the first step. Deci-
such agreements to increase availability     and consistency of reporting, states                                    sion-makers on college campuses need
of employment and earnings information       should develop regular reports designed                                 to understand these data and how to
about out-of state graduates.                to inform college decision-making. An                                   use them. Colleges should consider and
                                                                                                                     support the kinds of professional devel-
                                             example of such reporting comes from the
In addition, states are beginning to share                                                                           opment that will enable staff to inte-
                                             Florida Education and Training Placement
data through a national agreement through                                                                            grate this additional success measure
                                             Information Program, which provides
the Wage Record Information System 2.                                                                                into existing processes for measuring
                                             aggregated data to colleges regarding
To date, 34 states and Puerto Rico have                                                                              student outcomes.
                                             students who have left the institution,
signed this US Department of Labor
                                             including their employment, wages, and                                  For example, if program review is to
agreement, which authorizes partici-
                                             continuing educational pursuits.23                                      take employment and earnings data into
pating states to collect unemployment
insurance data for specified purposes                                                                                account, those conducting that review
from other states that have signed the       For such reports to be most useful,                                     and making recommendations need to
agreement. Although interpretations vary     colleges should be actively engaged in                                  understand the reliability and value of
regarding the extent to which WRIS2 data     their development. Accordingly, college                                 the labor market data being considered.
can be made available to colleges, the       administrators and practitioners should                                 If student service professionals are to
agreement clearly expands availability       approach systems, providing a list of                                   use these data to help students choose
in many states for some uses. For this       reports that answer specific questions                                  programs, the state needs to put them in
reason, colleges and their associations      the college has about the effectiveness                                 formats that provide clear presentations
and systems should take an active role       of labor market alignment of programs.                                  and explanations of the information, and
in advocating for states to sign WRIS2 to    Then, colleges should work on the devel-                                professionals and students need to be
increase access to cross-state UI data. To   opment of the actual reports, ensuring                                  trained in how to use them.
see if your state is currently a signatory   that they consider nuances specific to
to the WRIS2 agreement, see Appendix D.      each college’s goals and programs.

                                             22 See for example, Facilitating Development of a Multistate Longitudinal Data Exchange. This is a data sharing agreement between Hawaii,
                                                Idaho, Oregon, and Washington that is funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation through the Western Interstate Commission for
                                                Higher Education (WICHE).

                                             23 In 2012, an additional law (HB 7135) was passed that requires public university and community colleges to create annual system-wide,
                                                institution-wide, and discipline-level reports that show the employment and earnings of graduates. These data will be made available
                                                to every parent and student.

Educators hold a unique responsibility to make sure their
students are prepared for whatever comes after they
graduate, which for college students generally means the
professional world. By analyzing wage and employment
data and engaging in open and honest conversations
with employers, colleges can better align the education
they offer with what students need to succeed after
graduating. They can better ensure that their programs
are providing students with the skills and abilities they
have a right to expect a college education to confer.
Labor market information is increasingly available, and
our hope is that this guide promotes its constructive use.

Appendix A    ConTACTs For sTATe uI TAx InFormATIon And AssIsTAnCe
              (As of July 2014)

Alabama                                                          district of Columbia
Address                           Telephone / Website            Address                            Telephone / Website
Alabama Department of Labor       (334) 242-8830                 Department of Employment Services (202) 698-7550
649 Monroe Street             Office of Unemployment  
Montgomery, AL 36131-0099                                        Compensation Tax Division
                                                                 609 H Street NE, 3rd floor
Alaska                                                           Washington, DC 20001-4347
Address                           Telephone / Website
Employment Security Tax           (888) 448-3527                 Florida
Dept of Labor and Workforce   Address                            Telephone / Website
Development                                                      Unemployment Compensation          (800) 482-8293
PO Box 115509                                                    Services                 
Juneau, AK 99811-5509                                            Agency for Workforce Innovation    taxes/reemployment.html
                                                                 107 E. Madison St. MSC 229
Arizona                                                          Tallahassee, FL 32399-0180
Address                           Telephone / Website
Unemployment Tax - 911B           (602) 771-6601                 georgia
Department of Economic Security     Address                            Telephone / Website
PO Box 6028                       uitax/uithome.asp              Department of Labor                (404) 232-3301
Phoenix, AZ 85005-6028                                           148 Andrew Young Inter Blvd,
                                                                 Suite 800
Arkansas                                                         Atlanta, GA 30303-1732
Address                           Telephone / Website
Department of Workforce Services (501) 682-3798                  hawaii
PO Box 2981                       Address                            Telephone / Website
Little Rock, AR 72203-2981       employers/                      Department of Labor                (808) 586-8913
                                                                 and Industrial Relations 
California                                                       830 Punchbowl Street, Room 437
Address                           Telephone / Website            Honolulu, HI 96813-5096
Account Services Group, MIC-90    (888) 745-3886
Employment Development           Idaho
Department                        unemployment/more_             Address                            Telephone / Website
PO Box 942880                     employer_Information.htm       Department of Labor                (800) 448-2977
Sacramento, CA 94280                                             317 W Main Street        
                                                                 Boise, ID 83735-0002
Address                           Telephone / Website            Illinois
Unemployment Insurance Operations (800) 480-8299                 Address                            Telephone / Website
Department of Labor               Department of Employment Security (800) 247-4984
and Employment                                                   33 South State St       
PO Box 8789                                                      Chicago, IL 60603
Denver, CO 80201-8789
Connecticut                                                      Address                            Telephone / Website
Address                           Telephone / Website            Department of Workforce            (317) 232-7436
Connecticut Department of Labor   (860) 263-6550                 Development              
200 Folly Brook Blvd              10 North Senate Ave
Wethersfield, CT 61091-1114                                      Room SE 106
                                                                 Indianapolis, IN 46204-2277
Address                           Telephone / Website            Iowa
Division of Unemployment Insurance (302) 761-8484                Address                            Telephone / Website
Department of Labor               Workforce Development              (515) 281-5339
PO Box 9950                                                      1000 East Grand Avenue   
Wilmington, DE 19809-0950                                        Des Moines, IA 50319-0209

