Rising to
                                                                        Climate change and energy supply are two of the biggest challenges that
                                                                        the world is facing today. To tackle these issues, the European Union has
                                                                        designed the Energy Challenge in a move towards a reliable, sustainable
                                                                        and competitive energy system.
                                                                        The current negotiation of the 2030 climate and energy packages aims

                                                                        to set ambitious targets regarding minimum shares of renewable energy
                                                                        consumption and energy savings, and thus to pave the way to the
                                                                        decarbonisation of the European economy by 2050 with more than an
                                                                        80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). The development
                                                                        of low carbon technologies is a key part of the EU strategy. Geothermal
                                                                        energy, and its generation of electricity, heating and cooling, can

                                                                        contribute to the local, regional and global energy transition toward
                                                                        reliable, clean and affordable energy sources.
                                                                        To speed up the development and deployment of low-carbon
                                                                        technologies, including geothermal energy, and to strengthen the
                                                                        cooperation with Stakeholders under the Strategic Energy Technology
                                                                        Plan (SET-Plan), the European Commission has introduced Technology
                                                                        and Innovation Platforms (ETIPs).

                                                                                                                   FIGURE 1
                                                                                                                   Shares (%) of EU28 final energy
                                                                                                                   consumption per sector ( 1143
                                                                                                                   Mtoe) and sectorial penetration of
                                                                                                                   Renewable Energy Sources (RES)
                                                                                                                   (source: SHARES, Eurostat, 2016).
                                                                      RES in H&C          19%

                                                                                                     25%               29,6%
                                                                                   Heating                                      RES in Electricity
                                                                                   & Cooling


2    European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal       RES in Transport                         VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL           3
CONTRIBUTORS                                                                                                CONTENTS
    Editor in Chief
    Ruggero Bertani (Enel Green Power)

    Bruno Leray (Storengy – Groupe ENGIE); Jan-Diederik Van Wees (TNO & Utrecht

                                                                                                                     This Vision for Deep Geothermal looks towards the future of
    Editorial Team
                                                                                                                     Deep Geothermal energy development in the few next decades,
    Philippe Dumas, Ben Laenen, Adele Manzella, Anna Pellizzone, Valentina Pinzuti,                                  and highlights the great potential of untapped geothermal
    Katleen van Baelen, Thomas Garabetian
                                                                                                                     resources across Europe.

    With special thanks to the ETIP-DG Steering Committee
    Miklos Antics (GPC IP/GEOFLUID); Marco Baresi (Turboden S.p.A.); Fausto Batini
    (Magma Energy Italia – Rete Geotermica); David Bruhn, (Helmholtz Centre
    Potsdam-GFZ, TU Delft); Bodo von Düring (von Düring Group); Sylvie Gentier
    (BRGM); Hjalti Páll Ingólfsson (GEORG); Adele Manzella, (Italian National Research
                                                                                                                 6   Future development of deep geothermal
    Council, Inst. Geosciences and Earth Resources - CNR-IGG); Jean Philippe Soulé
    (Fonroche Géothermie); Philippe Dumas (EGEC appointed); Ernst Huenges (EERA-
                                                                                                                     technologies in Europe
    JPGE appointed); Paul Ramsak (GEOTHERMICA ERA-NET appointed); Jiri Muller
    (IEA-Geothermal appointed)

                                                                                                                8    Geothermal in Europe today
    “City of the future”, Andrei Cotrut

                                                                                                                16   Unlocking geothermal energy
    ISBN 9788879580359
    Citation: European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal (ETIP-DG) (2018).
    “Vision for deep geothermal”.
                                                                                                                26   Increasing the social welfare in Europe
    Reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes are authorised, provided that
    appropriate acknowledgement of the source is given. All reasonable precautions have been
    taken by ETIP-DG to verify that data are accurate and in accordance with available resources. In
    no case shall the author be liable for any loss or damage resulting from the use of this document.          28   Novel technologies for full and responsible
    © 2018, European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal (ETIP-DG)                                 deployment of geothermal potential

                  The sole responsibility of this publication lies with the author. The European Union is not
                  responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. Co-funded by
                  the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme [GA. No 773392 ]
4           European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                                         VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL      5
energy, geothermal will be crucial in         This Vision is designed to trigger a
INTRODUCTION                                                                               the future energy system.                     debate about how best to achieve
                                                                                                                                         a future for geothermal energy in
                                                                                           The previous geothermal Vision was            Europe that is secure, affordable, low

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                         part of the Common Vision for the
                                                                                           Renewable Heating & Cooling (RHC)
                                                                                                                                         carbon and which has the least impact
                                                                                                                                         on nature. The Strategic Research
                                                                                           sector in Europe, organized by the RHC        Agenda and Roadmap documents,

OF DEEP GEOTHERMAL                                                                         Platform1. The main challenges and
                                                                                           research needs for the full deployment
                                                                                                                                         which will follow, will outline how the
                                                                                                                                         EU’s energy policy needs to develop
                                                                                           of geothermal energy were laid out in         between now and 2050 if this Vision is

TECHNOLOGIES IN EUROPE                                                                     2011, and paved the road to our Vision
                                                                                                                                         to be achieved.

     The Vision of the European Technology       minimum depth typically exceeding         1 - 2020-2030-2050 Common Vision for the
     and Innovation Platform on Deep             500 m.                                    Renewable Heating&Cooling sector in Europe,
                                                                                           RHC Platform, European Union 2011
     Geothermal (ETIP-DG) entails using
     geothermal energy to cover:                 Deep geothermal covers a wide range       Photo: Geothermal power plant in Italy
                                                 of technologies, some specific to the
     1. A significant part of the demand         sector, others typically used in other
        for domestic heat; and                   sectors (e.g. heat pumps), which in
                                                 combination enhance performance.
     2. Much of the demand for electrical        The technologies are also highly
        power in Europe.                         relevant for heat storage and other
                                                 renewable energy applications.
     This includes fully exploiting the
     flexibility of the geothermal supply,       Geothermal has huge potential and
     providing large centralized as well         opportunities. After nearly a decade
     as domestic and decentralized small         of slow development, in the last five
     scale options.                              years there has been a resurgence of
                                                 interest in geothermal applications
     The ETIP-DG is an open stakeholder          in terms of electricity generation and
     group, including representatives from       direct uses of heat (above all district
     industry, academia, research centres,       heating).
     and sectorial associations supporting
     the deployment of the next generation       Many non-technical barriers are still
     of geothermal electricity and heat          to be overcome. The success of the
     plants. The ETIP-DG involves Research,      energy transition entails designing
     Development and Innovation (R&D&I)          optimal scenarios in terms of costs
     for sustainable heat extraction from        and affordability for the customers
     the earth. It is also a hub for sharing     and the citizens, while guaranteeing
     information and experiences. Despite        energy comfort. New developments
     the name “deep geothermal”, depth           should also take into account other
     is not a limiting factor, but in practice   societal challenges such as social
     threshold temperatures (depending           welfare and climate change. As a
     on utilisation technologies) for            local and stable source of renewable
     geothermal resources relate to a

