Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes

Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes

Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes May 29, 2012 Nepal United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Nepal Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Programme

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Submitted to: UNDP Nepal Prepared by: Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative National Society for Earthquake Technology-Nepal (NSET) May 2012 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative National Society for Earthquake Nepal (NSET)

COPYRIGHT INFORMATION The document is a product of the Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal project. The content of the document is jointly owned by the Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative (EMI) and the National Society of Earthquake Technology (NSET), Nepal and as such indicated: Copyright© 2012 EMI and NSET Concepts, methods, data and tools (e.g. mainstreaming approach, risk sensitive land use planning model and others) used in the document and originally owned by the Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative (EMI) prior to the project, are and remain the sole intellectual property of EMI as indicated in EMI’s prior documents, reports, and internal communication.

ABOUT THE DOCUMENT This document is the main component of the Deliverable 2: Framework for RSLU Planning of the project. The document acts as a guide for the Kathmandu Valley ministries and municipalities in formulating their risk sensitive land use plans. A detailed summary of the document is provided in the Executive Summary. Contributors EMI Fouad Bendimerad, Ph.D., P.E., Seismology and Earthquake Risk Expert Renan Tanhueco, Ph.D., Urban and Regional Land Use Planning Expert Mr. Jerome Zayas, Task Manager Mr. Moses Kent Borinaga, Project Coordinator Mr. Jose Mari Daclan, Knowledge Management Specialist Mr.

Dominic Dizon, Training Specialist Ms. Audrey Noeltner, Intern Ms. Elsa Desmaison, Intern NSET Mr. Amod Mani Dixit, Senior Expert Mr. Surya Bhakta Sangachhe, Task Manager Mr. Surya Narayan Shrestha, Senior Expert Mr. Ganesh Kumar Jimee, Junior Expert Ms. Bhubaneswari Parajuli, Junior Expert

TABLE OF CONTENT 1 Background and Context . . 1 2 Summary of Analysis: Kathmandu Valley Development and Planning Context.3 3 Recommendations . . 5 4 Way Forward . . 6 1 Background and Rationale . . 8 2 Situational Analysis: Disasters in the Kathmandu Valley . . 14 2.1 Disaster Losses and Associated Risks . . 15 2.2 Climate Change and Variability Impacts to Urban Settlements and Infrastructures...19 3 Vulnerability of Kathmandu Valley to Disasters . . 20 3.1 Population and Social Aspects . . 20 3.2 Building, Infrastructure &Transport related . . 23 4 The Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan: A Review and Gaps Analysis .

. 24 4.1 The KV Planning System . . 24 4.2 On Planning Structure . . 26 4.3 On KV Plan (KV Concept) and Planning Process . . 26 4.4 Gaps Analysis . . 27 5 An Enabling Environment for KV 2020 . . 29 5.1 Key Policies . . 29 5.2 Key National Policies . . 30 6 Enhancing the Capacity of the Valley Planning Structure . . 35 7 Framework for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive . . 36 7.1 Framework for Mainstreaming DRR . . 36 7.2 Framework for Mainstreaming in Plans . . 36 7.3 Mainstreaming Activities . . 38 7.4 Capacity building . . 38 7.5 Enhanced Planning Steps . . 39 8 DRR related Implementation Tools .

. 43 8.1 Zoning . . 43 8.2 Safe Building By-Laws . . 43 8.3 Co-management . . 44 8.4 Public Investment Programming . . 44 8.5 Private Investments Incentives . . 44 9 Way Forward: Completing the Risk Sensitive Kathmandu Valley Physical Framework Plan . . 45 10 References . . 47

Annexes . . 48 Annex 1. Earthquake . . 48 Annex 2. The Kathmandu Valley Development Concept of 2001 . . 50 Annex 3. Kathmandu Valley Development Guiding Policies . . 52 Annex 4. General Settlements Policy . . 52 Annex 5. Urban expansion policy . . 53 Annex 6. Urban Expansion Management Policies . . 54 Annex 7. Housing Policy . . 54 Annex 8. Infrastructures Policy . . 54 Annex 9. Protection of Cultural Heritage and Landscapes . . 55 Annex 10. Environmental Policy . . 55 Annex 11. Natural resources . . 55 List of Figures Figure 1. KMC Land Use Zoning Map in the KMC RSLUP . . 2 Figure 2. Sample of LUP Flier distributed as part of the awareness campaign .

. 2 Figure 3. Model for Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning used for KMC . . 12 Figure 4. Location Map . . 14 Figure 5. Identified Planning System at KV level . . 25 Figure 6. Framework for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (EMI, copyright . . 36 Figure 7. Framework for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in Land Use Planning (EMI, copyright) Note: Also presented in Figure 3 . . 37 Figure 8. The Kathmandu Metropolitan City Sectoral Profile as a sample . . 39 Figure 9. Proposed Activities and Timeline for the Completion of the Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan for the Kathmandu Valley . . 45 List of Tables Table 1: Milestone in Integrating DRR and CCA into the Physical Development Process of Kathmandu Valley .

