Why QR code payment develop well in China?
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Why QR code payment develop well in China? Pu Zhang School of Computer Science University of Birmingham Bimingham, United Kingdom firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract— This article introduces the principles and benefits of QR code payment. Then it talks about the development of III. QR CODE scanning code payment in China, and discusses the reason why QR code payment can develop well in China based on the A. What is QR code viewpoint of HCI. QR code is a two-dimensional code, which Keywords—QR code, payment, customer habits, third-party, records the data symbolic information in a black- HCI and-white pattern with certain geometric patterns distributed in a plane according to a certain rule. The INTRODUCTION I. "0" and "1" bit streams that make up the internal In recent years, with the increasing popularization logic of the computer are skillfully utilized in the of e-commerce applications and the continuous code making concept . A number of improvement of communication technologies, corresponding binary geometry are used to represent QR(Quick Response) code payment, as a new the numerical value information. Figure 1 is an payment method, has been rapidly developed all example of QR code. It automatically processes over the world and has not only become an information through an image input device or a important growth point of mobile operators' business, photoelectric scanning device. It has some common but also has attracted banking finance Agencies, features of bar code technology: each code has its international card companies, Internet technology own specific character set; each character occupies a companies and third-party payment agencies and certain width; it has a certain calibration function. At other subjects. In the last two years, China has made the same time, it can automatically identify different good progress in its code payment compared to other lines of information, and deal with changes in countries. This article talks about the advantages of graphics rotation point.  QR code payment and it also analyzes the promotion of QR code payment for the improvement of user B. Features of QR code experience in China, as well as the change of user In addition to the advantages of one-dimensional behavior. bar codes, QR codes also have the advantages of being able to store a large amount of information, RELATED WORK II. reliability, confidentiality and strong security. Part of the previous research work discussed the architecture, function and design of QR code payment system . Some people researched the application of using QR codes and the benefits of using QR codes. Other people also researched the similar quick payment technology like NFC. Lots of previous work focused on the security problem of mobile payment system. Based on pervious work, this paper researches the reason why QR code payment can develop well in China. Figure 1 QR code
Relying on its huge amount of information safe and reliable method of information storage and carried, QR codes, can include the information in the identification. bar code which is stored in the background database QR code can represent multi-lingual text and when using a one-dimensional bar code in the past. image data. The character set that most one- It can get the corresponding information directly by dimensional barcodes can represent is no more than reading the bar code. QR code has error correction 10 digits, 26 English letters and some special technology and security features, which increase the characters. Therefore, it is not possible to represent data security. other languages (Chinese characters, Japanese) with QR code has the characteristics of high density. one-dimensional bar codes. Most QR codes have a At present, relatively mature one-dimensional bar byte representation mode, which provides a codes such as EAN and UCC bar codes can not mechanism for representing byte streams. No matter describe the products because of their lower density. what kind of language, they are stored in the If people want to know the information about the computer in the form of internal code, and the product, they have to read the bar code and enter the internal code is bytecode. This allows to try to database. This requires that the user must create a convert a variety of language information into byte database of indexed fields in advance with the code streams, which are then represented by QR codes, represented by the bar code. A QR code increases providing an unprecedented way to represent the information density of the barcode by utilizing multiple languages in bar codes. Since QR codes can the size in the vertical direction, which is usually represent byte data and many images are stored in several tens to several hundred times the density of bytes, it is possible to represent an image the one-dimensional barcode. This enable people (photograph, fingerprint, etc.) with the barcode. store all their product information in a QR code. If QR code can introduce encryption mechanism. people want to see the product information, they The introduction of encryption mechanism is only need to scan QR code by using QR code another advantage of QR code. For example, when reading equipment. Therefore, this does not require using QR code photos, it can first encrypt the image the establishment of a database in advance, which information by using a certain encryption algorithm, realizes the description of the "item" by the barcode. and then use QR code representation. When QR code has error correction function. One- recognizing a QR code, the represented photos can dimensional bar code, when the bar code is damaged be recovered using a