PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PHENOLICS FROM JUJUBE (ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA) LEAF AGAINST H2O2-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN NEURONAL PC-12 CELLS - New Century ...
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CURRENT TOPICS IN NUTRACEUTICAL RESEARCH Vol. 16, No.2, pp. 129-138, 2018 ISSN 1540-7535 print, Copyright © 2018 by New Century Health Publishers, LLC www.newcenturyhealthpublishers.com All rights of reproduction in any form reserved Research Article PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PHENOLICS FROM JUJUBE (ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA) LEAF AGAINST H2O2-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN NEURONAL PC-12 CELLS 1 Jun Ho Jung, 1Young Min Chi, 2Chang-Ho Jeong, 2Jong-Kwang Lee,3Young-Il Bae and 4Sun Jin Hur Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea; 2JK 1 Nutra Co. Ltd., #101-601, Hanwha Ggumegreen bldg, 97 Hyowon-ro, Suwon-si, 442-835, Korea; 3Jinju Bioindustry Foundation, 001 Wolasanro, Munsaneup, Jinju-si, 660-844, Korea; and 4Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, 4726 Seodong-daero, Daedeok-myeon, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do 17546, Korea [Received October 29, 2017; Accepted January 3, 2018] [Communicated by Prof. Zhiling Yu] ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine the antioxidant and INTRODUCTION neuronal cell protective effects of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have a high sensitivity to leaf solvent fractions. The butanol fraction from jujube (reactive oxygen species) ROS. Accumulated intracellular H2O2, showed potent antioxidant activity in each assay, and its which is an ROS, causes lipid peroxidation of cell membranes ABTS radical scavenging effect, FRAP, and MDA inhibition and triggers apoptotic cell death via the activation of caspases increased in a dose-dependent manner. Following H2O2 (Chun et al., 2005; Chang et al., 2008). AD is one of the most treatment, intracellular ROS accumulation significantly serious threats to human health in aging societies of developed reduced when butanol fraction from jujube leaf was present countries. In particular, AD is a major neurodegenerative disease in the PC12 cell media. In the MTT cell viability assay, the and is characterized by loss of memory and cognition. Around butanol fraction showed a protective effect against H2O2- 18 million people in the world suffer from AD, and this number induced neurotoxicity and inhibited LDH release into the is expected to rise to 34 million by 2025 (Hong et al., 2007). medium (7.13-43.89%). Total phenols of the three solvent Many studies have demonstrated that the brains of patients with fractions were 72.50 (chloroform), 297.18 (butanol), AD are subjected to increased oxidative stress due to free radical and 17.93 (water) mg/g GAE. The predominant phenolic damage (Murakami et al., 2000). compounds in jujube leaves are rutin (57.07 mg/100 g) and Many phenolics protect neuronal cells from oxidative stress quercetin (9.27 mg/100 g). These data suggest that butanol induced by ROS or amyloid-β (Aβ) protein, and this may be fraction from jujube leaf including phenolics may be useful related to the pathogenesis of AD (Om et al., 2008; Park et natural antioxidants to reduce the risk of neurodegenerative al., 2001). Some phytochemicals from natural plant sources, diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. including fruits and vegetables, may reduce the risk of AD because of their antioxidant properties that reduce oxidative insults KEY WORDS: Antioxidants, Cell viability, Jujube leaf, (Pinzo´n-Arango et al., 2009). Epidemiological observation has Neuronal protective effect revealed that increased antioxidant uptake is inversely related to the risk of incidence of AD (Psotová et al., 2003). Antioxidants Corresponding Author: Sun Jin Hur, Department of Animal are vital substances that have the ability to protect the body Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, 4726 from damage caused by free radical-induced oxidative stress Seodong-daero, Daedeok-myeon, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi (Ozsoy et al., 2008). There is an increasing interest in natural 17456, Republic of Korea. Tel.: + 82 31 670 4673; Fax: + 82 antioxidants (e.g., polyphenols) present in medicinal and dietary 31 670 3108. E-mail address: email@example.com plants, which might help prevent oxidative damage (Silva et al.,