kansas                                                            missouri
Address                            Telephone / Website            Address                            Telephone / Website
Department of Labor                (785) 296-5027                 Division of Employment Security    (573) 751-3340
401 SW Topeka Blvd                        PO Box 59                
Topeka, KS 66603-3182                                             Jefferson City, MO 65104-0059

kentucky                                                          montana
Address                            Telephone / Website            Address                            Telephone / Website
Department for Employment Services (502) 564-2272                 Unemployment Insurance Division    (406) 444-3834
PO Box 948                   PO Box 6339              
Frankfort, KY 40602-0948                                          Helena, MT 59604-6339

louisiana                                                         nebraska
Address                            Telephone / Website            Address                            Telephone / Website
Louisiana Workforce Commission     (225) 342-2944                 Department of Labor                (402) 471-9940
PO Box 94094                             Box 94600                
Baton Rouge, LA 70804                                             State House Station
                                                                  Lincoln, NE 68509-4600
Address                            Telephone / Website            nevada
Department of Labor                (207) 621-5120                 Address                            Telephone / Website
PO Box 259                         Department of Employment Training (775) 684-6300
Augusta, ME 04332-0259                                            and Rehabilitation      
                                                                  500 East Third Street
maryland                                                          Carson City, NV 89713-0030
Address                            Telephone / Website
Department of Labor, Licensing,    (800) 492-5524                 new hampshire
& Regulation                Address                            Telephone / Website
1100 North Eutaw Street            employment/uitax.shtml         Department of Employment Security (603) 228-4033
Room 414                                                          32 South Main Street    
Baltimore, MD 21201-2201                                          Concord, NH 03301-4857

massachusetts                                                     new Jersey
Address                            Telephone / Website            Address                            Telephone / Website
Division of Employment and Training (617) 626-5050                Department of Labor &              (609) 633-6400
19 Staniford Street             Workforce Development    
Boston, MA 02114-2589               unemployment-insur/           PO Box 947
                                                                  Trenton, NJ 08625-0947
Address                            Telephone / Website            new mexico
Department of Licensing and        (313) 456-2180                 Address                            Telephone / Website
Regulatory Affairs                  Department of Workforce Solutions (505) 841-8576
3024 W Grand Blvd                                                 PO Box 2281             
Detroit, MI 48202-6024                                            Albuquerque, NM 87103-2281

minnesota                                                         new york
Address                            Telephone / Website            Address                            Telephone / Website
Department of Employment &         (651) 296-6141                 Department of Labor                (518) 457-4179
Economic Development           State Campus, Building 12
332 Minnesota Street, Suite E200   employers/                     Room 500
St. Paul, MN 55101-1351                                           Albany, NY 12240-0339

mississippi                                                       north Carolina
Address                            Telephone / Website            Address                            Telephone / Website
Department of Employment Security (866) 806-0272                  Division of Employment Security    (919) 707-1150
PO Box 1699                              PO Box 26504             
Jackson, MS 39215-1699                                            Raleigh, NC 27611-6504

north dakota                                                    Tennessee
Address                            Telephone / Website          Address                          Telephone / Website
Job Service of North Dakota        (701) 328-2814               Department of Labor and          (615) 741-2486
PO Box 5507                             Workforce Development  
Bismarck, ND 58506-5507                                         220 French Landing Drive         labor-wfd/
                                                                Nashville, TN 37243
Address                            Telephone / Website          Texas
Department of Job &                (614) 466-2319               Address                          Telephone / Website
Family Services                    https://unemployment.ohio.   Workforce Commission             (512) 463-2700
PO Box 182404                      gov/wp/wps/myportal          PO Box 149037          
Columbus, OH 43218-2404                                         Austin, TX 78714-9037

oklahoma                                                        utah
Address                            Telephone / Website          Address                          Telephone / Website
Employment Security Commission     (405) 557-5362               Department of Workforce Services (801) 526-9400
PO Box 52003                       PO Box 45288           
Oklahoma City, OK 73152-2003                                    Salt Lake City, UT 84145-0288

