PROSPECTUS EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY EUROPEAN RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE CONSORTIUM
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INTRODUCTION Consumers of mainstream news will be all too well aware of the various threats to democracy that are ongoing in our society - as well as ideological, political, economic and environmental tensions - that are in need of urgent resolution. The provision of high quality data from the ESS is a critical element in responding to such emergent problems. By providing accurate data about the values, opinions, attitudes and beliefs of Europe’s citizens, it provides a bedrock of hard information which is both reliable and extensive. This is increasingly important at a time when unreliable data, 'fake news' and 'alternative facts' are readily available in any search engine. This prospectus sets out the contribution of the ESS. It is our hope that it provides politicians, legislators, policy makers, business leaders and ordinary citizens alike with a sense of how important these data can be, and that it will encourage those in a position to do so to ensure that all of Europe is covered in future waves of the ESS. Professor Michael Breen Chair, ESS ERIC General Assembly
European Social Survey ERIC 1 FOREWORD The European Social Survey (ESS) was The vision of the founders of the survey Access to high established against a background of poor have clearly been realised. As the availability of academically rigorous cross- ESS matures into a formal research quality comparative data national data, in particular in regard to infrastructure with its own legal status, will help us to improve attitudes, beliefs and values. The founders we invite all countries within geographic our understanding of of the ESS, Roger Jowell and Max Kaase, Europe to join the existing members and had the vision and determination not only ensure pan-European coverage. Together the profound social, to develop the scientific blueprint for the we can provide a platform to ensure that political, economic and study but also to persuade national funders, the views of the people within Europe are the European Science Foundation and the heard in relation to these grand challenges. demographic changes European Commission that a knowledge gap Academics, policy makers and those in civil occurring in Europe as existed and to agree therefore to fund and society then have robust data to inform both well as the relationship nurture a rigorous, high quality, comparative discussion and decisions. This prospectus general social survey for the wider social provides details about the infrastructure between Europe and the science community. as well as information on how to apply for rest of the world. membership. As Europe faces grand societal challenges Máire Geoghegan-Quinn including immigration, changing family and Dr. Rory Fitzgerald European Commissioner for Research, relationship arrangements, climate change, ESS ERIC Director, February 2017 Innovation and Science (2010-14) welfare reform, declining political trust, speaking at the launch of ESS ERIC, increased populism and persistent health London, UK, 31 January 2014 inequalities (amongst others), the European Social Survey is providing robust data that illuminates changes and stability in the social fabric of Europe. With over 100,000 registered users, and over 3,000 publications already identified, along with clear evidence of impact ‘beyond academia’, the ESS has already established itself as a critical pillar of the European Research Area. In addition, its methods and methodological research programme ensure that the infrastructure remains ‘state of the art’ and helps to position Europe as a global leader in terms of comparative social science.
2 www.europeansocialsurvey.org EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The ESS has asked questions designed in collaboration with external academics on citizen involvement, health and care, The European Social Survey (ESS) is a pan-European economic morality, family, work and research infrastructure providing freely accessible data wellbeing, timing of life, personal and social wellbeing, welfare attitudes, ageism, for academics, policymakers, civil society and the wider trust in the police and courts, democracy, public. It was awarded European Research Infrastructure immigration, social inequalities in health Consortium (ERIC) status in 2013. and attitudes to climate change and energy security. Some of these topics have been repeated at a later stage. The work of the ESS ERIC includes This general social survey measures attitudes organising a survey every two years on a wide range of subjects. The ESS was By measuring the results over time, the data measuring social attitudes and behaviour; primarily designed as a time series to monitor reveals intriguing contrasts and similarities utilising and developing the highest standards changing attitudes and values across Europe. between European countries. This rigorous in cross-national research; providing The questionnaire therefore consists of a comparative data collection is then used direct and virtual training programmes; main core section that includes a number of by the academic community, their research and supporting free access to its growing questions that have been answered every often facilitating pan-European and member data and documentation archive (www. two years since 2002. Each question has a state political, social and economic debate. europeansocialsurvey.org). unique identifier to enable people to easily This allows scholars, policymakers, think compare data over time. tanks and other interested parties to Participating Members fund a Core measure and interpret European people’s Scientific Team who design and provide The development of this ‘core’ part views cross-nationally and over time. quality assurance for the survey as well of the ESS questionnaire followed as distributing and curating the data. recommendations made by academic Seven rounds of survey data have now been Members fund their own national teams experts who were consulted by the Core compiled, fieldwork for the eighth began in to implement the survey in their country, Scientific Team during the early planning September 2016 and the ninth round will be engaging commercial survey agencies, stages of the ESS. running officially from 1 June 2017 to 31 National Statistical Institutes and non-profit May 2019. research institutes to conduct interviews in Additionally, in each round of the ESS, multi- peoples’ homes. national teams of researchers based in ESS European countries are welcome to join the countries are selected to contribute to design ESS, even if they have previously not taken The ESS has been mapping attitudes and part of the questionnaire. Two ‘rotating’ part or have been absent for some time. behavioural changes in Europe’s social, modules are selected following a Call for The inclusion of new Members enables ESS political and moral climate for over 15 years. Proposals placed in the Official Journal of the ERIC to increase the body of comparative Launched in 2001, the first round of surveys European Union (OJEU). data available