130 Neuronal cell protective effect of jujube leaf 2005). Phenolics have the ideal structural chemistry for free diacetate (DCF-DA), 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5- radical-scavenging activity and have been shown to be more diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay kit, and the lactate effective antioxidants than tocopherols and ascorbate in in vitro dehydrogenase (LDH) assay kit were purchased from Sigma studies. A few phenolics have also been reported to prevent a Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA). All solvents used were of decrease in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide analytical grade and purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and Louis, MO, USA). RPMI 1640 medium and fetal bovine serum to prevent a significant depletion of glutathione (GSH) (Yu et were obtained from Gibco BRL (Grand Island, NY, USA). al., 2009). Therefore, recognition of the importance and role of non-nutrient compounds, particularly phenolics as natural Plant material antioxidants, has greatly increased (Hagerman et al., 1998). To Jujube leaves were collected from Jinju in Korea in September find new natural sources of physiologically active compounds, 2015, and were authenticated by Institute of Agriculture and we studied the antioxidant and protective effects of jujube leaves Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University where voucher on neuronal cells. Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) is a tree belonging specimens were maintatined. These samples were stored at -20 to the Rhamnaceae family. It has been domesticated worldwide ℃ until use. and is found primarily in the subtropical regions of Asia and America (Mahajan et al., 2009). Jujube is consumed in both Jujube leaf extracts its fresh and dried forms and is used in a variety of products Each solvent fraction of freeze-dried jujube leaf was obtained including breads, cakes, candies, and compotes. In Korea, jujube in the following manner. Powdered jujube leaves (500 g) is used as an ingredient in porridge, rice cakes, and Yakbap (a were put in suspension and extracted using 500 ml of 80% sweet Korean dish whose name literally means medicinal rice). ethanol at 80 ℃ for 3 h. The extracts were filtered through In Korea, jujube has recently come into prominent use as an Whatman No. 2 filter paper (Whatman International Limited, ingredient in processed foods such as drinks and tea granules Kent, England) and evaporated to dryness. The dried material (Choi et al., 2015). Furthermore, jujube is also used as traditional was dissolved in 200 mL of distilled water. The solution medicine in Korea (Kwon et al.,1993) and is reported to possess was consecutively portioned in a separation funnel with the numerous health-promoting benefits such as antioxidant activity equivalent amount of chloroform, butanol, and water. Each (Kim et al., 2005), anticancer effects (Vahedi et al., 2008), fraction was concentrated in a vacuum evaporator (Eyela and hepatoprotective effects (Lee et al., 1995). Although it NE, Tokyo Rikakikai Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) at 40 ℃. The has already been demonstrated that the jujube fruit and seed water filtrate was frozen and lyophilized. The fractions were contain phenolic compounds, little is known about the effect placed in a glass bottle and stored at -20 ℃ until use. The of jujube leaves on antioxidant activities and oxidative stress- lyophilized fractions were dissolved in 10% DMSO to obtain induced neurotoxicity. Because the antioxidant activities and a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. protective effects of jujube leaves on neuronal cells have not been previously reported, the objectives of this study were to assess ABTS radical scavenging activity the various antioxidant activities and protective effects of jujube To test the free radical scavenging ability of the three jujube leaf extract on neuronal cells and identify the active compounds leaf extracts, a 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic contained in jujube leaves that are usually discarded during acid) assay was used. ABTS was dissolved in water to obtain frequent pruning to obtain information that might enable their a stock concentration of 7 mM. ABTS working solution was utilization in functional foods. This is in keeping with efforts to prepared by allowing the ABTS stock solution to react with 2.45 maintain a balance between the conservation of biodiversity and mM potassium persulfate (final concentration) and further encouragement of controlled exploitation of plant resources for allowing the mixture to stand in the dark at room temperature economic gains, specifically in the field of biopharming, in which for 12-16 h before use. For the study of leaf extract sample, the waste of valuable natural resources should be minimized. the ABTS stock solution was diluted with 5 mM phosphate- buffered saline (pH 7.4) to obtain an absorbance of 0.70 at MATERIAL AND METHODS 734 nm. After the addition of 980 μL of diluted ABTS to 20 Chemicals μL of the sample, the absorbance reading was taken 5 min after the initial mixing (Jeong et al., 2010). This antioxidant activity Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, 2,2’-azino-bis(3- is stated as percent ABTS scavenging that is calculated as: ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), potassium % ABTS scavenging activity = [(control absorbance – sample persulfate, 2,4,6-tripyridyl-S-triazine (TPTZ), trichloroacetic absorbance) / (control absorbance)] × 100 acid (TCA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), vitamin C, α-tocopherol, catechin, 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl] Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of jujube leaf ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), sodium bicarbonate, penicillin, extracts streptomycin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, ferrous sulfate The FRAP assay used in this study is described in Jeong et al. (FeSO4), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), dimethyl sulfoxide (2010). Briefly, 1.5 mL of working, prewarmed FRAP reagent (DMSO), penicillin, streptomycin, 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein (10 volumes 300 mM acetate buffer, pH 3.6 + 1 vol of 10 mM
Neuronal cell protective effect of jujube leaf 131 2,4,6-tripyridyl-S-triazine in 40 mM HCl + 1 vol of 20 mM and if the presence of the jujube leaf butanol fraction had any FeCl3) at 37 ℃ was mixed with 50 μL of the leaf extract fractions effect on it. Neuronal PC12 cells were plated at a density of and standards. This was vortex mixed and the absorbance read 106 cells/well on 96-well plates in 100 μL of RPMI. The cells at 593 nm against a reagent blank at a predetermined time after were pre-incubated with the butanol fraction for 48 h before sample-reagent mixing. The test was performed at 37 ℃ and the 200 μM of H2O2 were added. The cells were treated with or 0-4 minutes reaction time window was used. without H2O2 for 2 h. The amount of MTT formazan product was determined by measuring absorbance using a microplate Malondialdehyde (MDA) assay using mouse brain reader (680, Bio-Rad, Tokyo, Japan) at a test wavelength of 570 homogenates nm and a reference wavelength of 690 nm. This assay was carried out using the method described by Chang et al. (2001). The brains of young adult male Balb/c Lactate dehydrogenase assay mice were dissected and homogenized in ice-cold Tris-HCl Neuronal PC12 cells, treated as described in the above buffer (20 mM, pH 7.4) to produce a 1/10 homogenate. The paragraph, were precipitated by centrifugation at 250 × g for homogenate was centrifuged at 12,000 × g for 15 minutes at 4 min at room temperature, 100 μL of the supernatant were 4 ℃. A 1 mL aliquot of the supernatant was incubated with transferred into new wells, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) the test leaf extract samples in the presence of 10 μM FeSO4 concentration was measured using the in vitro toxicology assay and 0.1 mM vitamin C at 37 ℃ for 1 h. The reaction was kit (TOX-7, Sigma Co., St. Louis, MO, USA). Damage to the terminated by the addition of 1 mL TCA (28%, w/v) and plasma membrane was evaluated by measuring the amount of 1.5 mL TBA (1%, w/v) in succession, and the solution was the intracellular enzyme LDH released into the medium. then heated at 100 ℃. After 15 min, the absorbance of the MDA-TBA complex was measured at 532 nm. (+)-Catechin, Determination of total phenolics a well-known antioxidant, was used as a positive control. The Total phenolic content was determined using inhibition ratio (%) was calculated as follows: spectrophotometric analysis (Jeong et al., 2010). Briefly, a 1 mL portion of the appropriately diluted extract was added to a % inhibition = [(control absorbance – sample absorbance) / 25 mL volumetric flask containing 9 mL of deionized distilled control absorbance] × 100 water (ddH2O). A reagent blank using ddH2O was prepared. One mL of Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent was added to the Neuronal cell culture mixture and shaken. After 5 min, 10 mL of a 7% Na2CO3 The PC12 cell line was derived from a transplantable rat solution was added and the solution was mixed. The mixed pheochromocytoma. The cells respond reversibly to nerve solution was then immediately diluted to a volume of 25 mL growth factor (NGF) by induction of the neuronal phenotype. with ddH2O and mixed thoroughly. After 90 min at 23 ℃, the PC12 cells (KCLB 21721, Korea Cell Line Bank, Seoul, Korea) absorbance was read at 750 nm. The standard curve for total were propagated in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal phenolics was made using gallic acid standard solution (0-100 bovine serum, 25 mM HEPES, 25 mM sodium bicarbonate, mg/L) following the same procedure as above. Total phenolics in 50 units/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin. each solvent fraction were expressed as milligrams of gallic acid equivalents (mg GAE/g) of the sample. Measurement of intracellular oxidative stress Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were Determination of phenolics measured using the 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF- Phenolic compounds in the butanol fraction were measured at DA; fluorescent probe) assay (Heo et al., 2001). Briefly, cells 280 nm using 11 phenolics standard solution using a diode array (104 cells/well on 96-well) were treated for 10 min with the UV-visible detector (Agilent 1100 series, Agilent Co., Santa Clara, indicated concentrations of the butanol fraction (jujube leaf CA, USA). Separation was achieved with a LiChrospher 100 RP- extract) or vitamin C. The cells were then treated with or 18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm, Merck Co., Darmstadt, without 200 μM hydrogen peroxide for 2 h. At the end of the Germany). The elution solvents were (A) 0.01 M-potassium treatment, cells were incubated in the presence of 50 μM DCF- phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 3.0 by phosphoric acid, and, DA in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Fluorescence was then (B) methanol. The solvent gradient elution program used was as quantified using the Tecan SER-NR 94572 fluorometer (Tecan follows: initial 90% (A), hold for 9.5 min; linear gradient to 68% Systems Inc., San Jose, CA, USA) using 485 nm excitation and (A) in 3.5 min; linear gradient to 67% (A) 17 min; linear gradient 530 nm emission filters. to 20% (A) 1 min; linear gradient to 90% (A) 1 min, and hold for 10 min. The flow rate was 1.5 ml/min. Phenolics were identified Cell viability assay by comparison of their retention time (RT) values and UV spectra The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl- with those of known standards and quantified by peak areas from tetrazoliumbromide]-based TOX1 in vitro toxicology assay kit the chromatograms. All analyses were run in triplicate and mean (Sigma Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) was used to determine cell values were calculated. The content of phenolic compounds was viability in PC12 cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress expressed in mg/100 g extract.
132 Neuronal cell protective effect of jujube leaf Statistical analysis the chloroform and water fractions showed low radical- All data are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3). Data from scavenging activity; these were approximately 3-4 times lower each experimental were analyzed using a one-way analysis of than the activity of the butanol fraction. Fig. 1A shows a steady variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple-range test (p
Neuronal cell protective effect of jujube leaf 133 in jujube leaf were the most likely candidate compounds FIGURE 3. Effect of the butanol fraction of jujube leaves capable of reducing ferric ions. According to recent reports, on ROS production in the presence and absence of H2O2 there was a strong correlation between total phenolics and in PC12 cells. Data are presented as the mean ± SD of 3 antioxidant activity in many plant species (Dasgupta et al., independent experiments in triplicate; different letters represent 2004; Dorman et al., 2004). In addition, many phenolics significant differences between means. *p < 0.05 have shown high levels of antioxidant activity. 