decryption algorithm. This will (defaced, deinking, etc.), it can only be handled by prevent counterfeiting of all kinds of documents or using the keyboard instead of scanning the bar code. cards. One-dimensional bar codes do not take into account the error correction function of the bar code itself. IV.HOW CAN QR CODES BE USED TO MAKE PAYMENTS Although the concept of checking characters is There are three main payment methods for QR introduced, it is only limited to prevent reading code payment: errors. QR codes can represent thousands of bytes of data. Without error correction, the barcode becomes A. Paying merchant with QR scanners meaningless when some part of the QR code is The customer opens the QR scanning application corrupted, so a QR barcode introduces an error and displays the unique QR code to the merchant. correction mechanism. This error correction The merchant will use the mobile payment mechanism makes the QR bar code still can be application to scan the QR code to identify the correctly read when it has local damage due to customer and deduct the money from their mobile perforation, fouling. The error correction algorithm wallet. for QR codes is the same as the error correction algorithm used for satellite and VCD. This error correction mechanism makes QR code becomes a
B. Paying merchant without QR scanners payment access system to the backend transaction In this case, the merchant displays the QR code to system and the settlement system for processing. the customer and the customer will scan it by using the QR scanning application on the mobile device. B. QR code payment transaction process The app will identify the merchant. The customer The main difference between QR code payment then enters the payable amount and finishes the and general mobile payment is the use of QR code payment. and the generation and transmission of payment instructions. Once the payment instruction is entered C. Paying individuals into the payment access system, there is no essential This usually happens between private individuals. difference between the QR code payment and other For example, when someone need to pay taxi fare mobile payments. Therefore, the analysis of the upon drop-off or rent to their landlord. In this case, security of the QR code payment technology focuses both payer and the recipient open the QR Scan on the payment instructions before entering the payment application. Payer will scan the recipient's payment system. unique QR code, add the payment amount and By analyzing and researching the commonly used complete the transaction. QR code payment software, it is found that the QR code payment can be divided into two types: one is V. QR CODES PAYMENT PRINCIPLE QR code for payment, which appears in the process QR code payment is a form of mobile payment. when the payment client App sends payment As the most important part of e-commerce, mobile instructions to the payment access system. It may be payment directly involves the capital security of a payment request or a payment certificate. The users and related parties. Therefore, payment other is the QR code of goods, such QR code security is one of the key issues in mobile payment. appears in the visit to the payment platform. The QR QR code payment is a payment method that remote code of the commodity used by the payment client access to the payment system by using QR code, and platform to access the payment content platform then submit payment instructions.  does not belong to the QR code payment category, because only the URL of the commodity sales A. QR code payment system architecture address is stored in the QR code of the commodity, QR code payment is very similar to the other and it has no relationship with the payment access forms of mobile payment, and there are two system. differences. QR code payment has two modes, one is active First, access to pay content platform and access to mode, one is passive mode. In the active mode, the payment systems are completed through the payer uses the QR code reading software built in the payment client App. The payment client App is payment client App to scan the QR code containing installed on the mobile phone application, with the the payment link for payment. ability to read, generate QR code and complete The QR code includes the payment access system payment. The mobile terminal is not a direct URL and the access parameter, and the payment participant in the payment process and only provides instruction is initiated by the payer. In the active an installation environment for the payment client mode, the payer requests the payment system by App. using the payment client App and generate the QR The second difference is the way the payment code payment receipt . The buyer can scan the system is accessed. The QR code payment access QR code to obtain the payment voucher and issue a payment access system by parsing the URL in the payment instruction to the payment access system to QR code or using the QR code as the electronic ask the payer to pay. The payment instruction is payment voucher. The payment client App generates initiated by the payee. The QR code contains a payment instruction, which is submitted by