. 9 Table 2: Losses due to Earthquake in Kathmandu Valley, 1971-2011 . . 15 Table 3: Loss estimation figures for mid-Nepal Earthquake (intensity IX MMI . . 15 Table 4: Losses due to flood and landslide in Kathmandu Valley, 1971-2011 . . 17 Table 5: Losses due to fire in Kathmandu Valley, 1971-2011 . . 17 Table 6: Hazard Threats to the Population in Kathmandu Valley . . 18 Table 7: KATHMANDU VALLEY PLANNING SYSTEM . . 24

ACRONYMS ADB Asian Development Bank BM Bhaktapur Municipality CBD Central Business District CBOs Central Business Organizations DRA Disaster Risk Assessment DRRM Disaster Risk Reduction Management DRMMP Disaster Risk Management Master Plan DRR Disaster Risk Reduction DUDBC Department of Urban Development and Building Construction EMI Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative FAR Floor Area Ratio GIS Geographical Information System GoN Government of Nepal ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development IEC Information and Education Campaign IMP Integrated Master Plan INGO International Non-government Organizations IT Information Technology IWO Implementation Work Output JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency KMC Kathmandu Metropolitan City KVDA Kathmandu Valley Development Administration formerly the Kathmandu Valley Town and Development Committee LSGA Local Self Governance Act LSMC Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City mld million liters per day MMI Modified Mercalli Intensity MOC Memorandum of Cooperation MoEST Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology MoHA Ministry of Home Affairs MoLD Ministry of Local Development MoLRM Ministry of Land Reform and Management MoPPW Ministry of Physical Planning and Works M-TM Madhyapur Thimi Municipality NAPA National Adaptation Programme of Action to Climate Change

NGA Non-Governmental Agency NGO Non-governmental Organization NSDRM National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management NSET National Society for Earthquake Technology NWSC Nepal Water Supply Corporation RSLUP Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme VDC Village Development Committee WB World Bank

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A number of institutions and individuals have supported and contributed to the completion of the Roadmap for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes.

The Contributors are grateful for the valuable time, ideas and resources invested by the following entities in support of the project: • The United Nations Development Programme Nepal (UNDP-Nepal) for lending support to the RSLUP review exercises; • The participants of the Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning Blended Training Course for the information and discussions from the submitted assignments and end of course projects; and, • The officials from Ministry of Physical Planning and Works (MoPPW), Ministry of Local Development (MoLD), Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC) and other Government Agencies and Local Governments in Nepal for sharing their insights in the Closing Ceremonies of the RSLUP blended training course held at the Kumari Hall, Annapurna Hotel, Kathmandu City on April 29, 2012.

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET FRAMEWORK FOR MAKING KATHMANDU VAL CONCEPT PLANRISK SEN 1 BACKGROUND AND CONTE This document provides a roadmap on how the Kathmandu Valley (KV) Development Concept published in 2001 can be made risk sensitive. In view of the need i Government of Nepal to integrate disaster risk concerns in the development planning process and land use plans of the Kathmandu Valley, this review looks into the planning process and outputs at the Valley level, and assesses the various a disaster risk reduction (and climate change and variability risk aspects) may be introduced to make the KV Development Concept Plan (KV 2020 Plan) risk sensitive and supportive of the sustainable development envisioned i documentation of the planning exercise and outputs of the endorsed KV Development Concept Plan because it informs on the process of planning at KV level, the stakeholders involved in plan formulation and validatio Kathmandu Valley.

The information on the planning process was partly augmented from input provided by the interviews and questionnaire surveys developed by (EMI) and National Society for Earthquake Technology The formulation of this road map and the suggested frameworks and processes were built upon the prior experiences of EMI in crafting the Kathmandu Metropoli Management Master Plan (KMC DRMMP) 2005 Use Plan (KMC RSLUP) 2008 in the KMC RSLUP project, funded by the the Deutches Komitee Katas DRR in plans was introduced vulnerability and (disaster) risk assessment (HVRA) and mitigation elements use planning by: (a) using available utilizing the findings and results of the including emergency management parameters (e.g., evac series of disaster risk reduction strategies and actions in the land use planning practice.

Three other related documents were Ordinance, KMC Socio presents an example of an output produced in the KMC RSLUP in terms of the Land Use Zoning Map.

1 The name was recently changed to Kathmandu Valley Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes MAKING KATHMANDU VALLEYDEVELOPMENT CONCEPT PLANRISK SENSITIVE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT This document provides a roadmap on how the Kathmandu Valley (KV) Development Concept published in 2001 can be made risk sensitive. In view of the need i Government of Nepal to integrate disaster risk concerns in the development planning process and land use plans of the Kathmandu Valley, this review looks into the planning process and outputs at the Valley level, and assesses the various aspects of its planning system where disaster risk reduction (and climate change and variability risk aspects) may be introduced to make the KV Development Concept Plan (KV 2020 Plan) risk sensitive and supportive of the sustainable development envisioned in 2001.

This document relied mainly on the documentation of the planning exercise and outputs of the endorsed KV Development Concept Plan because it informs on the process of planning at KV level, the stakeholders involved in plan formulation and validation, and the policy framework for developing Kathmandu Valley. The information on the planning process was partly augmented from input provided by the Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee interviews and questionnaire surveys developed by Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative National Society for Earthquake Technology (NSET).

The formulation of this road map and the suggested frameworks and processes were built upon the prior experiences of EMI in crafting the Kathmandu Metropolitan City Disaster Risk Management Master Plan (KMC DRMMP) 2005-2006, and the KMC Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan (KMC RSLUP) 2008-2010, with KMC, NSET and other local stakeholders. It was in the KMC RSLUP project, funded by the German Federal Foreign Affairs the Deutches Komitee Katastrophenvorsorge (DKKV), that the concept of mainstreaming DRR in plans was introduced. These activities included the integrat vulnerability and (disaster) risk assessment (HVRA) and mitigation elements by: (a) using available seismic, flood, fire hazard and risk information, especially findings and results of the 2002 JICA Earthquake study (not updated); (b) including emergency management parameters (e.g., evacuation roads), and (c) prescribing a series of disaster risk reduction strategies and actions in the land use planning practice.

Three other related documents were completed as part of the KMC RSLUP: Ordinance, KMC Socio-Economic Profile and KMC Emergency Operations presents an example of an output produced in the KMC RSLUP in terms of the Land Use The name was recently changed to Kathmandu Valley Development Administration Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 1 LEYDEVELOPMENT This document provides a roadmap on how the Kathmandu Valley (KV) Development Concept published in 2001 can be made risk sensitive.