oregon                                                          vermont
Address                            Telephone / Website          Address                          Telephone / Website
Employment Department              (503) 947-1488, option 5     Department of Labor              (802) 828-4252
875 Union Street NE                (503) 947-1537 FUTA          PO Box 488             
Room 107                     Montpelier, VT 05601-0488
Salem, OR 97311-0030
                                                                virgin Islands
pennsylvania                                                    Address                          Telephone / Website
Address                            Telephone / Website          Department of Labor              (340) 776-1440
Dept of Labor and Industry         (717) 787-7679               PO Box 302608          
7th and Forster Street, Room 915          St. Thomas, VI 00803-2608
Harrisburg, PA 17121-0001
puerto rico                                                     Address                          Telephone / Website
Address                            Telephone / Website          Employment Commission            (804) 371-7159
Department of Labor and            (787) 754-5818               PO Box 1358            
Human Resources                         Richmond, VA 23218-1358
PO Box 1020
San Juan, PR 000919                                             washington
                                                                Address                          Telephone / Website
rhode Island                                                    Employment Security Department   (360) 902-9360
Address                            Telephone / Website          PO Box 9046            
Division of Taxation               (401) 574-8700               Olympia, WA 98507-9046           index.php
One Capitol Hill, Ste 36 
Providence, RI 29085-5829                                       west virginia
                                                                Address                          Telephone / Website
south Carolina                                                  Bureau of Employment Programs    (304) 558-2676
Address                            Telephone / Website          112 California Avenue  
Employment Security Commission     (803) 737-3075               Charleston, WV 25305-0016        business/workforcewv
PO Box 995               
Columbia, SC 29202-0995                                         wisconsin
                                                                Address                          Telephone / Website
south dakota                                                    Department of Workforce          (608) 261-6700
Address                            Telephone / Website          Development            
Department of Labor                (605) 626-2312               PO Box 7942
PO Box 4730                         Madison, WI 57307-7942
Aberdeen, SD 57402-4730
Washington, DC 20001-4347                                       wyoming
                                                                Address                          Telephone / Website
                                                                Department of Workforce Services (307) 235-3217
                                                                PO Box 2760            
                                                                Casper, WY 82602-2760            pages/default.aspx

Appendix B     CAlIFornIA legIslATIon AuThorIzIng posTseCondAry InsTITuTIons’ ACCess To
               employmenT developmenT depArTmenT dATA

Assembly bIll 798 (2007)                                              senATe bIll x5 1 (2009)

AB 798, Committee on Insurance. Unemployment insurance:               SB 1, Steinberg. Public schools: Race to the Top.
unemployment compensation benefits.
                                                                      (1) The Education Data and Information Act of 2008 requires
(1) Existing law requires the Director of Employment Devel-               the State Chief Information Officer to convene a working
    opment to permit the use of any information in his or her             group representing specified governmental entities that
    possession to the extent necessary for specified purposes.            collect, report, or use individual pupil education data to
                                                                          create a strategic plan to link education data systems and
   This bill would additionally require the director to provide,          to accomplish objectives relating to the accessibility of
   to the extent permitted by federal law, the California                 education data.
   Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office with each
   student’s quarterly wage information, as provided, to be              This bill, in addition, would authorize the State Department
   used for specified purposes.                                          of Education, the University of California, the California
                                                                         State University, the Chancellor of the California Commu-
(2) Under existing law, unemployment compensation benefits               nity Colleges, the Commission on Teacher Credentialing,
    are based on wages paid in a base period that is calcu-              the Employment Development Department, and the Cali-
    lated according to the month within which the benefit year           fornia School Information Services to enter into inter-
    begins. Existing law establishes alternative definitions of          agency agreements in order to facilitate specified objectives
    base period for claims filed on or after January 1, 1990, and        regarding the implementation of a longitudinal education
    before January 1, 1992.                                              data system and the transfer of education data.

   This bill would delete those alternative definitions that are         For the full text of Senate Bill X5 1, see: http://www.
   now obsolete.                                               
(3) (A) This bill would incorporate additional changes to Section
    1095 of the Unemployment Insurance Code, proposed by
    SB 869, to be operative only if SB 869 and this bill are both
    enacted, each bill amends Section 1095 of the Unemploy-
    ment Insurance Code, AB 8 is not enacted, or if enacted,
    does not amend that section, and this bill is enacted after
    SB 869.

(B) This bill would incorporate additional changes to Section
    1095 of the Unemployment Insurance Code, proposed by AB
    8, to be operative only if AB 8 and this bill are both enacted,
    each bill amends Section 1095 of the Unemployment Insur-
    ance Code, SB 869 is not enacted, or if enacted, does not
    amend that section, and this bill is enacted after AB 8.

(C) This bill would incorporate additional changes to Section
    1095 of the Unemployment Insurance Code, proposed by
    SB 869 and AB 8, to be operative only if SB 869, AB 8, and
    this bill are all enacted, all 3 bills amend Section 1095 of
    the Unemployment Insurance Code, and this bill is enacted
    after SB 869 and AB 8.

For the full text of Assembly Bill 798, see http://www.

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