payment credentials, which can be a string of as Hong Kong, the PDF417 code has been used as a numbers or other information. badge for identification and printed directly on ID In the active mode, when the user starts to pay documents for quick reading. with the QR code, it needs to open the payment According to the report of “New York Times” in client App and scan the payment QR code. The July 17, 2017: “Almost everyone in major cities in payment client App scans and reads the payment QR China is using smartphones to pay for everything, code, and the user confirms the payment amount and and China has stepped into the 'cashless era.' While other information on the cell-phone interface. After three years ago, the Chinese paid the deal mainly in the payment instruction is confirmed, the payment cash.  instruction is accepted by the payment access system. The report of “National Business Daily” shows After the payment system processes the payment that the proportion of information technology among request, payment client App will display the the scientific and technological fields contributing to payment result. "sense of gain" is as high as 61%, surpassing that of Passive mode of QR code payment process: the the other four areas. Among them, the QR code payment user first opens the payment client App, payment ranked first with a ratio of 26.91%, requests the payment system from the payment indicating that QR code payment which are client App, and the payment system sends the changing people's daily lives, "perception" is high payment code to the payment client App. The payee for Chinese ordinary people.  scans the payment QR code on the payment phone The report said that the development of QR code of the payer. The payment QR code is recognized payment not only brought convenience in the and read, the payee submits the payment request to payment method, but also promoted the rapid the payment system, and the payment access system development of online shopping, sharing of bicycles requests the payer to confirm the payment request. and other fields. These are also changing the After confirmation, the payment client App confirms consumption and living habits of the Chinese people, the payment to the payment access system. After the bringing a real "sense of gain" to the people. payment system processes the payment request, the payment result is fed back to the payer and the payee. Mobile payment has brought a lot of convenience to people's lives, more and more people do not need Compared with the payment process of payment to carry a wallet when going out, they can easily pay in active mode, the main difference between passive by using phone. In 2016, 22.8% of users used QR mode QR code payment is that in the passive mode code payments daily, and up to 60% of users use QR QR code needs to send the payment code to the code payment weekly. payment system to generate the payment voucher. The payment voucher is an important parameter VII. WHY QR CODE PAYMENT DEVELOPS WELL IN when the payee issues a payment instruction to the CHINA payment access system. A. No special equipment needed VI. The development status of QR code payment in QR code generation only need software, and there China are many free online software. QR code payment is QR codes are similar with one-dimensional bar easy to use for both consumers and merchants. codes and are widely used in commercial activities, Quick payment has two prerequisites: a standard especially in industries such as high-tech industries, information terminal and input and output devices. storage and transportation industries and retail For payment convenience, it is necessary for the industries. In some countries and regions such as equipment can be carried around, the phone has this Japan, QR codes have become quick and easy ways feature naturally and is almost stuck in the hands of to communicate information in daily life. In some consumers, for consumers, the phone does not U.S. and Canadian provinces and in countries such necessarily support NFC but must have a camera. As
long as customers have a camera on their phone, people need to carry a lot of cash with them, they they can pay by scanning the QR code. For sometimes may receive counterfeit money. After merchants, they only need to print a QR code bank card payment appears, people need to bring a without the purchase of specialized equipment, and bank card at any time. And now, people don't need it is zero-cost. to take a bank card, they only need to bring a phone, Compared to the traditional third-party payment they can easily pay by scanning the code. It is indeed terminal POS machines, a POS machine equipment a good way to pay. For some young people, it is price is as high as 1,000 yuan. For some merchants, convenient, they do not need to bring a bag and do this is a high cost. Therefore, many small stores do not need to take a wallet when going out. not support credit card payment, but support the QR C. Increased safety code payment. Storing your payment details in your mobile A similar technique to QR code payment is Near- phone and carrying it around is much safer than field communication(NFC), which is adopted by bringing your entire wallet full of cash and credit Apple Pay. NFC is faster than QR code payment, but cards everywhere you go. The chances of theft and why NFC is less popular than QR code in China? fraudulent purchases using your payment details are There are two reasons: much less with QR codes. 1) The first reason is the cost of the chip. For NFC, it needs to be equipped with an NFC chip on D. Customer habits everybody's phone. The cost of a chip is a few Consumer habits are an important factor in the dollars, so a phone equipped with NFC may spend rapid development of QR code payment in China. tens or even hundreds of millions of yuan on this Meanwhile, it also hindered the development of QR item. Many mobile phone manufacturers are not code payment in the United States and other equipped with NFC function in their own phones. countries. 