In view of the need identified by the Government of Nepal to integrate disaster risk concerns in the development planning process and land use plans of the Kathmandu Valley, this review looks into the planning process and spects of its planning system where disaster risk reduction (and climate change and variability risk aspects) may be introduced to make the KV Development Concept Plan (KV 2020 Plan) risk sensitive and supportive of the n 2001. This document relied mainly on the documentation of the planning exercise and outputs of the endorsed KV Development Concept Plan because it informs on the process of planning at KV level, the stakeholders n, and the policy framework for developing Kathmandu Valley.

The information on the planning process was partly augmented from Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee (KVTDC)1 to arthquakes and Megacities Initiative The formulation of this road map and the suggested frameworks and processes were built tan City Disaster Risk 2006, and the KMC Risk Sensitive Land 2010, with KMC, NSET and other local stakeholders. It was German Federal Foreign Affairs Office through (DKKV), that the concept of mainstreaming integration of hazard, vulnerability and (disaster) risk assessment (HVRA) and mitigation elements into local land hazard and risk information, especially Earthquake study (not updated); (b) uation roads), and (c) prescribing a series of disaster risk reduction strategies and actions in the land use planning practice.

Three : KMC Draft Zoning Operations Plan. Figure 1 presents an example of an output produced in the KMC RSLUP in terms of the Land Use

2 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks Figure 1. KMC Land Use Zoning Map in the KMC RSLUP Parallel to the development of the KMC RSLUP were the conduct of awareness by EMI and NSET through and the dissemination of information, education and communication (IEC) materials such as posters and fliers (see Figures 2). These activities helped improve understanding and support to the KMC RSLUP by key stakeholders such as government ministries and It is important to note that, KMC need to integrate its RSLUP sensitive Kathmandu Valley physical framework plan, which was not available at the time.

KMC RSLUP updating and completion is believed hinge upon a KV physical framework. year plan was proposed in the KMC RSLUP document on how the KV plans and local land use plans in the Valley can be made risk sensitive.

Figure 2. Sample of LUP Flier distributed as part of the awareness campaign Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared KMC Land Use Zoning Map in the KMC RSLUP Parallel to the development of the KMC RSLUP were the conduct of awareness raising activities by EMI and NSET through public consultations and the dissemination of information, education and communication (IEC) materials such as posters and fliers (see Figures 2).

These activities helped improve understanding and support to the KMC RSLUP by key stakeholders such as government ministries and donor organizations. It is important to note that, KMC highlighted the its RSLUP with a similarly risk sensitive Kathmandu Valley physical framework which was not available at the time. KMC RSLUP updating and completion is believed to KV physical framework. A three- year plan was proposed in the KMC RSLUP document on how the KV plans and local land use plans in the Valley can be made risk Sample of LUP Flier distributed as part of the awareness campaign Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET KMC Land Use Zoning Map in the KMC RSLUP Sample of LUP Flier distributed as part of the awareness campaign

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET In the last quarter of 2011, under the UNDP (CDRM) and the Flagship Programmes endorse the 2010 KMC RSLUP plan sensitive to risk came about. In December 2011, 2010 KMC RSLUP was endorsed by selected stakeholders from the Valley. A few months later, this was approved for adoption and implementation by the KMC Legislative Council, thus sanctioning an important milestone in the adoption of risk Building on all previous work, this document addresses the findings, gaps, strategies and recommendations on how to make the KV2020 Plan and the future Physical Framework Plan risk sensitive.

2 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS PLANNING CONTEXT In brief, while the KV 2020 Plan did not address the policies and strategies opted for the policy areas: settlements, production, protection supportive of risk reduction efforts cored on five proactive policies in keeping environment: 1. Environmental Protection and Management, 2. Better Urban Planning and Safer Urban Expansion and Management, 3. Better Enforcement of Building Codes and Bye Laws, 4. Improved Disaster Management 5. Improving Institutional Capacities for Planning and Enforcement. These policies are strongly advocated Disaster Risk Management to Climate Change” (2009) of KV 2020 with current available information on the recent census information gaps in information, processes, and tools in the KV 2020 Plan with respect to risk sensitive parameters.

Hazards Information One important parameter that the KV 2020 information that may guide urban expansion. New environmentally constrained areas may need to be mapped as a result of the new information. Interviews and surveys with members of Kathmandu Valley Development Ad already pointed the following as necessary for updating the • The disaster prone areas should be shown clearly in KV Plans; • Physical infrastructure must be able to mitigate the effect of • Areas for rescue and relief need to be identified and protected; • Areas for future expansion of infrastructure need to be designated; • Open spaces must be defined; 2 Formerly the Kathmandu Valley Town and Development Committee Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes e last quarter of 2011, under the UNDP-run Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management and the Flagship Programmes of Nepal, the opportunity to update, endorse the 2010 KMC RSLUP, as well as developing a road map on how to make the KV sensitive to risk came about.

In December 2011, 2010 KMC RSLUP was endorsed by selected stakeholders from the Valley. A few months later, this was approved for adoption and implementation by the KMC Legislative Council, thus sanctioning an important one in the adoption of risk-sensitive land use planning in the country. Building on all previous work, this document addresses the findings, gaps, strategies and recommendations on how to make the KV2020 Plan and the future Physical Framework Plan SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS: KATHMANDU VALLEY DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING CONTEXT KV 2020 Plan did not address the particular hazards and risks in detail, the policies and strategies opted for the sustainable development of KV in the policy areas: settlements, production, protection, and infrastructural uses were found supportive of risk reduction efforts.