and leads to lower costs of was conducted in 2002 and gathered results participation for all the nations involved. from 22 countries. Since its inception, 36 As a result, the ESS always includes Support can be provided by the central ESS countries have taken part in the ESS. questions measuring attitudes towards team to help prepare countries participating the media, health and wellbeing, trust in for the first time. By adopting rigorous approaches to institutions and governments, education probability sampling, question-testing, event- and occupation, social capital and social Once a country has become a Member recording, translation and response rate trust, household circumstances, citizen of the ESS, they must appoint a National enhancement, the ESS has become THE involvement and democracy, social exclusion, Representative who is given full authority to authoritative source of information about political values and engagement, socio- vote on all issues considered at the General changing social values in Europe. demographics, immigration and crime. Assembly. Each Member must also appoint a National Coordinator to manage the activities of the ESS ERIC within their own country. They have overall responsibility for ensuring
European Social Survey ERIC 3 ROTATING MODULES ARE SELECTED FOR EACH ROUND 2 ROUND 2 2004/05 •W ork, family and wellbeing 1 •H ealth care seeking •E conomic morality 3 ROUND 1 2002/03 • Citizenship ROUND 3 • Immigration 2006/07 • Personal and social wellbeing 4 • The timing of life ROUND 4 2008/09 5 • Attitudes to age and ageism •W elfare ROUND 5 9 2010/11 •W ork, family and 6 wellbeing in recession ROUND 9 •T rust in justice 2018/19 8 • Justice and fairness ROUND 6 • The timing of life 2012/13 • Personal and social wellbeing CORE TOPICS • Understanding and evaluations ROUND 8 IN ALL ROUNDS of democracy 2016/17 •C rime 7 • Climate change • Democracy and politics and energy • Human values • Welfare • I mmigration • Media use ROUND 7 • National and ethnic identity 2014/15 • Perceived discrimination • Health inequalities •R eligion • Immigration • Social exclusion • Social trust/trust in institutions • Subjective wellbeing •S ocio-demographics
4 www.europeansocialsurvey.org Executive Summary (continued) the successful undertaking of fieldwork for the survey. This is often outsourced to a supplier, but the National Coordinator is ultimately responsible for the national implementation of the ESS interviews. The ESS annotates its source questionnaire to guide translators in using national instruments so that the survey has the same meaning in every language. The questionnaire is translated into any language spoken as a first language by more than five per cent of each country’s population. In line with the central Specification for Participating countries made available for each round, each National Coordinating Team identifies a suitable sampling frame and produces a sample design to be implemented in their country. that current and future data analysts can Descartes Prize for Excellence in Scientific be aware of the national context in which Collaborative Research, awarded to the The ESS provides comprehensive materials questions were being answered. ESS in 2005. for interviewer training and briefing sessions. It is vital that the interviewing is as consistent Over 350,000 face-to-face interviews have Internal analysis of Google Scholar from as possible across all European countries been completed since 2002. There are over 2003-15 found that 3,104 English academic taking into account necessary national 100,000 registered users of the data, who journal articles, books, chapters, conference adaptation. Briefing sessions explain the can analyse it online using a web-based papers or working papers referenced the ESS project: the questionnaire and rules. programme called Nesstar or download it ESS. All interviewers must be personally briefed for detailed analysis in programmes such once assigned to undertake ESS fieldwork. as SPSS, R or STATA. Users are also aided through an online training programme The survey fieldwork is gathered over a called ESS EduNet. minimum of one month within a designated maximum period of four months, and all The data is available to download completely When considering countries aim to achieve an effective sample free of charge from anywhere in the world. new policies, governments size of at least 1,500 respondents, though When downloading customisable datasets, this number is reduced for countries with users are offered a number of options: in the past were often smaller populations. Once the fieldwork is they can download information from more ignorant of their citizens’ completed, National Coordinating Teams than one survey round and for numerous preferences and deposit their data in the ESS data archive. countries. Data files can be downloaded in a number of formats. The ESS data wizard needs. Now European The ESS continues to build a huge amount allows users to choose which variables to governments have a of freely accessible data measuring the include in their own bespoke dataset. behaviour and social attitudes of Europeans. source for counteracting In addition the national teams monitor and A Multilevel Download makes it possible to that ignorance. record political claims contained in media add information about countries and several reports during the time when fieldwork is regional levels to the respondents in the Professor Sir Roger Jowell CBE being undertaken. This helps to ensure ESS data. This was partly funded by the Co-founder of the ESS
European Social Survey ERIC 5 CONTENTS 1. Introduction and Foreword 1 Findings from the European 2. Executive Summary 2 Social Survey 8. Rotating modules addressing key What Is The European Social Survey? social themes 24 3. The European Social Survey ERIC 6 Democracy and Citizen Involvement 24 The History 6 Family, Work and Wellbeing 25 Structure and Governance 8 Attitudes towards Immigration 26 Operational Activities 8 Social Inequalities in Health 27 4. Joining the European Social Survey Welfare Attitudes in a Changing ERIC and financial data 10 Europe 28 Country Affiliation to the ESS ERIC 10 Public Attitudes to Climate Costs for Fieldwork, National Change and Energy 29 Coordination and Country 9. Policy making from a cross-national Contribution 11 european perspective 30 Procedures to Apply for Participation 12 10. ESS Publications 32 Auditing of ESS ERIC Accounts 13 ESS Topline Findings 32 5. A biennial cross-national social Findings Booklets 32 survey of high quality 14 ESS on Wellbeing 33 Methodological Rigour 14 11. References 33 Questionnaire Design 16 Contact Information 33 Test Questionnaire 16 Translation 16 Sampling 18 Interviewer Training 18 Media Claims Recording 18 Data Preparation and Deposits 19 6. A rich tool for academic studies, education and training 20 ESS EduNet for eLearning 20 Training Courses 20 Registered User Statistics 20 ESS Bibliography 21 7. Data and documentation with unrestricted access 22 Datasets Available without Additional Costs 22 Cumulative and Harmonized Data 22 Multilevel and Contextual Data 23
6 www.europeansocialsurvey.org WHAT IS THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY?