2) The second reason is the problem of First, compared with European and American debugging of NFC equipment. NFC debugging is countries, Chinese people prefer to use cash. In 2006, also a big issue. Besides, public transportation cash in circulation in China accounted for about 13% varies from place to place, and the POS machines in of GDP, compared with 6.4% in the United States various businesses are not the same . They do and 3.5% in the United Kingdom. Europe and the not necessarily support the NFC function. United States banks have been developed for Debugging not only takes a long time, but it also hundreds of years, bill payment has become an costs a lot of money. irreversible and deeply rooted national payment Apple Pay is an example of using NFC. It only habits. In China, Bank of China Zhuhai Branch supports IPhone 6 and IPhone 6S or later, and the issued its first credit card in 1985. system needs to be upgraded to IOS 9.2 or later. Secondly, there are many tedious verifications in the Second, due to the imperfect credit system, the process of attaching a card, and various problems in payment which rely on credit is difficult to rapidly POS machines during the operation, it is easy to develop in China. Chinese have an average of 3.6 reduce the user's preference for Apple Pay and it is debit cards, but only one-third have credit cards. almost impossible to develop habits. This unbalanced situation has created a foundation for the growth of mobile payments because B. More convenience consumers have no fixed credit card and check People don’t need to enter the details of the payment habits so that Chinese people can adapt to person they are paying, just scanning the QR code mobile payments more quickly. Many people enter will identify them instantly. People can make the era of QR code directly from the cash age after payments using QR codes from any location with having a smart phone. The user experience is only a few taps on the mobile device. In the past, promoted large enough to rapidly increase the number of users who are willing to use the new
payment method. There are so many consumers who technologies, businesses are not motivated to are willing to use the new payment method, which provide new technologies. All the power to promote aroused the attention of businesses, coupled with the new technologies comes from companies that issue cooperation of all parties, which makes the new technologies (apple, google, sumsang, etc.), that popularity of China's code scanning so fast. spend huge sums of money on merchants and In addition, in developed countries in Europe and advertisements to consumers, and it's easy to see that the United States, credit card payment has been for such technology can not be rapidly popularized. more than half a century away, and the history of E. Attitude to the unification thing checks has been for centuries. In 1952, Franklin National Bank of California issued the first bank In China Alipay and Wechat Pay dominate credit card. The earliest check was used in North China’s mobile payment sector. This is impossible America as early as 1659. Until today, credit cards in America. Historically speaking, Americans have and checks are still the main form of payment in great fear, exclusion and resistance to those unifying Europe and the United States. Decades of credit card and super-powerful things, from the big government and POS systems have largely restricted the to big corporations. In other aspects of everyday life, promotion of more advanced mobile technologies. many Americans also do things based on a loose (open) agreement. Communication tools such as Any one of the payment technology wants to be WeChat and Facebook are closed and uniformed: widely accepted by society, it can not be separated Only two people have installed WeChat, so they can from the consumer and business of these two factors. communicate with WeChat. For another example, A On the one hand, no matter how much consumers transfer some money to B. When they transfer want to use this payment technology, they must also money with WeChat, it requires both sides are using have correspondingly supported businesses. WeChat. However, in the United States, the two Conversely, if the merchant is merely providing a most common types of money transfers (checks and platform, but the paid experience is not greatly ACH transfers) are based on an open agreement: improved, consumers will not change their user With ACH transfers, providing the account number habits. In other words, anyone who wants to and routing number is sufficient. The two sides that introduce a means of payment in the market will pay and receive money do not need to be in the same inevitably seek to work together from both the bank. business and the consumer. Why this will have a profound impact on the That is the problem of QR code payment and development of the payment form in China and the other mobile payment system. In the United States, United States? the large and medium-sized businesses based on POS have been fully used to the consumption of For instance, many people say WeChat payment credit card system for decades. For them, the is very convenient, even hospitals, utilities, difference between users' experience of paying by government departments have supported the WeChat mobile phone and paying by credit card is not big, payment. This is hard to happen in the United States. the fees may be different, but they do not have much First, both WeChat and Alipay are products of incentive to offer new payment methods without private companies. If a government department or additional funding. From the consumer's point of public utility unit supports WeChat and Alipay view, using technologies such as QR code payment payment, or if a government agency provides a or apple pay in places where credit cards are service using WeChat, then there is the suspicion of available, user habits need to be changed, but the private use of public goods, there is a suspicion that improvement of user experience is not much. In the government endorses private companies. places where people can not use a credit card, the Chinese people find it hard to understand the weight use of apple pay is almost impossible, so a vicious of this suspicion. The Chinese people may think this circle, consumers have no incentive to use new is a very good thing. It is the state's support for the industry. However, the views of the Americans are