The development policies and strategies were strongly cored on five proactive policies in keeping an orderly, safe, and balanced built and un Environmental Protection and Management, Better Urban Planning and Safer Urban Expansion and Management, Better Enforcement of Building Codes and Bye Laws, Improved Disaster Management, and Improving Institutional Capacities for Planning and Enforcement. strongly advocated in the Government of Nepal’s “National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management” (2010) and “National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) (2009). However, there is a need to update the planning base information of KV 2020 with current available information on hazards, vulnerabilities and risks and with the recent census information.

The following sub-sections explain the areas where ther gaps in information, processes, and tools in the KV 2020 Plan with respect to risk sensitive One important parameter that the KV 2020 Plan has yet to incorporate is the hazard risk information that may guide urban expansion. New environmentally constrained areas may need to be mapped as a result of the new information. Interviews and surveys with members Kathmandu Valley Development Administration2 (KVDA), NSET, M already pointed the following as necessary for updating the KV 2020Plan The disaster prone areas should be shown clearly in KV Plans; Physical infrastructure must be able to mitigate the effect of disasters; Areas for rescue and relief need to be identified and protected; Areas for future expansion of infrastructure need to be designated; Open spaces must be defined; Formerly the Kathmandu Valley Town and Development Committee Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 3 run Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management update, validate, and , as well as developing a road map on how to make the KV sensitive to risk came about.

In December 2011, 2010 KMC RSLUP was endorsed by selected stakeholders from the Valley. A few months later, this was approved for adoption and implementation by the KMC Legislative Council, thus sanctioning an important sensitive land use planning in the country.

Building on all previous work, this document addresses the findings, gaps, strategies and recommendations on how to make the KV2020 Plan and the future Physical Framework Plan EVELOPMENT AND particular hazards and risks in detail, the sustainable development of KV in the different land use and infrastructural uses were found to be . The development policies and strategies were strongly , and balanced built and un-built Better Urban Planning and Safer Urban Expansion and Management, National Strategy for National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) update the planning base information rabilities and risks and with sections explain the areas where there are gaps in information, processes, and tools in the KV 2020 Plan with respect to risk sensitive lan has yet to incorporate is the hazard risk information that may guide urban expansion.

New environmentally constrained areas may need to be mapped as a result of the new information. Interviews and surveys with members , NSET, MoPPW, and MoLD lan, among others: disasters;

4 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks • Conflicts in sensitive areas (ex. encroachment in sensitive areas) must be identifi addressed; • Integration of KV Plan with Local Periodic Plans; Updating hazards and exposure information appear critical for the Kathmandu Valley. The succeeding process for detailing the spatial component of the updating of the previous Earthquake Impact study made in 2002 and a review of the Flood Study in 2009 and explained in terms of the following: • Exposure and condition of settlements • Exposure of condition production areas • Exposure and condition of buildings and infrastr • Exposure and condition of environmentally constrained areas For the fire-related hazards, an updated inventory will help determine the places of highest fire hazard risks.

Within the Kathmandu Valley, the risk reduction and emerg municipalities, Village Development Committees ( area will need to undertake shall depend on th KV Level Committee to Manage and Communicate Ha The generation of risk information, integration of risk information in plans, interpretations may require a group at the KV level to carry them out. These tasks are left un answered in the KV plan: • Hazard risks and climate change • Interpretation and simplification of the assessments for the deliberative body and stakeholders; • Advocacy for awareness and better understanding of the following change risks and environmental management, rural and urban land use management, climate proofing of structures, community preparedness and social development; • Coordination and engagement of hazard (mandated) related agencies (ex.

D Mines and Geology (DMG) scientific organizations, validation and further research; • Preparation of simplified guidelines for mainstr and climate change a valley level; • Explanation to Local and Valley level officials about the hazards and risks and ensuring that decision makers are aware and risks and their implications to the development thrusts pursued; • Consolidation and taking responsibility over these hazard risk data interpreting these into popular language various channels of communication; • Engaging KVDA, MoLD, MoPPW, ensure that valley-wide development and physical framework are risk sensitive and that common solutions are found among municipalities, cities and VDCs; and Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared Conflicts in sensitive areas (ex.

encroachment in sensitive areas) must be identifi Integration of KV Plan with Local Periodic Plans; Updating hazards and exposure information appear critical for the Kathmandu Valley. The succeeding process for detailing the spatial component of the KV 2020P the previous Earthquake Impact study made in 2002 and a review of the Flood Study in 2009 and explained in terms of the following: Exposure and condition of settlements Exposure of condition production areas Exposure and condition of buildings and infrastructures, transport network Exposure and condition of environmentally constrained areas related hazards, an updated inventory will help determine the places of highest Within the Kathmandu Valley, the risk reduction and emergency management actions that Village Development Committees (VDC), sub-metropolitan and metropolitan area will need to undertake shall depend on the severity of risks that will be KV Level Committee to Manage and Communicate Hazard Risk Information The generation of risk information, integration of risk information in plans, interpretations may require a group at the KV level to carry them out.

These tasks are left un answered in the KV plan: Hazard risks and climate change related risk assessments preparation (new or updated); Interpretation and simplification of the assessments for the deliberative body and Advocacy for awareness and better understanding of the following disaster risks, climate d environmental management, rural and urban land use management, climate proofing of structures, community preparedness, and implications and social development; Coordination and engagement of hazard (mandated) related agencies (ex. D eology (DMG), Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention(DWIDP) scientific organizations, and academe towards hazard and risk information interpretations, validation and further research; Preparation of simplified guidelines for mainstreaming disaster risk management ( adaptation (CCA) in KV Plan formulation and implementation at Explanation to Local and Valley level officials about the hazards and risks and ensuring that decision makers are aware of and understand the essential characteristics of hazards and risks and their implications to the development thrusts pursued; Consolidation and taking responsibility over these hazard risk data; translating or interpreting these into popular language; and, disseminating the knowledge through of communication; Engaging KVDA, MoLD, MoPPW, district government and disaster management wide development and physical framework are risk sensitive and that are found among municipalities, cities and VDCs; and Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET Conflicts in sensitive areas (ex.

encroachment in sensitive areas) must be identified and Updating hazards and exposure information appear critical for the Kathmandu Valley. The KV 2020Plan shall require the previous Earthquake Impact study made in 2002 and a review of the Flood uctures, transport network related hazards, an updated inventory will help determine the places of highest ency management actions that metropolitan and metropolitan that will be identified. zard Risk Information The generation of risk information, integration of risk information in plans, and interpretations may require a group at the KV level to carry them out.