 6          European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                               VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL                7
SOLAR          SOLAR            ONSHORE             OFFSHORE
                                                                                                                                          GEOTHERMAL       BIOMASS            HYDROPOWER
                                                                                                                                                                                              PHOTOVOLTAIC     THERMAL            WIND                 WIND



                                                                                                                 LCoE 2010 - 2016

                                                                                                                 (2016 EUR/kWh)
     TODAY                                                                                                                          300


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ng os s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ra er c uel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        e t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      w il f

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    po ss
                       The growth potential for geothermal         all over Europe. For example, the
                       has been recognized just recently,          46°C thermal springs in Bath (UK)                                  0
                       but geothermal has been a source of         were thermal baths in Roman times.                                     2010     2016   2010         2016   2010     2016   2010     2016   2010     2016     2010         2016   2010     2016
                       energy to humankind since the dawn          In the Middle Ages, the hot springs

                                                                                                               (weighted average
                                                                                                                 Capacity Factor
                       of civilization. For centuries, hot         of the Elvenschans (Belgium) were a

                                                                                                                  range, 2016)
                                                                                                                                            85%              93%                                     12%             12%
                       springs have been used for bathing,         secure source of flowing fresh water                                                                                              26%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         24%               26%
                                                                                                                                                                                      36%                            31%
                       healing, heating, and as a secure           even during the harshest winters.

                                                                                                                                            58%                                 61%                                                    40%                 36%

                       source of water in hundreds of places       Today, geothermal energy is being
                                                                   exploited as a direct source of heat
                                                                   on a large scale by tapping into hot-
                                                                   water-bearing underground layers.                                                                                                                 Capacity                          79%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Factors       53%
              FIGURE 2                                             The resource is renewable, since                                                                                                                  Non-RES
              Thanks to the continuous release of                  heat is continuously supplied at                                                                                                                              Fossil fuels          Nuclear

              heat, underground temperature, with a                depth by geological processes, and
              trend that depends on local geological               is dispersed through the soil. Using
              conditions, increases with depth. The                geothermal technologies, part of
              average trend is technically called                  this heat is concentrated and used at
              geothermal gradient.                                 the earth’s surface. The geothermal                                                                                                        FIGURE 3
                                                                   industry in the EU is a world leader in                                        which developed without a subsidy                           Since geothermal energy is constantly
                                                                   the geothermal market, and exports                                             in the 1970s, or the fact that the city                     provided, the Capacity Factor (i.e. actually
          0       50     100   150   200    250     300 Temp °C    its expertise and products globally.                                           of Munich plans to decarbonize the                          produced energy with respect to the full
                                                                                                                                                  city’s energy supply by 2040 using                          capacity) is much higher than for other
   200                                     average T gradient
                                                                   Although geothermal development                                                geothermal resources which they                             renewable energy sources (sources:
                                                                   in Europe dates back more than a                                               found were the most economic of                             Renewables 2017 Global Status Report,
                                           example of T measured
   400                                     in geothermal area      century, it still occupies a niche market                                      alternative renewable energy sources.                       REN21; EUROSTAT), resulting in a total cost
                                                                   compared to other energy sources. The                                                                                                      (LCoE) comparable or lower than for other
   600                                                             development of geothermal energy is                                            Other challenges are financial, legal,                      energy sources (source: IRENA, 2017)
                                                                   hindered by limited knowledge about                                            logistic and technical. Although EU
   800                                                             the technologies and their potential                                           support for geothermal research,
                                                                   among policy makers, economic                                                  development and innovation has
  1000                                                             actors and the public. For example,                                            increased, it is still lower than for                    States, and long and complex
                                                                   few people are aware of the huge                                               other renewable energy sources.                          authorization have slowed down
Depth m
                                                                   contribution of geothermal energy                                              Complex and incomplete regulations,                      geothermal deployment.
                                                                   for district heating in the Paris Basin,                                       fragmented among EU Member

              8                European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                                                                              VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL                                9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5003 GWh

                             Electricity                                                                                             Italy, geothermal fluids produced
                                                                                                                                     enough electricity to power the local
                             Electricity   is    produced     from                                                                   industry in boron products.
                             geothermal fluids through a turbine,
                             where heat is transformed into                                                                          By the 1970s, only a few plants had
                             mechanical energy and then into                                                                         been installed in Europe, mainly                                                                                                                        61 GWh
                             electricity via a generator. The                                                                        in Italy and Iceland, followed by
                             fluid sent to the turbine can be the                                                                    France (Guadeloupe), and Turkey.
                             geothermal fluid extracted from                                                                         All of them used high temperature
                             the ground (direct or flash steam                                                                       (over 250 °C) resources with direct
                             systems) or a secondary fluid heated                                                                    or flash steam turbine technology.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.2 GWh
                             by the geothermal fluid through a heat                                                                  With the development of binary                                                                                                FRANCE
                             exchanger (binary systems).                                                                             cycle technologies that can produce                                                                                           102 GWh

                                                                                                                                     electricity from lower temperatures
                             Electricity was first generated from                                                                    (as low as about 110 °C), geothermal                                                                                                  PORTUGAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           173 GWh
                             geothermal resources in the first                                                                       plants were then set up in other
                             decade of the 20th century, when in                                                                     countries      (Austria,    Germany,
                             the village of Larderello in Tuscany,                                                                   Portugal). Today, there are 102                                                                                     Potential (TWh)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   6188 GWh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ROMANIA                  N.A.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             > 100                                                       0.4 GWh
    FIGURE 4                                                                                                                                                                                                Units