not the same. Americans are particularly concerned discount subsidies, many online App have a discount, about separating the public from the private. If there if user pay by WeChat or Alipay payment. is any suspicion, some people will question it. In the These companies also have helped to increase the long run, everyone is very careful. And if efficiency and quality of government public services. government departments support WeChat and Take Alipay for example. At present, 357 cities in Alipay, PayPal will say why you do not support 31 provinces (districts and cities) have settled in PayPal, and other companies will also question or Albania's "city service" and have realized the QR even litigate. Now the US government departments code payments for public services, including paying support these payment methods: credit card, utilities, paying traffic fines, paying for public cashier's check, ACH transfer. These payment types transportation and online registration of the hospital are based on public agreement, there will be no and so on. People used to go to the relevant office to endorsement of the suspicion of private companies. do these things, and now they can do it without The closed property of WeChat and Alipay will leaving home. be a taboo for Americans. In the United States, Whether it is business or consumer, mobile proprietary things are basically not big. For example, payment not only makes payment convenient, more BBM on Blackberry, Apple's iMessage, and importantly, the payment also gives the merchants Whatsapp now have not reached the monopoly level other functions. Take Alipay for example. When of WeChat. A very important reason here is that people pay for a business with Alipay, Alipay's Americans do not like monopoly things, do not like client will show the corresponding business to be forced to use something. If you tell Americans information, if the consumer follow the public that you have to install Whatsapp, many Americans number of the business, it will become a member of will soon have a little resistance in their hearts. This the business, they can receive the relevant deep resistance, in turn, has prompted many promotional information. In other words, instead of Americans to engage in open protocols and just using a payment method, merchants can use ecosystems because they do not want to be forced to Alipay to build a link between merchants and users use one piece of software or to force others to use through this payment method. This is a function that one piece of software. traditional credit card payment does not have. Alipay F. Company’s effort has become a bridge to communicate users and businesses. QR code payment can be widely used in China, one of the most important reason is the company’s WeChat and Alipay also have a built-in function effort to provide information, advertising, “red envelopes”, red envelopes is a Chinese New promotions, which promote positive attitudes Year tradition, red envelopes means the lucky towards QR code payment . money. Now Chinese people are sending virtual red envelopes to their relatives and friends through WeChat, Alipay did a very good job in promoting WeChat or Alipay during the Chinese New Year or investment and marketing activities, and establish a holidays. This greatly enhances the popularity of lot of use scenarios. They offer users a large number Alipay and WeChat. of discounts and subsidies in a wider payment environment, which can take the initiative to Alipay and WeChat also provide the function of cultivate user habits. instant transfer within the platform, which is the key to the rapid development of third-party payment Subsidies are a very effective way to develop user platform. The transfer function of the third-party habits. During the promotion phase, WeChat and payment platform is the key to rapid development of Alipay deployed large-scale subsidies to deploy QR various types of comprehensive financial services codes in almost all key areas of major cities in the (red envelopes, collection of money, and repayment country and subsidized users through various online for the credit card) of third-party payment platforms. and offline promotions. They give users a lot of Consumer's transfer needs in the mobile payment
accounted for a very high proportion, which promote The top 10 U.S. banks only hold 32% of the total the platform. number of outlets. In addition, the United States has However, what did their competitor do? Apple more than 1,000 non-bank deposit-taking institutions Pay just cooperated with the bank. In the initial and about 10,000 credit unions. Not to mention promotion, it did not invest a lot money both online building mobile payment platform more difficult, and offline. In the online promotion, Apple Pay does just the high cost of inter-bank transactions is a huge not have the "Red Envelope Advantage" of WeChat obstacle. The cost, efficiency and risk are not an and Alipay, nor does it provide users with order of magnitude in four interbank settlement and substantial concessions and subsidies. In the offline settlement between nearly 6000 banks. This is a big promotion, Apple Pay only focuses on high-end obstacle to the mobile payments business in the consumption scenarios such as Starbucks, 711 and United States. KFC and it ignored the small business China's population has a huge advantage in popularizing