European Social Survey ERIC 7 THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY ERIC The survey has measured the attitudes, Following an application to the European THE HISTORY beliefs and behaviour patterns of diverse Commission submitted by the UK on behalf populations in more than thirty nations. The of a total of 15 countries, the ESS was The European Social Survey main aims of the ESS are: awarded European Research Infrastructure (ESS) is an academically driven Consortium (ERIC) status in November cross-national general social • To chart stability and change in the social 2013. An ERIC is a fully recognized legal survey that has been conducted structure, conditions and attitudes in entity under European Union law. Europe and to interpret how Europe’s across Europe since 2002. social, political and moral fabric is The European Social Survey ERIC was Every two years, face-to-face changing; recognised as an ESFRI Landmark by the interviews are conducted in • To achieve and spread higher standards European Strategy Forum on Research people’s homes with newly of rigour in cross-national research in the Infrastructures (ESFRI) in March 2016. The selected, cross-sectional social sciences, including for example, announcement was a significant achievement questionnaire design and pre-testing, for the ESS ERIC reflecting the maturity of samples of all those aged 15+ sampling, data collection, reduction of bias the infrastructure. living within a country. and the reliability of questions; • To introduce soundly-based indicators ESFRI is a strategic instrument of the The initiative to develop the ESS started in of national progress, based on citizens’ European Union to develop the scientific 1995 within the Standing Committee for the perceptions and judgements of key integration of Europe and to strengthen Social Sciences of the European Science aspects of their societies; its international outreach. The ESS was Foundation (ESF). Committees under the • To undertake and facilitate the training previously included on the ESFRI Roadmap leadership of Professor Sir Roger Jowell of European social researchers in in 2006, 2008 and 2010. The Roadmap of the United Kingdom and Professor Max comparative quantitative measurement and identifies research infrastructures of pan- Kaase of Germany were set up to produce analysis; European interest, corresponding to the an ESS Blueprint. • To improve the visibility and outreach of long-term needs of European research data on social change among academics, communities, covering all scientific areas. With the assistance of Dr. John Smith of policy makers and the wider public. the ESF, this provided the basis for an ESF ESFRI Landmarks are research decision to start developing the ESS Project. In 2005, the ESS was the first social science infrastructures that were implemented or Sir Roger Jowell was asked to assemble project to win the annual Descartes Prize began implementation under previous stages a core team and apply to the European for Excellence in Scientific Collaborative of the ESFRI Roadmap. Only high quality Commission for central funding to be matched Research. Awarded by the European and established research infrastructures are by the participating countries. This application Union, the Descartes Prize was awarded given ESFRI Landmark status - which helps was successful and the first round of the ESS to a transnational team that had achieved ensure they continue to be recognised by started in 2001 with fieldwork beginning in exceptional scientific or technological results national governments. 2002. through collaborative research. The ESS aims to improve the visibility and outreach of data on social change among academics, policy makers and the wider public.
8 www.europeansocialsurvey.org STRUCTURE AND OPERATIONAL GOVERNANCE ACTIVITIES The Statutes of the ESS Deputy Directors are in post in four As stated in the ESS ERIC statutes, ERIC detail its governance institutions: each country must appoint a National • Deputy Director HQ: Dr. Eric Harrison, Representative who will sit on the and funding arrangements. ESS ERIC HQ, City, University of London General Assembly. The chosen National ESS ERIC is governed by • Deputy Director Scientific: Dr. Angelika Representative will be given full authority to a General Assembly which Scheuer, GESIS, Mannheim, Germany vote on all issues raised during the General appoints the Director. Members • Deputy Director Methodological: Dr. Ineke Assembly. of the General Assembly are Stoop, SCP, Hague, Netherlands • Deputy Director Strategic: Bjørn Each country must also appoint a National represented by a National Henrichsen, NSD, Bergen, Norway Coordinator. The key roles of a National Representative. Coordinator are to coordinate the activities of The General Assembly appoints an the ESS ERIC at a national level and assure The current Chair of the General Assembly independent Chair (not from the Members) it is compliant with the specifications issued is Professor Michael Breen from Mary who serves for a term of four years by the Director, when necessary. They also Immaculate College, University of Limerick, (renewable). A Deputy Chair is appointed for contribute to discussion about the ESS Ireland. The Deputy Chair is Professor Algis a four year period from amongst the National methodology and questionnaire design. Krupavičius from Vytautas Magnus University Representatives who attend the General in Kaunas, Lithuania. Assembly. The National Coordinator has overall responsibility for undertaking the fieldwork The ESS ERIC Headquarters (HQ) is based The General Assembly meets at least twice for the survey. This can be outsourced to within the School of Arts and Social Science, a year and has three standing committees: a another supplier, but overall responsibility for at City, University of London. It is the first Scientific Advisory Board (SAB), a Methods the fieldwork rests with them. ERIC to be hosted in the UK. Advisory Board (MAB) and a Finance Committee (FINCOM). The Director, Dr. Rory Fitzgerald and his team at ESS ERIC HQ, City, University of The Host Institution has been City, University London, are supported in the design and of London following a brief initial period at implementation of the ESS ERIC Work NatCen Social Research in the UK, and this Programme by six other institutions that arrangement is periodically reviewed by the collectively comprise the Core Scientific General Assembly every four years. Team (CST). These are: The ESS ERIC Director also convenes a • GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social National Coordinators’ (NC) Forum, attended Sciences (Germany) by National Coordinators appointed by ESS • Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) ERIC Members and Observers along with the • NSD – Norwegian Centre for Research Core Scientific Team. Data (Norway) • SCP – The Netherlands Institute for The ESS ERIC subscribes to the Declaration Social Research (Netherlands) on Ethics of the International Statistical • Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Spain) Institute (ISI), to which the Survey Agencies • University of Ljubljana (Slovenia) that conduct the data collection will be asked to adhere, in addition to any co-existing national obligations that they may have.