    Technologies and comparison of size and number of units                                                                                                                                                 Capacity (GW)                                  50-100
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Average Size (MW)
    (source: EGEC Geothermal Market Report, 2016)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FIGURE 5
  Dry steam power plants                                                          Flash steam power plants                                                            Binary cycle power plants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Potential electricity production to 2050 (available data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            as estimated by GEOELEC project, taking into account
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            underground temperature distribution) and current electricity
                            generator          load                                     flash
                                                                                                                generator        load                                                           generator          load                                                                     production in Europe (source: EGEC Geotehrmal Market Report,

                             turbine             cooler                                                          turbine              cooler                                                     turbine            dry cooler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               geothermal power plants in the seven           Cost of Electricity, LCoE) value of
                                                                                                                                                                                                    heat exchanger
                                                                                                                                                                                                      with working fluid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               countries mentioned above with a               less than 150 €/MWh for 2030 and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               total installed capacity amounting             less than 100 €/MWh for 2050. The
                                                                                   production well

                                                                                                                                                   injection well
    production well

                                                                                                                                                                        production well
                                                          injection well

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 injection well

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               to around 2.5 GWe, producing some              total geothermal electricity potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               14.6 terawatt-hours (TWh) of electric          in the EU is 34 TWh, about 1% of the
                                   rock layers                                                                           rock layers                                                                   rock layers                                             power every year.2                             projected total electricity supply in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the EU in 2030. Economies of scale,
Highly cost competitive but geographically limited                                      Most dominant in terms of global capacity                                   Useful alongside geothermal heating, hot spring, etc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Electricity     generation      from           innovative concepts for accessing the
                                                                                  359                                                                                                                                                                          geothermal resources has a huge                underground, and substantial cost
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               potential in Europe, especially when           reductions, should lead by 2050 to a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the new generation of technologies             coverage of as much as 50% of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               for enhancing heat extraction                  projected electricity supplied in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               become competitive. The economic               Europe (including Iceland, Turkey and
                      2,8                                                                                  29                   28
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               potential for geothermal power in              Switzerland)3. Geothermal electricity
                                               27                          25,3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Europe in 2030 and 2050 has been               could be generated in most European
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14,8         estimated using a cost (Levelised              countries.
                                        0,75          32 0,8                                                        26
                                                                                                                         0,73                                                                                                        0,8
                                                                                                                                        16                                                      3      22           2,8
   Global (2010)                  Europe (2010)       Europe (2015)               Global (2010)                    Europe (2010)       Europe (2015)                   Global (2010)                  Europe (2010)        Europe (2015)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2 - EGEC Geothermal Market Report 2016         3 - Towards more geothermal electricity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              generation in Europe, GEOELEC Project, 2014

    10                                    European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                                                                                                                                                                      VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL                    11
Heating and cooling                      cold (H&C) to single houses also in                                                                the direct use of geothermal heat has                                                     TOP 7 COUNTRIES
                                                                 combination with geothermal heat                                                                   grown continuously, with peaks in                                                         for geothermal district heating
                                                                 pumps, up to providing heat to whole                                                               development shortly after the first oil                                                   production (Source: EGEC
                        The heating and cooling sector           cities or city quarters through large                                                              crisis and over the last decade.                                                          Geothermal Market Report 2016)
                        represents nearly 50% of Europe’s        district heating (DH) networks.
                        energy demand, and geothermal                                                                                                               Today, Europe has 280 plants for
                        energy is becoming more and more         Deep Geothermal installations require                                                              GeoDH5. The plants are spread over 24                                                                    Iceland › 6421 GWth
                        attractive as a competitive renewable    the extraction of fluids from the                                                                  countries and represent a total heating
                        heating source, as the energy sector     underground and their reinjection                                                                  capacity of some 4.8 GWth. In 2015,                                                                      France › 1335 GWth
                        as a whole is facing a dual challenge:   after use, in a typical doublet or triplet                                                         they supplied about 12.9 TWh of heat.
                        decarbonisation whilst securing the      system (as in Figure). The heat from                                                               With 163 plants under construction                                                                       Germany › 662 GWth
                        provision for heating at an affordable   the fluids can be used directly, or                                                                or investigation in 2016, the heating
                        price for consumers.                     enhanced by ground source heat pump                                                                capacity from deep geothermal                                                                            Hungary › 380 GWth
                                                                 (GSHP) technologies. Heat pumps can                                                                sources in Europe is expected to grow
                        To cover demand for heating and          be used to adjust the temperature of                                                               significantly.                                                                                           Austria › 272 GWth
                        cooling, Deep Geothermal energy          geothermal fluids to the (higher) level
                        offers vast resources to be utilized     needed, for example, in a residential
                        for numerous technical options,          building, or to adjust the temperature
                        ranging from the supply of heat and      of heat coming from cooling the
                                                                 building to the (lower) level required
                                                                 to inject it into the ground. Systems                                                                                                                                                   FIGURE 7
                                                                 can be small (from 0.5 to 2 MWth), or                                                                                                                                                   Installed capacity of geothermal heat for
                                                                 large with a capacity of 50 MWth or                                                                5 - EGEC Geothermal Market Report 2016                                               different applications in Europe (Source:
                                                                 more.                                                                                                                                                                                   Antics et al., 2016)

                                                                 In 1930, the first geothermal district
                                                                 heating (GeoDH) system in Europe
                                                                 was installed in Reykjavik, Iceland.
                                                                 The government of Iceland promoted
                                                                 the exploration for geothermal                                                   3000

                                                                 resources as well as research
                                                                 into the various ways geothermal                                                 2500
                                                                 energy can be utilised. The Icelandic                                                                                 200
                                                                 government also set up an Energy                                                                                      160

                                                                 Fund to further increase the use of                                              2000                                 140

                                                                                                                        installed capacity (MW)
                                                                 geothermal resources.4 Since then,                                                                                    100
                                                                                                                                                                                       80                                                                                                          District heating plants
         00 m


                                                                 4 - Geothermal development and research in                                                                             20                                                                                                         Balneology
                                                                 Iceland, ORKUSTOFNUN, 2010                                                       1000                                  0
± 1000-50

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Individual buildings

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   & other uses

                                                                    FIGURE 6                                                                      500                                                                                                                                            Deep geothermal use only

                                                                    A typical doublet/triplet system for fluid
                                                                    management: a production well (in red) for
                     rock layers                                    extracting hot fluids from the underground;                                     0    TR
                                                                    an injection well to re-inject fluid cooled after
                                                                    heat utilization (in blue). A third well can be
                                                                    added for production or injection.