These tasks are left un- related risk assessments preparation (new or updated); Interpretation and simplification of the assessments for the deliberative body and isaster risks, climate d environmental management, rural and urban land use management, , and implications to economic Coordination and engagement of hazard (mandated) related agencies (ex. Department of isaster Prevention(DWIDP)) academe towards hazard and risk information interpretations, disaster risk management (DRM) mplementation at Explanation to Local and Valley level officials about the hazards and risks and ensuring and understand the essential characteristics of hazards translating or disseminating the knowledge through isaster management units to wide development and physical framework are risk sensitive and that are found among municipalities, cities and VDCs; and,

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET • Engaging municipalities, VDCs, physical development plans and land use plans, which will implement the KV physical framework and development objec Risk Sensitive Physical Framework and Process The detailing and refinement into a physical framework plan have yet to be continued. Both framework and process for this refinement ha Norms and Standards A set of performance cr different development sectors or land use policy areas following sectors, namely: • Agriculture and Food security • Health • Education • Shelter, Infrastructure and Physical Planning • Livelihood Protection • Water and Sanitation • Information, Communication, Coordination and Logistics • Search and Rescue, and Damage and Needs Assessment • Institutional Framework for Planning • Transport planning • Prevention and Securit • Emergency management program and standards - Hazard identification, vulnerability and risk assessment; - Legal, fiscal and regulatory procedures; - Prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery plans, among othe - Incident management - Communications and Warning - Support for emergency management (facilities, training, among others) 3 RECOMMENDATIONS The recommendations proposed in this document are additions to integrate key components of risk sensitive planning in policy frameworks and strategies identified for sustainable development in 2001.They are as follows: • Designing a program that - Identifying, describing, validating the issues and problems of the Valley; - Preparing the Development Vision; - Supporting the data collection process; - Validating the component plans (settlement, infrastructure, environment and production (economy) plans); 3 Source: Emergency Management Accreditation Program (http://www.emaponline.org) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Engaging municipalities, VDCs, districts to prepare risk sensitive periodic plans and physical development plans and land use plans, which will implement the KV physical framework and development objectives.

Risk Sensitive Physical Framework and Process The detailing and refinement into a physical framework plan have yet to be continued. Both framework and process for this refinement have not been formulated. performance criteria need to be developed for the risk reduction efforts in the different development sectors or land use policy areas for monitoring implementation in the following sectors, namely: Agriculture and Food security re and Physical Planning Livelihood Protection Water and Sanitation Information, Communication, Coordination and Logistics Search and Rescue, and Damage and Needs Assessment Institutional Framework for Planning Prevention and Security (Public Safety, Hazard Materials) Emergency management program and standards3 Hazard identification, vulnerability and risk assessment; Legal, fiscal and regulatory procedures; Prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery plans, among othe Incident management Communications and Warning for emergency management (facilities, training, among others) RECOMMENDATIONS The recommendations proposed in this document are additions to integrate key components of risk sensitive planning in crafting the KV physical framework plan.

They build upon the policy frameworks and strategies identified for sustainable development in 2001.They are as rogram that would include a wider set of stakeholders to be involved in: ing, describing, validating the issues and problems of the Valley; the Development Vision; Supporting the data collection process; alidating the component plans (settlement, infrastructure, environment and production (economy) plans); Source: Emergency Management Accreditation Program (http://www.emaponline.org) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 5 to prepare risk sensitive periodic plans and physical development plans and land use plans, which will implement the KV physical The detailing and refinement into a physical framework plan have yet to be continued.

Both iteria need to be developed for the risk reduction efforts in the implementation in the Prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery plans, among others; for emergency management (facilities, training, among others) The recommendations proposed in this document are additions to integrate key components of crafting the KV physical framework plan. They build upon the policy frameworks and strategies identified for sustainable development in 2001.They are as include a wider set of stakeholders to be involved in: ing, describing, validating the issues and problems of the Valley; alidating the component plans (settlement, infrastructure, environment and

6 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks - Developing the favorable conditions and institutional environment for mainstreaming. • Inclusion of natural hazard risks and their management to the different component plans and their development policy - Hazard, vulnerabilit - Inclusion of past disaster information - Inclusion of climate change impact assessments to the region research and validation - Implications of hazard, vulnerability and risk informatio terms of land use management, particularly on enforcement issues; - Inclusion and review of current programs, projects and activities development plans for Valley wide development; - Inclusion of disaster resiliency relevant to the Valley; - Identifying the programs, projects and activities which may be integrated in the periodic plans of Municipalities, and cities; In transforming the KV plan into a spatial framework, s • Combining the component plans into a preferred physical framework: - Utilizing hazard maps and disaster risk information as constraints to urban expansion areas(ex.

exclusion areas, or development areas with use restrictions - Having appropriately scaled hazard maps and disaster risk information to provide a more detailed zoning (ex. municipal level (1:10:000); - Inclusion and review of current programs, projects and activities in the components spatial plans for Va - Inclusion of spatial components of risk management options and climate change adaptation strategies relevant to the Valley; • A simplified guide to aid in the process of mainstreaming hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment in KV ph risk sensitive physical framework planning (land use planning) at the KV level.