European Social Survey ERIC 9 ESS PARTICIPATING COUNTRIES Rounds 1-8 8 ROUNDS 7 ROUNDS 5 ROUNDS 3 ROUNDS 1 Belgium 16 Austria 22 Lithuania 29 Iceland 2 Finland 17 Czech Republic 23 Russia 30 Latvia 3 France 18 Denmark 24 Ukraine 2 ROUNDS 4 Germany 19 Estonia 4 ROUNDS 31 Croatia 5 Hungary 6 ROUNDS 25 Bulgaria 32 Luxembourg 6 Ireland 20 Israel 26 Cyprus 33 Romania 7 Netherlands 21 Slovakia 27 Greece 34 Turkey 8 Norway 28 Italy 9 Poland 1 ROUND 10 Portugal 35 Albania 11 Slovenia 36 Kosovo 12 Spain 13 Sweden 29 14 Switzerland 15 UK 2 13 8 19 23 30 18 22 23 6 15 7 9 4 1 32 17 24 21 16 3 14 5 11 31 33 28 36 25 10 12 35 27 34 26 20
10 www.europeansocialsurvey.org JOINING THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY ERIC AND FINANCIAL DATA Members have full voting rights on the The benefits of joining the ESS ERIC COUNTRY AFFILIATION General Assembly and are legally responsible are multiple. Each country receives the TO THE ESS ERIC for the ERIC. They have a long-term full support of the Core Scientific Team, commitment to ESS ERIC but they may operating from seven countries across Countries affiliated to the withdraw from membership by giving two Europe, in preparing for fieldwork as well as ESS ERIC are defined in years notice to the General Assembly, which providing assistance during data collection. In must be submitted before the end of a addition, the CST helps to check the quality three categories: Members, biennial survey cycle period. of the data as well as carefully compiling a Observers and Guests. single international data file and curating the Observers are admitted to ESS ERIC for a data for future use. period of four years, but have no voting rights and are not legally responsible for ESS ERIC. Scientists across Europe participate in the To remain as an Observer, they must apply to SAB, MAB and in the NC Forum, all giving the General Assembly for an extension. active input in the ongoing development of the infrastructure, leading to a high quality Guests are admitted to the ESS ERIC design as described in chapter 5 and for a two-year (one round) period. As with accessible data and findings as described Observers, they have no voting rights and are elsewhere in this Prospectus. not legally responsible for the ERIC.
European Social Survey ERIC 11 COSTS FOR COUNTRY 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020 2020-2021 FIELDWORK, NATIONAL (€) (€) (€) (€) COORDINATION United Kingdom 764.909 764.909 764.909 764.909 AND COUNTRY Austria 61.447 62.204 62.968 63.741 CONTRIBUTION Belgium 69.831 70.749 71.675 72.611 Czech Republic 41.033 41.399 41.770 42.144 All Members, Observers and Estonia 21.855 21.855 21.855 21.855 Guests are required to conduct Finland 46.509 46.981 47.457 47.938 the biennial ESS surveys at their France 278.671 283.581 288.541 293.551 own expense, according to the Germany 371.913 378.607 385.368 392.197 ESS Specifications distributed Hungary 21.855 21.855 21.855 21.855 for each round. The National Ireland 46.664 47.138 47.617 48.101 Coordinator is a key informant Italy 216.120 219.834 223.586 227.376 for these costs. In their absence Lithuania 21.855 21.855 21.855 21.855 potential funders must consult Netherlands 101.340 102.859 104.395 105.945 relevant scientists to estimate the costs. Norway 66.671 67.528 68.393 69.268 Poland 71.089 72.031 72.981 73.942 All participating countries are also required to Portugal 42.712 43.110 43.513 43.920 contribute to the central coordination costs Slovenia 21.855 21.855 21.855 21.855 of the ESS ERIC. This contribution is made Sweden 74.328 75.332 76.345 77.369 up of a minimum contribution for all countries and – for wealthier countries – an additional Switzerland 87.386 88.639 89.905 91.183 amount, calculated relative to the GDP Guests 110.365 111.469 112.584 113.710 of each country. Moreover, a substantial Total 2.538.405 2.563.789 2.589.427 2.615.321 financial additional contribution is made by the host country, the United Kingdom. The central budget for the ESS Work Guest countries have to contribute as though Funds are also used for promoting the Programme during Round 9 will be they are a Member and therefore there is no use of the data as well as ensuring the €2,538,405 for the 2017-2018 financial financial benefit in being a Guest country. ESS remains at the forefront of year and €2,563,789 in 2018-2019. The aggregate income of Guest countries methodological developments. contributes to the central budget. Guest The table below presents the country status allows countries to join one round and contributions for Member and Observer benefit from the experience, ideally leading to countries participating in the ninth (2017- future membership. 2019) and tenth (2019-2021) rounds.
12 www.europeansocialsurvey.org PROCEDURES TO APPLY FOR PARTICIPATION To apply to participate in the ESS ERIC, applications for membership should be in writing to the Chair of the General Assembly, copied to the Director. In the letter, potential new members should explain how they intend to contribute to the objectives and activities described in Article 2, and how they will fulfil the obligations required to take part. Applicants must explain how they will fulfil the requirement to undertake the survey in their country at their own expense and to the specifications set out by the Director and agreed by the General Assembly. A template can be provided from the office of the Director. Once a letter from an applicant is received, the General Assembly will enact a simple majority vote to decide whether the new country can be included. Any application must be approved by the country’s relevant Government ministry, though private enterprises can sometimes fund participation for Guest status countries. The procedure to apply for participation with Guest status is similar and described in a document which is available on request.