                12             European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                                                                                                                       VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL                                  13
                                                                                                                                 1 MWth
                                                                                     41 MWth                                                  DENMARK
                                                                                                                                              3 MWTh
                                                                                                                                                                                           6 MWth
                                                                                                                                              25 MWth
                                                                                                                                14 MWth

                                                                                                             2 MWth

                                                                                                        CZECH REPUBLIC
                                                                                             SLOVAKIA   1 MWth
                                                                                             5 MWth

                                                                                                               9 MWth

                                                                                                           57 MWth
                                                                Temperature distribution
                                                                at 1000 m; T > 50°C

                                                                Temperature distribution
                                                                at 2000 m; T > 90°C
                                                                                                                                                                                 4 MWth
                                                                Other potential reservoirs
                                                                                                                                          7 MWth

Photo: Greenhouse heated by geothermal in The
Netherlands                                                                                                                                                    ITALY
                                                                                                                                                               22 MWth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 MWth

        Geothermal sources are also used         Geothermal plays also an important
        for industrial purposes, as in Alsace    role for agriculture, providing heat to                                                                                             25 MWth
        (France) where heat is supplied to       greenhouses. This means that cold
        a bio-refinery, or in Tuscany (Italy)    countries, such as Iceland and The                                                                                                        SERBIA
                                                                                                                                                                                           20 MWth
        for beer production. Furthermore,        Netherlands, can produce eggplants,
        the use of geothermal heat is            tomatoes and other plants for both
        being investigated for desalination      local use and export to other countries.                                FIGURE 8
        and other innovative industrial          Also countries with a mild climate                                      Areas suitable for geothermal heating and cooling
        applications.       HORIZON     2020,    can benefit of geothermal heat:                                         networks (combination of high heat demand and areas
        INTERREG and local programmes such       greenhouses in geothermal areas of                                      where the temperature at 2 km depth is higher than
        as UDG in the Netherlands, should all    Italy produce flowers and basil for the                                 60°C. Source: update GeoDH, 2014, and available data),
        lead to a growing number of industrial   Italian market during winter.                                           and actual geothermal district heating installed capacity
        applications of deep geothermal                                                                                  (Source: EGEC Geothermal Market Report, 2016).
        energy all over Europe.

  14           European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                                                                VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL   15

     Heat generation                          temperature geothermal resources
     development                              in district heating in urban areas
                                              anywhere in Europe.

     Thanks to continuous technological       Through demand site management
     developments, geothermal resources       or thermal energy storage it will be
     that previously were out of reach will   possible to balance heat demand
     be explored and developed. The new       and supply in a DH network. While
     technologies will make it technically    demand in a DH network fluctuates
     and economically feasible to deliver     on a daily, weekly and seasonal basis,
     hot fluids even in areas with an         the supply from a geothermal source
     average or low geothermal gradient,      is constant all year round. Increasing
     by enhancing heat extraction, going      the number of full load hours of the
     deeper, or with the help of heat         geothermal installations has a direct
     pumps to lift the temperature. High      impact on profitability. One way to
     temperature geothermal sources will      balance supply and demand is by
     also drive absorption chillers, making   demand site management in order
     deep geothermal a unique energy          to lower peak demands. Another
     source for fourth generation district    option is to use thermal energy
     heating & cooling (DHC) networks and     storage systems, to supply additional
     for industrial processes.                thermal power during periods of peak
                                              demand. Thermal energy storage
     Over the last decades, the supply and    can take different forms, e.g., local
     return temperatures of DH networks       water storage tanks to balance day-
     have been reduced. Since modern,         time fluctuations in demand, large
     energy efficient buildings and new       underground       seasonal     storage
     heating systems allow rooms to           systems, or thermo-chemical storage
     be comfortably heated at supply          systems.                                                                                     Photo: Blue Lagoon, Iceland
     temperatures of 40°C and less, the
     operative temperatures of the DHC        The     sequential  operation   of
     network can be further reduced.          geothermal heat by integrating           further improve efficiency, with a     cheap heat for air conditioning,
     Third and fourth generation DH and       different technologies that use          positive economic impact in project    agricultural or industrial applications,
     DHC networks will be developed, and      progressively lower temperatures,        development and major benefit for      and even for hydrotherapy and healing
     it will be possible to integrate low     known as cascade applications, will      local communities in utilising clean   as in the “Blue Lagoon” in Iceland.

16          European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                    VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL                 17
District Heating & cooling (also low T buidings)

                                                                                                                                                      4G 2020-2050
     Sources                                                                                                                                                                        PtoH
               battery   wave
                                                      central / decentral power generator
                                                                               SMART GRID
Electricity generation                         The “temperature parameter” affects       Enhanced     technical    solutions             scale, and safety precautions
     development                                    the efficiency of transformation          will boost the electrical potential             will be standardized;
                                                    from heat to electricity, whereas         development:
                                                    the “flow rate constraint” is related                                                ››   The    unique     capability  of
     The use of geothermal heat for                 to the number of wells required            ››   The utilisation of geothermal             geothermal energy to operate
     producing electricity is the most              for a given supply threshold. The               resources will be optimized, with         in hybrid mode with other
     flexible way to produce a clean                highest potential for massive supply            a focus on increasing efficiency          renewable      energy    sources
     renewable and sustainable energy,              from geothermal resources is in                 and reducing LCoE for low                 (photovoltaic,      concentrated
     easily transportable even over long            areas showing high temperature                  temperature binary plants;                solar, biomass and biofuels)
     distances and ready for use for the            at relatively shallow depths (e.g. in                                                     will be intensified, with an
     end-users. Only two conditions are             magmatic areas, as in Iceland, Italy,      ››   The existing high temperature             overall increase in total energy
     necessary: the hot fluid produced              Turkey and volcanic areas). However,            technologies (heat exchanger,             conversion factor;
     via a geothermal well must have a              with new technologies geothermal                flash/steam       plants)    will
     sufficient flow rate and must have a           electricity generation will be possible         be improved, even through            ››   New technologies will enable
     temperature above a given threshold.6          everywhere, going deep enough to                disruptive ideas on cycle design,         us to access and manage deep
                                                    reach the required temperature and              novel materials, and more;                and extremely hot resources,
                                                    improving heat extraction wherever                                                        whose productivity will be ten
     6 - The threshold depends on used              the natural flow rate proves to be too     ››   Technologies for enhancing                times higher than in existing hot
     technology, including hybrid generation, and   low.                                            heat extraction at depth will             systems;
     satisfies the thermodynamic principle.
                                                                                                    be optimized, proved at a large
                                                                                                                                         ››   Cutting-edge      technologies
                                                                                                                                              will be extensively assessed
                                                                                                                                              for producing from untapped
                                                                                                                                              resources that pose peculiar
                                                                                                                                              issues, such those off-shore,
                                                                                                                                              close to magma shallow
                                                                                                                                              intrusions,    depleted      or
                                                                                                                                              unproductive hydrocarbon fields
                                                                                                                                              and more.