new technologies. In Denmark, with a G. Other reason total population of more than 5 million, even if a Of course, QR code payment can be popular in good new technology initially occupied 10% of the China, it has a great relationship with China's special market, it is only 500,000 users, such a base would national conditions and China’s population. hardly support a new company in continuing to create new, affordable and easy-to-use technology. QR code payment can not be without a bank card, But it can be seen in China, with the advent of regardless of deposit card or credit card. In China, promising new technologies, such as mobile opening a full-function bank deposit card is the most payments, shared car, takeout software, and sharing convenient in the world. As there is no threshold of bicycles, even if the money is lost, big companies (even though you do not have a job) and account are willing to continue investing in the early days. opening is free and people can get card in real time. Because the market is too large. This is one of the Most Chinese have at least one card of four state- reasons why Denmark, a country where bicycles are owned banks. As many public benefits involving far more used daily than China, can not achieve social security, subsidies and so on are directly public bicycles and share bicycles, because Denmark linked to state-owned banks, for example, rural does not have a population density of Chinese cities. subsidies are directly transferred to the agricultural bank card of each farmer. This ensures that the state- VIII. SECURITY owned banks can cover all the areas, whether economically developed or underdeveloped. At any time, the security of funds is a very important issue. If the QR code payment is not safe, WeChat or Alipay, want to carry out mobile no matter how convenient and fast, no one will use it, payment services in China, the first thing need to be so here it need to discuss security issues under resolved is to reach a payment agreement with the Chinese QR code payment. bank, and the four major state-owned banks basically covering 99% of Chinese, as long as the A. Security requirements for QR code payment four banks get solved, the problem is solved. What is As a special form of mobile payment, QR code needed for mobile payments is a highly centralized payment has similar security requirements as mobile financial system. The superb coverage of large state- payment. In the mobile payment process, from the owned banks has allowed Alipay to grow from start perspective of the transaction process, its basic to grow, with only needing to support a small security requirements include verifiability, privacy, number of banks. In 2017, Alipay only support integrity, non-repudiation, etc. about 150 banks in total. 1) Authenticity: since the main process of QR According to the statistics of the US Bank code payment is carried out in a network Location website, there were 5,796 public banks and environment, both parties of the transaction transfer 90,833 bank branches in the United States in 2017. funds through the payment system and the
identification of the parties to the transaction is an compares the received digest to determine whether important part of mobile payment. If lack of the message is complete. certification in the transaction process, then QRl code payment brings convenience, but also hackers can easily cheat sensitive information and brings the problem of maintaining the integrity and financial fraud by forging identity. Certification is unity of all parties involved in the transaction. For the identification of people or entities identity to example, the transaction data changes in the provide a guarantee of authenticity. The parties to transmission process, resulting in the different the transaction can confirm each other's identity payment information being seen by the parties to the with or without meeting. There are 3 authentication transaction. In addition, data may be lost, methods in mobile payment. duplicated, or the order in which information is • The principal uses a key which is only shared transmitted is altered during the payment process, with the verifier to encrypt the message. The which may result in different information being seen verifier uses the same key to decrypt the by the parties to the transaction . Maintaining identity of the principal. the integrity of the parties involved in the transaction is the basis of mobile payments, and • The principal signs his message using his therefore it requires integrity measures to prevent private key, and verifies the signature using the random generation, modification and deletion of the principal's public key to verify the information, while preventing the loss and principal's identity. duplication of information during data transmission • The subject proves his identity through a and ensuring the order of information transmission. trusted third party. 