European Social Survey ERIC 13 AUDITING OF ESS ERIC Income and expenditure account for the year ended 31 May 2015 ACCOUNTS 1 June 2014 1 June 2014 The accounts of ESS ERIC to 31 May to 31 May are audited professionally 2015 2015 and independently. € € Restated* INCOME 2,714,720 1,171,275 Direct Costs (2,696,973) (1,161,917) In our opinion, the GROSS SURPLUS 17,1747 9,358 financial statements Administrative expenses (17,747) (9,358) present fairly, in all RESULT FOR THE - - FINANCIAL YEAR material respects, the BALANCE SHEET AS AT 31 MAY 2015 financial position of the Consortium as at 31 May 2015 2014 2015, and its financial € € € € performance for the year Restated* then ended in accordance CURRENT ASSETS with the Financial Debtors 22,581 619,091 Cash at bank 3,024,895 1,233,288 Reporting Standard for Smaller Entities 3,047,476 1,852,379 (effective April 2015). CREDITORS: amounts falling due within one year (3,047,476) (1,852,379) NET CURRENT ASSETS - - Audit Findings Report Grant Thornton UK LLP, NET ASSETS - - 21 December 2015 RESERVES Accumulated result - - Income and expenditure - - account TOTAL RESERVES - -
14 www.europeansocialsurvey.org A BIENNIAL CROSS-NATIONAL SOCIAL SURVEY OF HIGH QUALITY METHODOLOGICAL Call for question module RIGOUR design teams Source By sharing the central costs questionnaire Translation of coordinating the ESS development and covering only their own national costs, each ESS ERIC Data participant gets access to high collection Survey quality comparative data that specifications Sample design helps to provide context to their Monitoring own national data. national contexts The high quality methodology and data collection makes the ESS more expensive Data and Data quality Data processing than less rigorous surveys. There are documentation assessment and archiving a number of reasons that justify this availability investment: 1. In order to make comparisons between 4. Alternatives to survey data outlined in 3. undermine comparability between countries countries it is necessary to design and are rarely available to the same extent and across time. implement a survey in an equivalent or format cross-nationally hindering their manner. Otherwise differences between utility for comparative work. There are also Developed by leading European subject countries may reflect methodological few sources of alternative data that cover specialists, the questionnaire combines rather than real substantive differences. the attitudinal focus of the ESS. continuity with change through a consistent core module and a series of rotating modules 2. A s less scientific but cheaper methods The ESS therefore utilises and develops best - selected via a Europe-wide competition. are frequently used by social scientists practice and scientifically driven methods it is necessary to have high quality which are required to produce the high Core module: benchmark data. The ESS plays that quality outputs on which social scientists rely. The ESS was primarily designed as a time role for social scientists acting as a gold series that could monitor changing attitudes standard data source. The ESS is not Questionnaires at each round of the survey and values across Europe. For this reason an opinion poll conducted using non- cover a range of topics that tap into key its questionnaire comprises one core module scientific methods over a short time issues facing contemporary Europe. The containing items measuring a range of topics period and should not be compared to questionnaire takes an average of one hour of enduring interest to the social sciences them in terms of costs or methods. to administer in British English but longer as well as the most comprehensive set of in some other countries. From Round 9 socio-structural ('background') variables of 3. Alternatives to survey data such as all countries are required to administer the any cross-national general social survey. administrative, transactional and social questionnaire using Computer Assisted The exact number of items can change from media data cannot be tailored to the Personal Interviewing. Alternative data round to round but each question has a theoretical research questions, limiting the collection modes are not permitted since unique variable name to assist users working academic rigour of any analysis. mixing data collection modes can seriously with data over time.
European Social Survey ERIC 15 Rotating modules: The new Round 9 In each round of the ESS, multi-national module will look at teams of researchers are selected to contribute to the design of two rotating justice and fairness in modules for the questionnaire. Rotating the context of modules are selected following a Call for Proposals placed in the Official Journal of respondents’ income the European Union (OJEU) and circulated to help establish how widely. Applicants may apply for 'new' Europe copes with modules and, since 2010, for 'repeat' modules as well. Design and pre-testing of growing inequality. the modules is intensive and takes place over a 19 month period. Two modules have been selected for ESS Round 9 (2018). ‘The timing of life’ is a repeat module exploring perceptions of the life course and attitudes towards key moments within that. It incorporates a split ballot design that allows analysis of differences in outlook along lines of gender. It was fielded in Round 3 (2006) and a successful application to repeat the module was led by Principal Applicant, Professor Francesco Billari, Bocconi University, Milan, Italy. ‘Justice and fairness in Europe’ responds to the substantial growth of inequality in recent decades by examining multiple dimensions of justice, making distinctions between for instance: distributive and procedural justice; reflexive and non-reflexive evaluations of justice; and the scope and timing of justice. The new module will look at justice and fairness in the context of respondents’ income to help establish how Europe copes with growing inequality. It will be included for the first time following an application led by Professor Stefan Liebig of the Department of Sociology at Bielefeld University in Germany. Rotating modules are now subject to expert review, input from national teams, cognitive interviewing in multiple countries, stages of quantitative pre-testing and advance translation.
16 www.europeansocialsurvey.org • The ESS source questionnaire is designed TEST QUESTIONNAIRE in British English taking into account how it will be translated. Each national The ESS includes a set of experiments team will translate it into one or more in every round to evaluate the reliability target languages. and validity of ESS questions. These Multi • The ESS follows TRAPD methodology Trait Multi Method experiments have also - Translation, Review, Adjudication, been used to populate a Survey Quality Pretesting and Documentation. Predictor (SQP) database which helps • All National teams are provided with questionnaire designers to predict the detailed Translation Guidelines and a reliability and validity of draft questionnaire Translation Quality Checklist which outlines items prior to fielding them. the procedures to be followed • Following translation, a selection of items are subject to two innovative additional TRANSLATION steps - verification and survey quality predictor (SQP) coding In cross-national research • All translated questionnaires must be in which the data collection pre-tested following the completion of is administered in various verification and SQP coding languages, it is vital that The ESS Translation process is overseen translation is undertaken to by an ESS Translation team, assisted by a the highest possible quality. Translation Expert Panel (TEP). The Panel's role is to advise the ESS on translation- Words and phrases such as ‘democracy’, related matters. These relate both to the ‘social life’ or ‘unification’ can mean different general ESS translation strategies and to things to different people at different times specific issues where the ESS Translation in different countries. The ESS annotates Team and/or the ESS Core Scientific Team its source questionnaire in an attempt to seek external expertise. The Panel holds ensure that a translation conveying the same meetings, normally once every ESS round, meaning can be used in all countries. and provides expert input in-between when applicable. The ESS uses a team approach to translation involving several stages of review, adjudication, pre-testing and documentation. To ensure that the survey is fully representative of any given country, the questionnaire is translated into each language spoken as a first language by more than five per cent of each country’s population. The ESS strives to achieve a principle of equivalence with regard to its translations. Translation procedures of the ESS are guided by the requirements outlined in the Specification for Participating countries and the following key principals:
European Social Survey ERIC 17 The ESS uses a team approach to translation involving several stages of review, adjudication, pre-testing and documentation.