                                                                                                                                        Geothermal energy will also play a
                                                                                                                                        unique role on islands and in remote
                                                                                                                                        areas, where its flexibility and
                                                                                                                                        stability can be a major asset for small
                                                                                                                                        local grids, solving critical problems
                                                                                                                                        for isolated communities.

                                                                                                                                        Photo: Combined biomass-geothermal
                                                                                                                                        power plant ”Cornia 2”, Italy

20           European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                             VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL                 21
Combining renewable
     heat and electricity

                                                                                                             ns l
                                                                                                          tio na
                                                                                                        ec tio
                                                                                                     nn na
                                                                                                   co ter
     sectors and markets


                                                                                                                         Transmission grid

     for an optimal use of                                                                                                                                                                               Backbone heating grid
                                                                                                                         Interregional transport
                                                                                                                         220 - 380 kV                                                                    high supply temperature
                                                                                                                         Regional transport                                                              (>90°C)

     geothermal energy
                                                                                                                         110 - 150 kV

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Cluster heating grid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             low supply temperature

                                                The integration of local renewable                                                                                                                                                                                           low return temperature

     Combined production of Cool, Heat          resources such as photovoltaics,
     and electrical Power (CCHP) will be        solar thermal, (small) wind turbines or                                                                                                          CHP
                                                                                                                                                                     Distribution grid
     optimized thanks to low temperature        digesters will allow users to become                                                                                 DSO
                                                                                           Interregional scale                                                       medium voltage
     (binary) conversion technologies,          both producers and consumers of                                                                                                                                                                 Cluster heating grid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                high supply temperature
     which are less vulnerable to               energy, i.e. “prosumers”.                                                                                                                                                                       (>80°C)
     maintenance. These can be improved
     and made affordable by:                    Balancing the energy networks will
                                                become more challenging due to the
      ››   Increasing the efficiency, and       intermittent character of various          Regional scale                                                                                                   Distribution grid
           reducing losses and internal         renewable energy sources, the actions                                                                                                                       low voltage

           consumption;                         of prosumers and the interconnection
                                                between electricity, heating &
      ››   Improving     reliability    and     cooling, gas and transportation. Deep
           durability    (resistance     to     geothermal bridges different energy
           corrosion,     abrasion)      of     sectors, as it can be used for base        Local scale
           equipment;                           load supply or adjusted to deal with
                                                imbalances in demand and supply:           Micro scale
      ››   Extending     the     economic
           resource base by breakthroughs        ››   Geothermal CCHP plants create
           in technologies for subsurface             flexibility to supply heat/cold or                  LEGEND
           access and heat extraction from            electricity depending on demand;
           the underground;                                                                                         Hydro power & pumped hydro     Geothermal                            Power plant                               Wind power                        Geothermal power plant           Heat Pump

                                                 ››   By linking geothermal sources
      ››   Reducing the overall cost for              to heat pumps, the heat supply                                Solar power                    Industry                              Electric Storage                          Photovoltaics                      Historic Building               Thermal Storage

           CCHP generation. Our target is             during periods of high heat                                   Solar Thermal                  Public Building                       Biomass                                   Railway                           Office Building                  Fossil Fuel
           to reach an LCoE of 10 €/MWh               demand increases;
           within a few decades.                                                                                    Electric Vehicle               New Building                 PtoH     Power to Heat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CHP Combined Heat and Power
                                                 ››   The excess heat from other
     Deep geothermal adds flexibility to              sources is stored underground
     the energy landscape of the future               by geothermal wells;
     with its interconnected local energy                                                                                                                                                                                        FIGURE 10
     grids that are fed by a variety of local    ››   The excess electricity supply can                                     Due to this flexibility, deep geothermal                                                             In the interconnected energy networks
     (renewable) energy sources and that              be stored underground as heat                                         can balance energy flows in DHC                                                                      based on renewable energy sources,
     connect the various energy sectors               for later use;                                                        networks that integrate multiple                                                                     geothermal and underground thermal
     (i.e., electricity, heating & cooling                                                                                  renewables (over all energy vectors).                                                                storage play an important role (courtesy
     and transport). The local grids will        ››   Fuels (e.g. gas, methanol)                                            This adds to the attractiveness of                                                                   of DNV GL, based on: Noordhoff Uitgevers
     be driven by new market models                   produced by geothermal fluids                                         geothermal as indigenous, locally                                                                    B.V., 2012)
     in which the separation between                  and heat can be used to store                                         available, environmental benign,
     energy producers and consumers                   energy or for transportation                                          clean, renewable and sustainable
     becomes less sharp than it is today.             purposes.                                                             energy source.

22          European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                                                                                                                VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL                                                                23
We have a vision of the “city of the future”: a combination of renewable
     energy sources, for local electricity and heating/cooling supply at house
     level, with or without storage facilities, and electrical cars integrated into
     the system. We envisage large heating networks fed by geothermal heat,
     with intelligent exchanges of energies between houses and the major
     supply pole. It will be a city that has 100% renewable power sources in
     terms of electricity, heating/cooling and mobility, with zero impact on the
     environment (no pollution, no GHG emission, no long distance transportation
     of fossil fuels), where citizens will act as “prosumers” in a smart, clean,
     renewable and sustainable system.

           European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal             VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL   25
Geothermal technologies will achieve      the decentralised energy distribution
                                                                                                   a lower environmental footprint than      and facilitate the evolution from
                                                                                                   any other renewable energy source:        consumers to prosumers.