160 a a Inhibitory effect of jujube leaf extract on lipid peroxidation 140 b There has been increasing interest in lipid peroxidation 120 c d Oxidative stress (%) because the formation of cytotoxic products such as MDA e d and 4-hydroxynonenal can influence cellular apoptosis and 100 several human diseases (Sevanian et al., 2000). Therefore, f 80 in this assay, antioxidant activities of three fractions from jujube leaf on both ferric ion- and vitamin C-induced 60 lipid peroxidation on mouse brain homogenates were also 40 confirmed. The results, shown in Fig. 2, reveal that the three fractions of jujube leaf had inhibitory effects against 20 lipid peroxidation of the mouse brain homogenates. The 0 inhibitory effects of all fractions against lipid peroxidation Control 200 µM 200 µM 12 25 50 100 200 decreased in the following order: butanol fraction>water H2O2 Vit.C Concenration (µg/mL) fraction>chloroform fraction. The butanol fraction showed production of amyloid β protein (Aβ). Aβ levels can trigger excellent suppression activity against lipid peroxidation in cell death through a mechanism involving hydrogen peroxide mouse brain homogenates. The butanol fraction had a stronger (Behl et al., 1994). inhibitory effect than (+)-catechin at all concentrations These results suggest that the butanol fraction of jujube tested and more than 50% of inhibitory activity against lipid leaf has antioxidant activity and may be able to play an peroxidation was observed at the 25 μg/mL concentration. It is also noteworthy that (+)-catechin, which has an EC50 value important role in reducing oxidative stress, an important risk of 24.08 μg/mL, showed less inhibitory activity than the factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. butanol fraction (EC50 value of 19.94 μg /mL). Therefore, the active compounds in the butanol fraction might be potential Influence of the jujube leaf butanol fraction on the viability natural antioxidant supplements for food and pharmaceutical of neuronal cells treated with H2O2 products. They might also be used to stabilize foods against Alteration in the mitochondrial permeability transition oxidative deterioration. pore protein occurs in cells undergoing apoptosis (Salet et al., 1997) and this is related to the release of cytochrome c Measurement of intracellular oxidative stress (Ott et al., 2001). Mitochondria might be one of the main To examine the intracellular accumulation of ROS in PC12 targets of oxidative stress causing neuronal cell death. Fig. 4 cells, used as neuronal cell models, 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein shows the improved cell viability of PC12 cells under oxidative diacetate (DCF-DA) was used. The DCF-DA probe, which stress, measured using an MTT assay, being mainly attributed is freely permeable across cell membranes, is hydrolyzed by to bioactive phenolics derived from the jujube leaf butanol cytosolic esterases to non-fluorescent dichlorofluorescein fraction. MTT is converted to purple formazan by living (DCFH). Then, DCFH interacting with ROS is oxidized cells, in part, because of mitochondrial processes. A significant to a highly fluorescent substance, 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein color difference was observed between control neuronal cells (DCF). Exposure of PC12 cells to H2O2 for 2 h resulted with no H2O2 treatment and groups treated with the butanol in a 139.21% increase of ROS levels compared to controls fraction at 100-200 μg/mL followed by H2O2 exposure (Fig. (Fig. 3). Pretreatment of PC12 cells with the butanol 4). The treatment with H2O2 for 2 h decreased the viability of fraction significantly prevented them from intracellular ROS PC12 cells up to 65.16% compared to the control (100%). accumulation in comparison to control PC12 cells that were At a concentration of 100-200 μg/mL, the butanol fraction treated with only H2O2. provided effective protection that resulted in an acceptable Vitamin C is one of the naturally occurring major PC12 cell viability against oxidative stress. At 200 μg/mL nutrients having antioxidant activity (Kim et al., 2002). concentration of the jujube leaf butanol fraction, the viability Vitamin C was used as a positive control. Pretreatment with of PC12 cells significantly increased up to 99.00% that of 200 μM vitamin C of PC12 cells resulted in significantly the control cells. Therefore, these results also suggest that lower oxidative stress compared to PC12 cells with H2O2 neuronal cell protection conferred by the butanol fraction of treatment alone (Fig. 3). Oxidative stress in AD may result jujube leaf extract is partially due to mitochondrial protective from aging, energy deficiency, inflammation or excessive mechanisms.