18 www.europeansocialsurvey.org SAMPLING The European Social Survey makes its data The objective of the ESS sampling strategy freely available to all for is the design and implementation of workable and equivalent sampling plans in all non-commercial use. participating countries. Sampling in the ESS is guided by the requirements outlined in the Specification for Participating countries and the following key principles: • Samples must be representative of all persons aged 15 and over (no upper age limit) resident within private households in each country, regardless of their nationality, citizenship or language • Individuals are selected by strict random probability methods at every stage • Sampling frames of individuals, households and addresses may be used • All countries must aim for a minimum 'effective achieved sample size' of 1,500, or 800 in countries with ESS populations of less than 2 million after discounting for design effects • Quota sampling is not permitted at any stage • Substitution of non-responding households or individuals (whether 'refusals', 'non- contacts' or 'ineligibles') is not permitted at any stage INTERVIEWER TRAINING MEDIA CLAIMS RECORDING ESS interviewers must be trained (task Each National Coordinating team is specific) and briefed (project specific). The Events can profoundly affect attitudes and responsible for identifying (or generating) Core Scientific Team (CST) provides a series perceptions in the short and long term. A a suitable sampling frame and producing a of pre-structured slides and related materials single act of terrorism, for instance, can sample design suitable for implementation to be used as the basis for briefing sessions. change the context of people’s responses to in their country. They are supported in this a range of issues that may affect answers task by a member of the ESS Sampling and Briefing is different from training in that it is from different countries. Weighting Expert Panel who is assigned to project specific, i.e., it describes the ESS assist them. project, the ESS questionnaire, and ESS ESS National Coordinators monitor and rules. All interviewers must be personally record political claims reflected in key media briefed by the NC or Survey Agency upon reports in each country during the time when being hired for a survey round and before fieldwork is being undertaken. This helps to carrying out their assignment. Their briefing ensure that current and future data analysts must cover in detail how to code observation can be aware of the national context in which data, how to follow contact procedures and questions were being answered. This is complete the contact forms, and how to especially important should national events follow respondent selection procedures (if at the time have a temporary effect on the applicable). answers provided.
European Social Survey ERIC 19 DATA PREPARATION AND DEPOSITS A unique quantitative source of data about stable as well as changing European attitudes, the European Social Survey makes its data freely available to all for non-commercial use. Access to the ESS datasets, each covering over 20 countries and including more than 350,000 face-to-face interviews across Europe, is available via the ESS data website. Highly user-friendly, it offers data users the options of conducting simple analyses online, and of downloading all or parts of the dataset for more detailed or complex analysis. The ESS survey fieldwork period will last at least one month within a four-month period, usually between September and December in the calendar year. It is the responsibility of the National Coordinating Team to undertake fieldwork, and deposit their data in the ESS data archive once the fieldwork has been completed. There are no restrictions on access, nor any privileged arrangements for certain users. So scholars, journalists, researchers, the general public and those most intimately involved in running the project all have equal and simultaneous access to each round’s findings. In addition, they have access to a comprehensive technical report and supporting data that describe and explain all aspects of the project. However commercial use of the data is not generally allowed.
20 www.europeansocialsurvey.org A RICH TOOL FOR ACADEMIC STUDIES, EDUCATION AND TRAINING In this data driven age, equipping the next generation in data literacy is more critical than ever before. ESS data is therefore an important resource for educating the social scientists of the REGISTERED USER future. By using data from the ESS, junior social scientists can be equipped with the analytical STATISTICS and communication skills that are vital to careers in countless industries. Repeat cross-sectional surveys such as the ESS provide the policy makers of tomorrow with the data required to The ESS ERIC is a major develop the skills needed to better understand their society for the benefit of everyone. European facility offering In countries without developed data infrastructures, the ESS provides a nationally meaningful yet access to an ever increasing comparative data source that attracts thousands of users from across Europe. Whilst some go on body of data on Europeans’ to be social scientists many others take those data skills into other fields and careers. The ESS social attitudes and behaviours. provides a tool for teaching data skills to help equip the next generation for the data driven age. ESS ERIC documents the usage of ESS data from the launch of ESS Round 1 in ESS EDUNET FOR The tool includes animated videos that 2002 to date. Two groups of users are E-LEARNING interactively answer frequently asked measured: questions. A web-based training tutorial, • "Registered users" – registered at the ESS EduNet, has been made TRAINING COURSES ESS web site and thereby eligible for using ESS data available to help guide users to • "ESS data downloaders" – registered exploit the data beyond simple The ESS training courses focus users who have downloaded ESS data descriptive statistics. on key aspects of the survey at least once lifecycle from a comparative, The e-learning tool has been specifically cross-national perspective. There are 104,729 registered ESS data developed for use in higher education. It users and ESS data has been downloaded The specific aim is to equip provides hands-on examples and exercises on 72,920 occasions (March 2017). designed to guide users through the researchers with the skills and research process, from a theoretical problem knowledge they need to improve Registered users and ESS data downloaders to the interpretation of the statistical results. the rigour and equivalence of have been broken down by country, user cross-national survey research type (faculty members, students etc.) and EduNet was created to implement a data type (ESS round, cumulative data and social science laboratory where theoretical in the European context. multilevel data). Further information can be questions can be explored using high quality found on the ESS ERIC website. empirical data. Training sessions are offered in person or online, and relate to survey questionnaire Using or downloading the data led to the There are several topics available, covering design, translation, collecting responses, publication of 3,140 academic journal measurement errors; multilevel models; methodology and weighting. They are taught articles, books, chapters, conference immigration; weighting the ESS; wellbeing; by experts in the field of social sciences, papers or working papers in English family, gender and work; regression; human face to face or via the ESS website. from 2003 to 2015. This includes values; social and political trust and latent Currently ESS ERIC is providing courses 1,439 journal articles, 618 conference variable modelling. The accompanying data in collaboration with other social science papers, 493 books and chapters and a are extracts from the ESS available for online infrastructures through the H2020 SERISS further 415 working papers. Of the analysis or download. These extracts are grant (see www.seriss.eu). 3,140 publications, 2,615 were substantive especially prepared for the topics. and 525 were methodological.