                                                                                                    ››   Any contaminant contained           By strengthening dissemination,
                                                                                                         in geothermal fluid will be re-     education and outreach, society will
                                                                                                         injected into the subsurface        be aware of the benefits and impacts
                                                                                                         or captured and utilised, when      of geothermal energy. Further
                                                                                                         useful, or correctly disposed of;   specialisation will create new jobs
                                                                                                                                             opportunity. Citizens will be ready to
                                                                                                    ››   The    total   re-injection  of     actively contribute to a sustainable
                                                                                                         geothermal fluids into the          and effective geothermal growth
                                                                                                         subsurface will guarantee that      planning by a mutual exchange of
                                                                                                         the current zero emissions of       perspectives.
                                                                                                         industrial plants due to the
                                                                                                         absence of combustion will be       The Deep Geothermal sector also
                                                                                                         accompanied by zero natural         aims to guarantee protection and
                                                                                                         greenhouse     gas    emissions     empowerment of customers, offering
                                                                                                         whenever geothermal fluids          meaningful and efficient choices
                                                                                                         contain non-condensable gases;      and expecting their increasing
                                                                                                                                             participation in the energy market,
                                                                                                    ››   There will be no induced            both as consumers and prosumers.
                                                                                                         seismicity hazard thanks to
                                                                                                         advanced fluid extraction and
                                                                                                         injection  technologies,     and
                                                                                                         the abundant and transparent
                                                                                                         monitoring data to distinguish

INCREASING SOCIAL                                                                                        between natural and industrially-
                                                                                                         driven phenomena;

WELFARE IN EUROPE                                                                                   ››   Any      unwanted        and/or
                                                                                                         unpredictable interactions with
                                                                                                         other geological or ecological
                                                                                                         systems will be avoided through
     The Europe 2020 strategy aims to              inclusion, as well as cohesion and                    comprehensive monitoring and
     overcome the shortcomings of the              solidarity within and among Member                    remediation.
     current energy growth model in order          States8. The geothermal approach
     to achieve smart, sustainable and             aims to comply with Responsible                 Geothermal deployment will create
     inclusive growth.7                            Research and Innovation (RRI) that              wealth: local jobs and investments
                                                   has sustainability, inclusion and               will be at the service of citizens.
     Geothermal technologies will thus             public engagement within its key                Geothermal skills will be reinforced
     improve the quality of life, the              dimensions.                                     to provide a more stable European
     quality of the environment and social                                                         market and to expand exports of
                                                                                                   equipment and expertise. Local energy
                                                                                                   solutions with citizen participation
     7 - Indicators for promoting and monitoring   8 - Responsible Research and Innovation:        and attention for the socially weak
     Responsible Research and Innovation,          options for research and innovation policy in   will be designed. The technologies
     European Commission                           the EU, by Owen R., 2014
                                                                                                   for micro-supply will further expand

26           European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                                  VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL               27
1                         2                             3
FULL AND RESPONSIBLE                                                                                                         Prediction,
                                                                                                                             assessment and
                                                                                                                                                       Resource                   Heat and electricity
                                                                                                                                                       development                generation
DEPLOYMENT OF                                                                                                                access to the
                                                                                                                             resource                  Extraction of
                                                                                                                                                       heat from the
GEOTHERMAL                                                         Assessment and optimization of
                                                                   environmental, social and
                                                                                                                             A better
                                                                                                                                                       underground will
                                                                                                                                                       be maximized by
                                                                                                                                                                                  The net efficiency,
                                                                                                                                                                                  performance and
                                                                                                                                                       improved well
                                                                                                                             of complex and
                                                                   economic footprints                                       deep geological           designs, and safe          of production
                                                                                                                             processes will            and sustainable            systems will be
                                                                   ... will                                                                                                       optimized, extending
                                                                                                                             enhance the               flow enhancement;
                                                                                                                             predictability            lifetime of                the temperature
                                                        1) helpPrediction,
                                                                to establish a assessment         and access to the
                                                                                legislative framework
                                                                                                                             of physical               boreholes                  range of application;
                                                        that will sustain geothermal deployment, its
     We are forecasting a very ambitious                       resource
                                                        penetration   and profitability while guaranteeing                   and chemical              and system                 conversion of heat
     development of geothermal energy                                                                                                                  components will            to electricity and
                                                        that resources are properly managed;                                 underground
     utilization in Europe, both for                           A better understanding of complex and deep                                                                         to chill will be only
                                                        2) provide  low environmental     impact                             conditions; deep          be prolonged
     electricity and heat. However, in order                   geological  processes will   enhance the predictability                                                            constrained by
                                                        technologies;                                                        exploration               by monitoring,
     to make our Vision a solid reality in                     of physical and chemical underground conditions;                                                                   physical laws and
                                                                                                                             technologies              augmented
     the near future, we have to go beyond                     deep
                                                        3) define    exploration
                                                                  economic         technologies
                                                                              evaluation   criteria,will have high-
                                                                                                     including                                                                    the production will
                                                               resolution  imaging   capacity   and data modelling           will have high-           with in-depth
     the business-as-usual approach                     technical  and economic    risk assessment;                                                                               be totally responsive
                                                               will be fully integrated; there will be safe, rapid           resolution imaging        understanding
     and to promote breakthroughs in all                4) sustain partnerships between companies and                                                                             to the demand
                                                               and automated technologies for accessing the                  capacity and              of reservoir
     the technological and cross-cutting                consumers, by strengthening reciprocal trust                                                                              and sustainable;
     innovation themes, while pursuing                         underground                                                   data modelling            and thermal
                                                        through ethics and security .                                                                  loop processes;            hybrid, multi-source
     the EU long-term goal9 of reducing                                                                                      will be fully
                                                                                                                             integrated; there         geothermal energy          and multipurpose
     costs and increase performance
                                                                                                                             will be safe, rapid       storage will be            high-efficiency
     of geothermal technologies and
                                                                                                                             and automated             efficient, fully           systems embedding
                                                                   Data and knowledge sharing                                technologies for          integrated in the          geothermal
                                                                                                                                                                                  technology will
     A new generation of technologies                                                                                        accessing the             energy systems
                                                                   Information, communication and                            underground.              and responsive to          become the European
     and knowledge management for a
     full and responsible deployment of                            analytics capabilities will be enabled                                              demand.                    standard.
     geothermal potential is foreseen, and                         on a large scale; underground data
                                                                   will expand in number and type,
     challenges in the technological and
                                                        will be globally organized and made easily
     cross-cutting innovation themes will
                                                        accessible; terms of reference for reporting and
     be completed.
                                                        computing geothermal potential, production
                                                        and capacity will be harmonized; data sharing
                                                        will improve scalability and extrapolation of the                FULL AND RESPONSIBLE DEPLOYMENT OF
     9 - SET Plan, Declaration of intent on Strategic   information, improving the capacity to forecast
     Targets in the context of an Initiative for
     Global Leadership in Deep Geothermal Energy,       techno-economic parameters and influencing                       GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES
     European Commission 2016                           energy planning.