134 Neuronal cell protective effect of jujube leaf FIGURE 4. Protective effect of the butanol fraction of jujube FIGURE 5. Inhibitory effect of butanol fraction on LDH leaves against H2O2-induced cell death in PC12 cells. PC12 release in H2O2-treated PC12 cells. Cells, first treated with cells were pretreated for 48 h with various concentrations of the butanol fraction, were then treated with 200 μM H2O2 for the butanol fraction. The cells were then treated with 200 μM 2 h. The LDH activity in culture supernatants was measured H2O2 for 2 h. Cell viability was measured using the MTT assay with a colorimetric LDH assay kit. Vitamin C (200 μM) was kit. Vitamin C (200 μM) was used as a positive control. Data used as a positive control. Data are presented as the mean ± are presented as the mean ± SD of 3 independent experiments SD of 3 independent experiments in triplicate; different letters in triplicate; different letters represent significant differences represent significant differences between means. *p < 0.05 between means. *p < 0.05 100 120 a LDH release into medium (%) a a 80 b 100 b c c d c 80 d Cell viability (%) e 60 f e 60 f 40 g 40 h 20 20 0 0 Control 200 µM 200 µM 12 25 50 100 200 Control 200 µM 200 µM 12 25 50 100 200 H2O2 Vit.C H2O2 Concentration (µg/mL) Vit.C Concentration (µg/mL) Protective effect of the butanol fraction of jujube leaves the cellular membrane at all the concentrations tested (Fig. 5). against H2O2-induced membrane damage After oxidative treatment with H2O2 for 2 h, the amount of The neuronal membrane, containing polyunsaturated LDH release from PC12 cells increased to 63.88% compared fatty acids, is vulnerable to oxidative stress induced by ROS to that from the untreated controls. However, the various such as H2O2. Lipid peroxidation can alter the fluidity of the levels of butanol fraction treatment showed protective effects plasma membrane. The LDH assay provided an estimate of against oxidative stress in neuronal cells and followed a dose- the percentage of surviving PC12 cells whose cell membranes dependent pattern (Fig. 5). Treatment of PC12 cells with 100- were intact. The butanol fraction protected the integrity of 200 μg/mL concentration of the butanol fraction resulted in FIGURE 6. HPLC chromatogram of standards (A) and butanol fraction of jujube leaves (B). Retention time 19.916 min: rutin, 20.578 min: quercetin. (A) Standard
Neuronal cell protective effect of jujube leaf 135 (B) Butanol fraction TABLE 1. Total phenolics of three fractions and phenolics content of butanol fraction from jujube leaf. The data are presented as mean ± SD (n=3). Content Fractions (mg/g GAE) Chloroform 72.50±0.37 Total phenolics Butanol 297.18±1.06 Water 17.93±0.16 Retention Content Compounds time (min) (mg/g) Procatechuic acid 5.512 - Catechin 7.796 - Syringic acid 9.863 - Caffeic acid 10.021 - Vanillic acid 11.467 - Phenolics Epicatechin 11.853 - p-Coumaric acid 14.032 - Ferulic acid 15.039 - Rutin 18.916 57.07 Quercitrin 20.578 9.27 Quercetin 22.933 - significant protection compared to the group treated with H2O2 fraction may provide an added health benefit by reducing the only (Fig. 5). This finding suggests that the butanol fraction of risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. jujube leaf might attenuate the extent of oxidative stress damage from H2O2 insult in neuronal PC12 cells and also protect the Total phenolics of three fractions and individual phenolic integrity of the cell’s biological membrane. Our results suggest composition of butanol fraction from jujube leaf that the phenolics of the butanol fraction might be inhibiting Phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, phenolic neuronal apoptosis, which is the ultimate consequence of all acid, and tannins are considered major contributors to the these cellular dysfunctions. Therefore, phenolics of the butanol antioxidant activity of natural plants. These antioxidants also