European Social Survey ERIC 21 FIG. 1 Registered ESS Users since January 2005 Registered users ESS BIBLIOGRAPHY 120000 The ESS Bibliography is available online, and contains information about many 100000 of the publications based on the cross- national European Social Survey. This 80000 includes analysis of ESS data, ESS methodology research and descriptions, and 60000 documentation of the ESS. For academic texts listed, the Bibliography 40000 provides full publication details including the title, year of publication, author(s) and 20000 publisher. The Bibliography allows users to find out if the author(s) used ESS data in 0 other publications or search for the book online. Jan-05 May-05 Sep-05 Jan-06 May-06 Sep-06 Jan-07 May-07 Sep-07 Jan-08 May-08 Sep-08 Jan-09 May-09 Sep-09 Jan-10 May-10 Sep-10 Jan-11 May-11 Sep-11 Jan-12 May-12 Sep-12 Jan-13 May-13 Sep-13 Jan-14 May-14 Sep-14 Jan-15 May-15 Sep-15 Jan-16 May-16 Sep-16 Jan-17 The overall number of ESS based academic publications continues to grow, due to ESS questionnaire content, high quality standards, FIG. 2 Data downloaders per year dense time series, open access and excellent 16000 online tools. 14000 The online Bibliography is updated periodically to ensure that most academic 12000 publications using ESS data are logged and searchable to all data users. 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
22 www.europeansocialsurvey.org DATA AND DOCUMENTATION WITH UNRESTRICTED ACCESS DATASETS AVAILABLE CUMULATIVE AND WITHOUT ADDITIONAL HARMONIZED DATA COSTS The ESS Cumulative Data The ESS data is available free Wizard gives access to of charge for non-commercial cumulative data from countries use and can be downloaded that have been included in the from the ESS website after a integrated ESS files in two or short registration. more rounds. All information gathered since 2001 is This means users can generate and included online. Each new survey in the download a customised subset of the ESS series provides another layer of accurate data cumulative file by selecting rounds, countries to inform academic debate and European and variables. A Study Description and governance. documentation of the selected variables is generated for each customised data file and It allows governments, policy analysts, is included in the download. scholars, students and members of the public to interpret how people in different countries and at different times see themselves and the world around them. With a view to exchanging best practice worldwide, all ESS protocols, methods, procedures and data are made available to everyone on the website. It is completely transparent. Registered users can download data sets or analyse the information online. Using an online tool called Nesstar, a customised data file can be created and downloaded in a variety of formats, for use in SPSS, Stata, SAS and other statistical analysis programmes. However, users can also search, browse and analyse the data online if they choose not to download it.
European Social Survey ERIC 23 Each new survey MULTILEVEL AND provides another layer of CONTEXTUAL DATA accurate data to inform The purpose of ESS Multilevel Data is to academic debate and make it easier for the research community European governance. to understand the context in which ESS respondents lived at the time of interview. It means additional data about the ESS, the countries and regions where respondents live, can be added to ESS survey data. The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics or Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries for statistical purposes. It was developed and regulated by the European Union and applies to European Union, European Free Trade Association and candidate countries. The Multilevel Download makes it possible to add information about countries and several regional levels to the respondents in the ESS data. The country specific region variable decides how it is possible to merge contextual data on regions to the individual level ESS data. The contextual variables are collected to shed light upon themes such as: • Demography and geography • Economy • Health • Education • Crime • Political institutions • Composite measures Most variables are collected for several years. The ESS Multilevel Data was partly funded by the Descartes Research Prize awarded to the ESS in 2005.