• A set of performance criteria developed for the risk reduction and climate change adaptation efforts in the d monitoring implementation. In order to carry out the needed enhancements and crafting of the KV framework plan, capacity building must be directed to the technical, operational and institutional asp governance. Efforts already undertaken under the current projects should continue to ensure professionals and public officials have the competency to implement, enforce and improve on the risk sensitive land use strategies for the country.

The proposed road map of information. While it does not aim for comprehensiveness nor exhaustiveness, further refinement on the premise used and its analysis, to make it a more r substantive working document for its stakeholders, within the 4 WAY FORWARD To complete the KV Development Concept into a KV Physical framework plan, a year plan programmed into four (4) stages is proposed, as Stage 1 will focus on organization and preparation for KV risk sensitive planning. This shall include the composition of KVDA committee for planning, data inventorying, work planning, Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared g the favorable conditions and institutional environment for mainstreaming.

Inclusion of natural hazard risks and their management to the different component plans and their development policy and strategy decisions: Hazard, vulnerability and risk information and maps; Inclusion of past disaster information (following research and validation) Inclusion of climate change impact assessments to the region, or Valley research and validation); Implications of hazard, vulnerability and risk information to the component plans in terms of land use management, particularly on enforcement issues; Inclusion and review of current programs, projects and activities development plans for Valley wide development; disaster resiliency actions and climate change adaptation strategies relevant to the Valley; Identifying the programs, projects and activities which may be integrated in the periodic plans of Municipalities, and cities; In transforming the KV plan into a spatial framework, suggestions include the following: Combining the component plans into a preferred physical framework: Utilizing hazard maps and disaster risk information as constraints to urban expansion areas(ex.

exclusion areas, or development areas with use restrictions Having appropriately scaled hazard maps and disaster risk information to provide a more detailed zoning (ex. municipal level (1:10:000); Inclusion and review of current programs, projects and activities in the components spatial plans for Valley wide arrangements; Inclusion of spatial components of risk management options and climate change adaptation strategies relevant to the Valley; A simplified guide to aid in the process of mainstreaming hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment in KV physical framework. Basic steps are proposed to follow the model for risk sensitive physical framework planning (land use planning) at the KV level.

A set of performance criteria developed for the risk reduction and climate change adaptation efforts in the different development sectors or land use policy areas for monitoring implementation.

In order to carry out the needed enhancements and crafting of the KV framework plan, capacity building must be directed to the technical, operational and institutional asp Efforts already undertaken under the current projects should continue to ensure professionals and public officials have the competency to implement, enforce and improve on the risk sensitive land use strategies for the country. roposed road map is currently a working draft and requires further reviews and updating While it does not aim for comprehensiveness nor exhaustiveness, on the premise used and its analysis, to make it a more r substantive working document for its stakeholders, within the remaining project period.

complete the KV Development Concept into a KV Physical framework plan, a programmed into four (4) stages is proposed, as follows: will focus on organization and preparation for KV risk sensitive planning. This shall include the composition of KVDA committee for planning, data inventorying, work planning, Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET g the favorable conditions and institutional environment for mainstreaming. Inclusion of natural hazard risks and their management to the different component plans (following research and validation); or Valley (following n to the component plans in terms of land use management, particularly on enforcement issues; Inclusion and review of current programs, projects and activities in the component climate change adaptation strategies Identifying the programs, projects and activities which may be integrated in the uggestions include the following: Combining the component plans into a preferred physical framework: Utilizing hazard maps and disaster risk information as constraints to urban expansion areas(ex.

exclusion areas, or development areas with use restrictions and control); Having appropriately scaled hazard maps and disaster risk information to provide a Inclusion and review of current programs, projects and activities in the components Inclusion of spatial components of risk management options and climate change A simplified guide to aid in the process of mainstreaming hazard, vulnerability and risk teps are proposed to follow the model for risk sensitive physical framework planning (land use planning) at the KV level. A set of performance criteria developed for the risk reduction and climate change ifferent development sectors or land use policy areas for In order to carry out the needed enhancements and crafting of the KV framework plan, capacity building must be directed to the technical, operational and institutional aspects of KV Efforts already undertaken under the current projects should continue to ensure professionals and public officials have the competency to implement, enforce and improve on draft and requires further reviews and updating While it does not aim for comprehensiveness nor exhaustiveness, it aims for on the premise used and its analysis, to make it a more relevant and project period.

complete the KV Development Concept into a KV Physical framework plan, a three (3)- will focus on organization and preparation for KV risk sensitive planning. This shall include the composition of KVDA committee for planning, data inventorying, work planning,

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET approval process and project budgeting. This stage shall help Nepalese government agencies and development partners in Nepal on the development strategies, methodology and institutional arrangements for the development of the Kathmandu Valley RSLUP.

This may be completed within the first sem Stage 2 will include updating of the KV concept plan. This shall include updating the information about the planning environment (social, economic, physical and environmental aspects) and the development of a simplified guide towar (land use) planning. This may be completed within the first year. Stage 3 will include the Valley wide multi hazard analysis, transport planning, and physical framework planning. Because of possible data requirements wh primary data gathering(surveys and interviews), model development and processing, at least two (2) years may be required to complete an integrated transport and land use planning for the Kathmandu Valley.

The government partners KVDA, KMC and other Municipalities and VDC’s within Kathmandu Valley. Previous studies will be reviewed for relevance to this particular effort. Stage 4 will focus on municipal land use planning or periodic planning of metropolitan cities, municipalities and urbanizing VDCs. This stage will also include the finalization of the KMC RSLUP. Special studies on heritage areas or historical sites are proposed while the land use plans are similarly prepared, in or concurrent with the land use plan preparation. This is expected to start in the last three semesters of the three year period.