28            European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                                                      VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL         29
RESOURCE POTENTIAL                                      FIT FOR PURPOSE
                                            Geothermal is a widely available                    Geothermal has a large potential
                                           energy source, since underground                        of expansion in numerous
                                             heat is available everywhere                           applications and places

                                                                                                                                        Production from untapped
     Geothermal energy is available
                                                                                                                                       geothermal resources has the
       around the clock and has a
                                                                                                                                        potential to become a local
           predictable output
                                                                                                                                      economic development booster

       The geothermal environmental
                                                            KEY MESSAGES                                                                     COGENERATION &
                                                                                                                                         Geothermal can be combined
        footprint is much lower than                                                                                                      with other energy sources
       those of other energy sources                                                                                                     and technologies to optimise

                                                               OPTIMISATION                     COOL & APPEALING
                                                       Geothermal is a versatile energy,     Beside cooling the air of our
                                                         whose multiple-applications        houses, working spaces, malls,
             FLEXIBILITY                               are optimised by cascading uses     and airport geothermal is simply
                                                                                                                                   MARKET PENETRATION &
                                                        of heat at progressively lower     beautiful because it is essentially
           Geothermal operates                                  temperatures                           invisible                     SOCIAL DIMENSION
        continuously to meet the
                                                                                                                                    Geothermal is a domestic and
     minimum level of power demand
                                                                                                                                    green resource, secure, stable,
     and may adapt to meet variable
                                                                                                                                   clean, and contributes to energy
         levels of energy demand