24 www.europeansocialsurvey.org FINDINGS FROM ROTATING MODULES THE EUROPEAN ADDRESSING KEY SOCIAL SOCIAL SURVEY THEMES DEMOCRACY AND CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT European attitudes towards democracy formed part of the Round 6 survey (2012) and Citizen Involvement was investigated during Round 1 (2002). These were both covered as rotating modules. Dr. Mónica Ferrin, University of Zurich The rotating module on Democracy of the European Social Survey Round 6 provides a detailed account of how Europeans think democracy should be and of how Europeans think their democratic systems actually are – or how they perform. This is an issue of key importance in light of the alleged legitimacy crisis European democracies have undergone in the past decades. Round 6 reveals relevant findings in this regard. First, there is strong commitment to democracy among the citizens, independently of the democratic quality of the country in which they live. Not only do Europeans think that democracy is a good thing per se, but they value all ideal characteristics of democracy, such as freedom of expression and accountability. Second, there is a shared understanding among Europeans of what is essential in a democracy: equality before the law and
European Social Survey ERIC 25 free and fair elections are the two essential in patterns of work organization in several of features of democracy for most people in all FAMILY, WORK the East European countries, to higher levels European countries. On top of that, some AND WELLBEING of work intensity and to greater job insecurity. Europeans add a long list of issues requiring At the same time it undermined social attention with regard to democracy (from Survey questions relating to integration through the negative effects of politicians paying more attention to citizens’ family, work and well-being job insecurity on young people’s commitment needs, to increasing citizens’ participation in to employment and by undermining people’s decision-making, etc.). As it stands, the most were included in the rotating trust in politics and their satisfaction with demanding citizens live in countries where modules during Round 2 (2004) democracy. the quality of democracy is lower than the and Round 5 (2010) surveys. European average. However there was also a marked stability Professor Helen Russell, Economic and over time in many of the differences between Third, there is a large gap between what Social Research Institute countries and country groups. Most notably Europeans expect from democracy in the Nordic countries continued to stand the ideal and what they get from their Professor Duncan Gallie, Nuffield out as providing by far the highest quality democratic systems in practice. Although College, University of Oxford of work and the greatest protection against citizens’ evaluations vary across dimensions the psychological distress caused by of democracy and across country, all The economic crisis unleashed by the bank unemployment. It is clear that the institutional democracies fall short of citizens’ ideals. failures of 2008 was the most severe since framework of countries – in particular their This is particularly the case in relation to the the 1930s. The first repeat module of the patterns of employment regulation and the outcomes of democracy (social equality and European Social Survey (ESS) carried out in nature of their welfare states – plays an protection from poverty), where the gap is 2010 (Round 5) built upon a set of questions important role in determining the quality of most alarming. Round 6 provides a powerful initially asked by the ESS in 2004 (Round people’s everyday lives. tool for politicians to understand what citizens 2) about family, work and well-being. This are dissatisfied with in their democratic provided a direct comparison between the The two ESS modules enable us to study countries and to know the sources of period prior to the crisis and a period in the effects of the economic crisis up to disenchantment. which most countries had emerged from the 2010. But this is clearly far from the end of recession. the story. From 2011, Europe entered into Round 6 is also useful to identify potential a new phase of the crisis – the Sovereign flaws in citizens’ involvement, since we The repeat module assessed the implications Debt crisis. This is likely to have led to an find that bad evaluations of democratic for people’s everyday experience of the even greater disruption of people’s work and performance relate to abstention. Indeed, quality of their jobs, their family lives and family lives, particularly in Southern Europe. among the non-voters, evaluations of personal well-being and for their sense It could well have led to a much greater the different aspects of democracy are of commitment to the institutions of their polarization between different European significantly worse than among the voters. society. It allowed an assessment of whether regions. It was also a phase of the crisis This finding has important implications for the the experience of the crisis was similar that was characterized in many countries study of citizens’ involvement. It supplies an across Europe or differed as a result either by a particularly severe restructuring of the additional explanation of why people abstain of the severity of the crisis or the degree of public sector, which is likely to have led to from voting which might alert European protection offered by national institutional particularly harsh consequences for women. governments: long term dissatisfaction systems. Key findings were reported in with democracy might not only threaten the 19 countries for which there were It will be vital to ensure that the ESS democratic support in a country but – since it comparable data available by the spring of continues to monitor the changing patterns is sharper among non-voters – it might also 2012 for both 2004 and 2010. of work life in Europe and their implications put into danger the legitimacy of decisions for both the family and the wider community. taken by the political representatives. The findings from the European Social Survey provide evidence that the economic crisis had significant effects for the quality of work. It led to a reduction in the level of training provided by employers, to changes
26 www.europeansocialsurvey.org FIG. 3 ‘Way of life’, language, and skills are considered more important than ATTITUDES TOWARDS religious, economic, and racial background as immigration criteria IMMIGRATION Commited to Survey questions on way of life Immigration are included Speak in every round. A more language comprehensive set of Have Immigration questions were work skills also included in rotating Qualifications modules fielded in Round 1 (2002) and Round 7 (2014). Christian background Professor Anthony Heath, Centre for Be white Social Investigation (CSI), University of Oxford 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Lindsay Richards, Centre for Social Extremely important 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Extremely unimportant Investigation (CSI), University of Oxford Immigration continues to be one of the most topical and pressing political issues in Europe, with voters in many countries Question: Please tell me how important you think each of these things should be in deciding whether someone rating it high on the political agenda, and born, brought up and living outside [country] should be able to come and live here. new ‘radical right’ political parties (such as Includes: Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Finland, France, the Front National in France) focussed on United Kingdom, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, and Slovenia. opposition to migration emerging in many countries. With continuing high levels of ESS round 7 (20014/15) only; population and design weights used; N = 42,000 labour migration to many rich western European countries, as well as continuing pressure to accept asylum seekers from way of life, the ability to speak the country’s Data from Round 7 of the ESS, conducted war zones around the world, this topic is language and work skills as the key criteria in 2014, is enabling us to conduct a unlikely to lose its political significance in the for accepting migrants. thorough examination of the drivers of these foreseeable future. cross-national differences and of change Data from Round 7 of the European Social over time in anti-immigrant sentiment. It Government responses to immigration and Survey provides another challenge to is, for example, enabling us to compare the refugee crisis are in part driven by public prevailing assumptions about the drivers of the importance of competition for jobs and opinion and the fear that voters will be or anti-immigrant sentiment. As the following housing with concerns about a country’s already have been disenchanted by liberal chart shows, negative attitudes towards ability to assimilate migrants from different immigration policies. However, the public’s immigration do not straightforwardly relate to religious and cultural traditions. It should shed views tend to be much more nuanced than the numbers of migrants arriving in a country. new light on the warmth of the welcome for is often realized. In round 7 of the European For example Iceland and Sweden have different kinds of migrants, such as those Social Survey, for example, European relatively high net migration rates yet are the from Muslim countries, or those who are publics were found to be more sympathetic two countries most favourable to immigration. refugees. to highly-skilled migrants than to low-skilled The drivers of anti-immigration sentiment are and poorly-educated migrants and saw more complex than is usually supposed. commitment to the destination country’s
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