The recommended process is consistent with previous initiatives and efforts including the KMC RSLUP and the goals of the CDRM program. Capacity building activities are proposed to be spread over the entire project period and be made parallel to the different tasks. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes approval process and project budgeting. This stage shall help reach consensus among the Nepalese government agencies and development partners in Nepal on the development strategies, methodology and institutional arrangements for the development of the Kathmandu Valley RSLUP.

This may be completed within the first semester of the first year. will include updating of the KV concept plan. This shall include updating the information about the planning environment (social, economic, physical and environmental aspects) and the development of a simplified guide towards risk sensitive physical framework (land use) planning. This may be completed within the first year. will include the Valley wide multi hazard analysis, transport planning, and physical framework planning. Because of possible data requirements which can only be acquired by primary data gathering(surveys and interviews), model development and processing, at least two (2) years may be required to complete an integrated transport and land use planning for the Kathmandu Valley.

The government partners for the project will be MoPPW, MoLD, KVDA, KMC and other Municipalities and VDC’s within Kathmandu Valley. Previous studies will be reviewed for relevance to this particular effort. will focus on municipal land use planning or periodic planning of metropolitan cities, municipalities and urbanizing VDCs. This stage will also include the finalization of the KMC RSLUP. Special studies on heritage areas or historical sites are proposed while the land use plans are similarly prepared, in order that these master plans are concurrent with the land use plan preparation. This is expected to start in the last three semesters of the three year period.

The recommended process is consistent with previous initiatives and efforts including the UP and the goals of the CDRM program. Capacity building activities are proposed to be spread over the entire project period and be made parallel to the different tasks. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 7 reach consensus among the Nepalese government agencies and development partners in Nepal on the development strategies, methodology and institutional arrangements for the development of the Kathmandu ester of the first year.

will include updating of the KV concept plan. This shall include updating the information about the planning environment (social, economic, physical and environmental ds risk sensitive physical framework will include the Valley wide multi hazard analysis, transport planning, and physical ich can only be acquired by primary data gathering(surveys and interviews), model development and processing, at least two (2) years may be required to complete an integrated transport and land use planning for for the project will be MoPPW, MoLD, KVDA, KMC and other Municipalities and VDC’s within Kathmandu Valley.

Previous will focus on municipal land use planning or periodic planning of selected sub- metropolitan cities, municipalities and urbanizing VDCs. This stage will also include the finalization of the KMC RSLUP. Special studies on heritage areas or historical sites are der that these master plans are concurrent with the land use plan preparation. This is expected to start in the last three The recommended process is consistent with previous initiatives and efforts including the UP and the goals of the CDRM program. Capacity building activities are proposed to be spread over the entire project period and be made parallel to the different tasks.

8 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks 1 BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE Land Use Planning, generally, may be defined as the “prope (Serote, 2004). This means that the land is used consistent with its natural qualities and made productive to yield benefits for many generations of users. Proper management necessarily involves interventions in decisions certain activities such as those related to environmental protection and management, land use management, building development, among others.

As a matter of public interest, land use planning is the responsibility of the government or State.

When land resources are poorly managed, it can lead to its abuse, disuse or misuse. Lack of planning or poor planning may also result to urban agglomerations which are uncoordinated, inefficient and can lead to man occupation of hazard prone area), lesser economic productivity, less than optimum social welfare leading to unsafe conditions which are major causes of risks and vulnerabilities. These risks and vulnerabilities are manifested by the disasters which happen in an area. One aspect of proper land use planning is its consideration seriously put a place at risk. Often, the absence of information on natural hazard risks, or neglect to include it in land use planning and management can contribute to disasters.

this integration of hazard, vulnerability, risks, emergency management and climate change related impacts in the planning analysis land use management), activities make the planning process risk living environment and sustainable deve The Government of Nepal (GoN) is met with many challenges, among which is the sustainable growth and development of of the Valley in 2001(KV 2020 Development Concept concerns in achieving the following expansion; undertaking controlling and managing environmental damage and providing adequate protection to it people from natural and man Within the last decade, it has become imperative to national and Kathmandu Valley local leaders to rethink their more so that natural and man the component cities, municipalities, VDCs, and Kathmandu Valley as a whole.

The concerns on climate change and variability impacts to several sectors (agriculture, water, health, amon others) have put forward the need to monitor, evaluate and address long term vulnerabilities such as the inability of people to adapt or cope with day to day and extreme risks because of poverty, lack of economic opportunity, poor access to services, wat Other institutional and political factors may include the lack of enabling environment (ex. capacity, knowledge, institutions, environment. Several activities, project the importance of reducing disaster risks implementation processes disaster risk reduction and clim of Kathmandu Valley.

A suggestion is given at the end of the table for its continuation. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared AND RATIONALE Land Use Planning, generally, may be defined as the “proper management of land resources” 2004). This means that the land is used consistent with its natural qualities and made productive to yield benefits for many generations of users. Proper management necessarily involves interventions in decisions which involve State and Local regulation and control of certain activities such as those related to environmental protection and management, land use management, building development, among others.

As a matter of public interest, land use esponsibility of the government or State.

When land resources are poorly managed, it can lead to its abuse, disuse or misuse. Lack of planning or poor planning may also result to urban agglomerations which are uncoordinated, inefficient and can lead to many conflicts in land use (ex. incompatible uses, encroachment, occupation of hazard prone area), lesser economic productivity, less than optimum social to unsafe conditions which are major causes of risks and vulnerabilities. vulnerabilities are manifested by the disasters which happen in an area. One aspect of proper land use planning is its consideration of natural hazards which can seriously put a place at risk.