136 Neuronal cell protective effect of jujube leaf possess diverse biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, (1994). Hydrogen peroxide mediates amyloid β protein anti-carcinogenic, and anti-atherosclerotic activities that may toxicity. Cell, 77: 817-827. be associated with their antioxidant activity (Chung et al., 1998). The total phenolics of three fractions from the 80% Chang, H. J., Choi, E. H. and Chun, H. S. (2008). ethanol extract of jujube leaf are presented in Table 1. The Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of butanol fraction had the highest phenolic content (297.18 mg antioxidative anthocyanidins and their glycosides. Food Science GAE/g). It is approximately 4-fold more than the phenolic and Biotechnology, 17: 501-507. content of the chloroform fraction (72.50 mg GAE/g) and 17-fold more than the phenolic content of the water fraction Chang, S. T., Wu, J. H., Wang, S. Y., Kang, P. L., Yang, N. S. (17.93 mg GAE/g). and Shyur, L. F. (2001). Antioxidant activity of extracts from Jujube leaf extract fractions were subjected to further analysis Acacia confusa bark and heartwood. Journal of Agricultural and by HPLC. The butanol fraction from jujube leaf contained Food Chemistry, 49: 3420-3424. two phenolic compounds. By comparing the retention time and UV spectra of these compounds to those of standards, Choi, J., An, X., Lee, B. H., Lee, J. S., Heo, H. J., Kim, T. and rutin was identified as the main phenolic compound (Fig. 6). Kim, D. O. (2015). Protective effects of bioactive phenolics Furthermore, the HPLC results indicated that rutin (57.07 from jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) seeds against H2O2–induced mg/g) was the predominant phenolic compound in the butanol oxidative stress in neuronal PC-12 cells. Food Science and fraction of jujube leaf extract (Fig. 6 and Table 1). Based on Biotechnology, 24: 2219-2227. the results of the phenolic composition of the butanol fraction, we can conclude that these compounds (particularly rutin and Chun, O. K., Kim, D. O., Smith, N., Schroeder, D., Han, quercitrin) contribute to the antioxidant and cell protective J. T. and Lee, C. Y. (2005). Daily consumption of phenolics effects of jujube leaf in neuronal cells. The results obtained and total antioxidant capacity from fruit and vegetables in the from this study are noteworthy, not only with respect to the American diet. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85: antioxidant and neuronal cell protective effects of jujube leaves 1715-1724. but also with respect to its rutin content. The activity of jujube is attributed to these phenolic compounds and specifically rutin. Chung, K. T., Wong, T. Y., Wei, C. I., Huang, Y. W. and The main phenolic compound found in onion and buckwheat Lin, Y. (1998). Tannins and human health: a review. Critical is rutin. Rutin is a compound of interest because it has it Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 38: 421-464. has a wide range of biological effects that include including antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial activities, and anti- Dasgupta, N. and De, B. (2004). Antioxidant activity of Piper neurodegenerative effects (Dreosti et al., 1997; Jankun et al., betle L. leaf extract in vitro. Food chemistry, 88: 219-224. 1997; Almajano et al., 2008; Heo et al., 2004). In this context, the increased cell viability associated with De-Hong, Y. U., Yong-Ming, B. A. O., Li-Jia, A. N. and jujube leaf extract may be mainly attributed to rutin, and to Ming, Y. A. N. G. (2009). Protection of PC12 cells against a lesser extent, to the other antioxidant phenolics. Finally, our superoxide-induced damage by isoflavonoids from Astragalus results verified that compounds in the jujube leaf have very mongholicus. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 22: 50- strong antioxidant activities, and suggest that the jujube leaf 54. can be utilized as an effective natural antioxidant source and chemopreventive agent against neurodegenerative disease Dorman, H. J. D. and Hiltunen, R. (2004). Fe (III) such as Alzheimer’s disease. Further studies are needed to reductive and free radical-scavenging properties of summer determine the relationship between the specific antioxidant savory (Satureja hortensis L.) extract and subfractions. Food and neuroprotection using in vivo tests. Chemistry, 88: 193-199. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DISCLOSURE Dreosti, I. E., Wargovich, M. J. and Yang, C. S. (1997). We confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea: the evidence from associated with this publication and there has been no experimental studies. 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138 Neuronal cell protective effect of jujube leaf
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