4) Non-repudiation: In the QR code payment, all 2) Confidentiality: from the perspective of the QR the payment information exists digitally. Compared code payment process, there are multiple data with the traditional paper voucher method, the exchanges between the payment client App and the digitized information is more easily modified and payment access system, and the data may be related forged. In order to prevent the data being modified to the user's identity, payment instruction and or faked as an excuse, traders denied participating payment voucher, which are sensitive information of in trading activities, the transaction information the transaction process. Once leaked it may be used needs to be added to the trader evidence of for illegal trading and lead to the QR code payment participation in the transaction, that is, non- system user’s identity information leakage or repudiation. Non-repudiation evidence is primarily financial losses. QR code payment is based on an provided by digital signatures in mobile payments. open network environment, maintaining the confidentiality of sensitive information in the B. How Chinese company solve the security transaction process is an important guarantee for problem of QR code payment secure transactions . Therefore, to prevent The security of QR code payment is solved by the sensitive information from being illegally accessed following two aspects：the first is the authentication and stolen, in mobile payment, encryption is when the QR code payment function is opened, the generally used to ensure the confidentiality of second is the generation mechanism of QR code. sensitive data. Although now the phone number is opened with 3) Integrity: Integrity can generally be obtained an ID card, bank card is also ID card to open, but by extracting the message digest of the message. third-party payment platform itself can not confirm First it need to generate a digest by using hash the corresponding relationship between the phone function, then attach it to the message as the basis number and bank card by ID card. This work can for verifying the integrity of the message. After only be conducted in the face-to-face manner by the receiving the message, the receiver of the message bank. That is: 1. The bank verifies the phone number generates a digest with the same hash function and at the time of card opening. 2. After card opening,
add / modify the certified cell phone number scanning code, the system will detect whether the separately (people must be present and verified QR code contains Trojans to protect the safety of the through the identity system with the Public Security user's phone. Bureau, after the information is passed, it can be Alipay and WeChat have done a lot of work to completed). This means that people grant the make QR code payments meet all security appropriate mobile phone number transfer requirements including verifiability, privacy, permissions through his on-site permission, so as to integrity and non-repudiation. ensure safety. The job was apportioned to the day- to-day work of more than 220,000 commercial IX. DISCUSSION banks across the country. This purely human input is unrealistic for other countries’ financial institutions. According to Liébana-Cabanillas’s research, “attitude, innovation and subjective norms are In the early stage of the development of the QR determinants of the user’s intention to use QR code code, the QR code payment is an active payment for payment . Through the above analysis, it can be the user. The user finishes the payment by scanning seen that the QR code payment greatly enhance the QR code provided by the business (or person). In Chinese user’s experience. QR code payment of this process, the user is incapable of intervening or Alipay can have a great market, is based on the discerning the generation of a QR code. This popularity of Ali and other e-commerce platform of mechanism allows hackers can easily implant Taobao. WeChat is a monopoly social platform, Trojans, this payment does exist a great security risk, which has a good social demand orientation. And and hackers can generate Trojan horse embedded they have done a lot of innovative activities to win QR code with almost no cost. the trust of consumers and successfully attracted The current QR code payment method can be consumers, which makes China's users have a good understood as a passive payment method. The QR attitude towards scanning code. This is the reason code (or barcode) is generated by the user himself or that China's code scanning can rapidly develop. herself. The merchant scans the user's QR code (or barcode) to complete the payment. Such a change X. CONCOLUSION made the entire payment much safer. The QR code QR code do not need special equipment, it is is generated by the user himself, which controls the convenient, it also increases safety. Chinese user’ generation of the QR code at the source and greatly experience is promoted large enough by using QR improves the security. Payment code has timeliness, code payment. China has unique QR code payment payment code is a one-time generation, timeliness is environment, besides, China's third-party platform one minute, after the scan by the merchant will be has made a significant contribution to the popularity invalid. Besides, a payment code can only be of QR code payment and well handled the security successfully paid once, repeatedly being scanned issues of the QR code payment. will not be repeated chargeback. This paper mainly talks about the reason why QR On the other hand, the payment codes of Alipay code payment develop well in China, but over the and WeChat, require merchants to be certified or past year, QR code payments have developed very contracted, which controls the scope of the flow of much around the world. funds and further limit the scope of the risk. The payment code itself is a series of numbers, does not “The Asian Banker” reported that “In 2017, India contain sensitive information, business code launched the Bharat QR, which is called the world's scanning will not disclose the user's account first fully interoperable QR code payment. It is information. These companies done a lot of work on developed by the India national payment company code scanning technology, for example, the payment (NPCI), MasterCard and Visa. It overcomes the code has anti-screen mode to prevent crooks to limitations of the closed loop QR code-based induce users to share screenshots. In addition, when acceptance.” This is a new model for interoperability. 
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