30         European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                           VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL          31
     BASE LOAD                                          ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT                          HEAT PUMP                                        states that “[t]he Union shall have the
     The minimum amount of energy that a utility        It measures the effect on environment            A device that moves thermal energy in the        objective of strengthening the scientific
     or distribution company must generate for its      involved in the production of the energy under   opposite direction of spontaneous heat           and technological bases by achieving
     customers, or the amount of energy required to     consideration (or any other good or service in   transfer by absorbing heat from a cold           a European research area in which
     meet minimum demands based on reasonable           other contexts).                                 space and releasing it to a warmer one.          researchers,     scientific    knowledge
     expectations of customer requirements.                                                                                                               and     technology     circulate    freely,
                                                        EUROPEAN STRATEGIC ENERGY TECHNOLOGY             LEVELISED COST OF ENERGY (LCOE)                  and encouraging it to become more
     BINARY SYSTEM                                      PLAN (SET-PLAN)                                  The ratio between the cost of a generating       competitive, including in its industry,
     A type of geothermal plant that uses               European plan for accelerating the development   an asset during its whole lifetime and the       while promoting all the research activities
     geothermal fluids to heat a secondary fluid,       and deployment of low-carbon technologies. It    electricity produced. Representing the           deemed necessary”2.
     which is in turn used to generate electricity by   seeks to improve new technologies and bring      total costs, it can be used to compare
     mean of a turbine. It differs from Flash Steam     down costs by coordinating national research     different technologies that have unequal         RESPONSIBLE RESEARCH AND
     systems in that the water or steam from the        efforts and helping to finance projects. The     lifespans, project sites, capacities, capital,   INNOVATION (RRI)
     geothermal reservoir never comes in contact        SET-Plan promotes research and innovation        and operating costs and revenues.                According to this approach societal actors
     with the turbine/generator units.                  efforts across Europe by supporting the                                                           work together during the whole research
                                                        most impactful technologies in the EU’s          PROSUMERS                                        and innovation process in order to better
     CAPACITY FACTOR                                    transformation to a low-carbon energy system.    People who both consume and produce              align both the process and its outcomes,
     The ratio between the energy actually produced     It promotes cooperation amongst EU countries,    energy.                                          with the values, needs and expectations
     and the energy that would be produced at full      companies, research institutions, and the EU                                                      of European society3.
     capacity.                                          itself.                                          QUALITY OF LIFE
                                                                                                         A broader concept than economic                  SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
     CASCADE USES                                       EUROPEAN TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION               production and living standards, including       Meeting the needs of the present whilst
     A sequential operation of geothermal heat          PLATFORMS (ETIPS)                                the full range of factors that influence         ensuring future generations can meet
     by integrating different technologies that         An open platform created to support the          what people value in living, beyond the          their own needs. It has three pillars:
     use progressively lower temperatures.              implementation of the SET-Plan by bringing       purely material aspects.                         economic, environmental and social.
     The resulting poly-generation exploits the         together EU countries, industry, and                                                              To achieve sustainable development,
     available energy after each use, and optimises     researchers in key areas. These platforms        PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT                                policies in these three areas must work
     the generation benefiting in different uses of     promote the market uptake of key energy          It envisions impacts and reflect on the          together and support each other4.
     lower temperature requirements.                    technologies by pooling funding, skills, and     underlying assumptions, values, and
                                                        research facilities.                             purposes to better understand how R&I            TURBINE
     CONSUMERS                                                                                           shapes the future. This yields to valuable       A device that converts the kinetic energy
     Persons purchasing and consuming energy (or        FLASH STEAM SYSTEM                               insights and increase our capacity to act        into mechanical energy and, combined to
     any goods and services in other contexts).         A type of geothermal plant that uses             on what we know1.                                a generator, to electrical energy.
                                                        geothermal fluids in the vapor phase to drive
     DISTRICT HEATING                                   a turbine and produce electricity (see Binary    RE-INJECTION
     A system for distributing, via a network of        system).                                         Injection of geothermal fluids, cooled
     pipes, hot water generated in a centralised                                                         after heat extraction, in the underground,
     location for residential and commercial heating    GREENHOUSE GASES                                 typically close by the extraction area.
     requirements such as space heating and water       Any gaseous compound in the atmosphere
     heating.                                           that is capable of absorbing infrared            RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND
                                                        radiation, thereby trapping and holding          INNOVATION (R&D&I)
     DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING                       heat in the atmosphere.                          Promoting R&D&I is an important                  2 - Official Journal of the European Union
     An expansion of the district heating concept,                                                       European Union objective laid down               27/6/2014
     combining technologies for centralised   HYBRID SYSTEMS                                             in Article 179 of the Treaty, which              3 - “RRI. Europe’s ability to respond to societal
     generation and distribution of heating and
                                              Two or more modes of power generation                                                                       challenges”, EU Commission, 2012
     cooling.                                 combined    together,   usually  using                                                                      4 - EU trade policy and sustainable
32            European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep   Geothermal
                                              renewable technologies.                                    1 -           VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL
                                                                                                                                                          development                                         33
TERMS &                                                                                               REFERENCES
                                                                                                      Antics M., Bertani R., Sanner B. (2016). “Summary of     History Database of the Global Environment. http://
     CCHP                                              H&C                                            EGC 2016 Country Update Reports on Geothermal  
     Combined Cool, Heat and electrical                Heating and Cooling                            Energy in Europe”. Proc. European Geothermal             index.html
     Power                                                                                            Congress 2016.
                                                                                                                                                               GeoDH Project (2014). “Map tool, GeoDH Map”.
                                                       LCOE                                           EGEC (European Geothermal Energy Council) (2017).        Available at:
     DH                                                Levelised Cost of Energy                       “EGEC Geothermal Market Report 2016”. Available at:
                                                                                                                                                               GEOELEC Project (2013). “A prospective study on the
     District Heating                                                                                 geothermal-market-report-2016/
                                                                                                                                                               geothermal potential in the EU”. Available at: http://
                                                                                                      European Union (2011). “2020-2030-2050 Common            2.5-GEOELEC-prospective-study.pdf
     DHC                                               Operation and Maintenance                      Vision for the Renewable Heating& Cooling sector
     District Heating and Cooling                                                                                                                              IRENA webtool. “LCOE 2010-2016”. Available
                                                                                                      in Europe, RHC Platform”. ISBN 978-92-79-19056-
                                                       R&D&I                                          8 doi:10.2788/20474. Available at: http://www.
     EU                                                Research, Development and
                                                                                                      BROCHURE_140311_web.pdf                                  Lund, H., Werner, S., Wiltshire, R., Svendsen, S.,
     European Union                                    Innovation                                                                                              Thorsen, J.E., Hvelplund, F., and Vad Mathiesen,
                                                                                                      European Commission (by Owen R.) (2014).
                                                                                                                                                               B. (2014). “4th Generation District Heating (4GDH):
                                                                                                      “Responsible Research and Innovation: options for
     GEODH                                             RES                                                                                                     Integrating smart thermal grids into future
                                                                                                      research and innovation policy in the EU”. Available
                                                                                                                                                               sustainable energy systems.” Energy 68: 1-11.
     Geothermal District Heating                       Renewable Energy Source                        at:
                                                                                                      union/pdf/expert-groups/Responsible_Research_            Noordhoff Uitgevers B.V. (2012). “De Bosatlas van de
                                                                                                      and_Innovation.pdf                                       energie”.
     GHG                                               RRI
     GreenHouse Gases                                  Responsible Research and Innovation            European Commission (2015). “Indicators for              ORKUSTOFNUN (National Energy Authority) (by
                                                                                                      promoting and monitoring Responsible Research            Sveinbjörn Björnsson, Inga Dóra Guðmundsdóttir,
                                                                                                      and Innovation. Report from the Expert Group on          Jónas Ketilsson) (2010). Geothermal development
     GSHP                                                                                             Policy Indicators for Responsible Research and           and research in Iceland. ISBN: 978-9979-68-273-
     Ground Source Heat Pump                                                                          Innovation”. Available at:         8. Available at:
                                                                                                      research/swafs/pdf/pub_rri/rri_indicators_final_         GD_loka.pdf
                                                                                                                                                               REN21 (2017) “Renewables 2017 Global Status
                                                                                                      European Commission (2016). “SET Plan Declaration        Report”. ISBN 978-3-9818107-6-9. Available
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                                                                                                      Initiative for Global Leadership in Deep Geothermal      uploads/2017/06/17-8399_GSR_2017_Full_
                                                                                                      Energy”. Available at:       Report_0621_Opt.pdf
                                                                                                                                                               SHARES-EUROSTAT webtool. Available at: http://
                                                                                                      EUROSTAT database. ‘‘SHARES 2016’’.
                                                                                                      Available at:
                                                                                                      documents/38154/4956088/SHARES-2016-                     PHOTO CREDITS
                                                                                                      ab30-578246f1a89d                                        COVER: Andrei Cotrut, © ETIP-DG
                                                                                                                                                               PAGE 02: © Fabio Sartori, ENEL Green Power
                                                                                                      EUROSTAT database. “Energy balances, 2018
                                                                                                      edition”. Available at:    PAGE 07: © Fabio Sartori, ENEL Green Power
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                                                                                                      Industry”. Power Magazine, 10/01/2017
                                                                                                                                                               PAGE 30: iStockPhotos

34           European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal                                                                                    VISION FOR DEEP GEOTHERMAL                               35
The European Technology & Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal (ETIP-DG) is an open
     stakeholder group, endorsed by the European Commission under the Strategic Energy Technology
     Plan (SET-Plan), with the overarching objective to enable deep geothermal technology to proliferate
     and reach its full potential everywhere in Europe.
     The primary objective is overall cost reduction, including social, environmental, and technological
     The ETIP-DG brings together representatives from industry, academia, research centres, and
     sectoral associations, covering the entire deep geothermal energy exploration, production, and
     utilization value chain.
     For more information on its activities visit

     Vision for Deep Geothermal
     ISBN 9788879580359
     © 2018, European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal (ETIP-DG)

     To obtain this publication visit:


                    The sole responsibility of this publication lies with the author. The European Union is not
                    responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. Co-funded by
                    the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme [GA. No 773392 ]

36            European Technology and Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal
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