Often, the absence of information on natural hazard risks, or neglect to include it in land use planning and management can contribute to disasters. this integration of hazard, vulnerability, risks, emergency management and climate change related impacts in the planning analysis, and translating them into development concerns (ex. and addressed through policies, strategies, programs activities make the planning process risk-sensitive, with the great benefits of achieving living environment and sustainable development.

The Government of Nepal (GoN) is met with many challenges, among which is the sustainable growth and development of Kathmandu Valley. A report on the development plan of the Valley in 2001(KV 2020 Development Concept Plan) revealed the GoN prime the following goals: meeting community needs; managing its urban undertaking redevelopment; providing the appropriate sites and services, controlling and managing environmental damage and providing adequate protection to it people from natural and man-made hazards, among others.

Within the last decade, it has become imperative to national and Kathmandu Valley local policies and approaches in addressing these development problems, al and man-made disasters have continued to undermine the gains made the component cities, municipalities, VDCs, and Kathmandu Valley as a whole.

The concerns on climate change and variability impacts to several sectors (agriculture, water, health, amon others) have put forward the need to monitor, evaluate and address long term vulnerabilities such as the inability of people to adapt or cope with day to day and extreme risks because of poverty, lack of economic opportunity, poor access to services, water scarcity, among others. Other institutional and political factors may include the lack of enabling environment (ex. capacity, knowledge, institutions, technical and financial, cultural) to sustain a risk environment. Several activities, projects, policies, both local and national have highlighted the importance of reducing disaster risks through the development planning and es.

Table 1 below presents this progression of efforts disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation into the physical development processes of Kathmandu Valley. A suggestion is given at the end of the table for its continuation. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET r management of land resources” 2004). This means that the land is used consistent with its natural qualities and made productive to yield benefits for many generations of users. Proper management necessarily ocal regulation and control of certain activities such as those related to environmental protection and management, land use management, building development, among others.

As a matter of public interest, land use When land resources are poorly managed, it can lead to its abuse, disuse or misuse. Lack of planning or poor planning may also result to urban agglomerations which are uncoordinated, y conflicts in land use (ex. incompatible uses, encroachment, occupation of hazard prone area), lesser economic productivity, less than optimum social to unsafe conditions which are major causes of risks and vulnerabilities. vulnerabilities are manifested by the disasters which happen in an area. natural hazards which can seriously put a place at risk. Often, the absence of information on natural hazard risks, or its neglect to include it in land use planning and management can contribute to disasters.

Hence, this integration of hazard, vulnerability, risks, emergency management and climate change development concerns (ex.

and addressed through policies, strategies, programs, projects and , with the great benefits of achieving better The Government of Nepal (GoN) is met with many challenges, among which is the Kathmandu Valley. A report on the development plan ) revealed the GoN prime : meeting community needs; managing its urban redevelopment; providing the appropriate sites and services, controlling and managing environmental damage and providing adequate protection to its Within the last decade, it has become imperative to national and Kathmandu Valley local policies and approaches in addressing these development problems, made disasters have continued to undermine the gains made by the component cities, municipalities, VDCs, and Kathmandu Valley as a whole.

The concerns on climate change and variability impacts to several sectors (agriculture, water, health, among others) have put forward the need to monitor, evaluate and address long term vulnerabilities such as the inability of people to adapt or cope with day to day and extreme risks because of er scarcity, among others.

Other institutional and political factors may include the lack of enabling environment (ex. technical and financial, cultural) to sustain a risk-reduced s, policies, both local and national have highlighted development planning and this progression of efforts to integrate physical development processes of Kathmandu Valley. A suggestion is given at the end of the table for its continuation.

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET Table 1: Milestone in Integrating DRR and CCA into the Physical Development Year Activity 2000-2001 Approval of Kathmandu valley Development Concept 2002 GoN, JICA-Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Mitigation Study 2005-2006 Development of a Disaster Risk management master plan (DRRMP) 2007 National Urban Policy 2009-2010 Kathmandu Metropolitan City Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan (KMC-RSLUP) funded by DKKV-FFO Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Milestone in Integrating DRR and CCA into the Physical Development Process of Kathmandu Valley Description Approval of Kathmandu valley Development Long term development plan, cored on policies and strategies that address KV urban expansion and management, environmental protection and management, efficient infrastructure safe settlement patterns; natural calamity mitigation; and institutional capacity building specially on land use management and enforcement.

No detailed plan or physical framework was prepared.

Kathmandu Earthquake Risk Assessment was prepared for the Valley and recommendations on risk reduction and emergency management activities were given. Identification of possible temporary and permanent spaces for evacuation and settlement were identified Partial inventory of structures and a typology of these structures were used in the risk assessment. management master plan KMC, EMI and NSET and other local and international partners develop a disaster risk management master plan (DRMMP) for Kathmandu City during the period 2005-2006. National Urban Policy The long term goal of the policy is to contribute in poverty alleviation through sustainable urbanization of the development regions.

It addresses this through appropriate planning urbanization activities, reversing the deteriorating urban environment, and providing clearer roles of central and local bodies in urban development.

Kathmandu Metropolitan City Risk Sensitive Land RSLUP) FFO • The concept for mainstreaming DRR in land use planning was presented as a framework and process by EMI. (See Figure 1.0). This is the EMI RSLUP project, KMC, EMI and NSET collaborated to craft the KMC RSLUP to guide the future development of Kathmandu City. It integrated hazard, vulnerability and (disaster) risk assessment (HVRA) and mitigation elements into local land use planning by: (a) using available seismic, flood, fire hazard and risk information, especially utilizing the 2002 Earthquake study (not u (b) including emergency management parameters (e.g., evacuation roads), and (c) prescribing a series of disaster risk reduction strategies and actions in the land use planning practice.

• Three other related documents were prepared with this plan: Draft Zoning Ordinance, KMC Socio Economic Profile and KMC Emergency Management Plan. • Advocacy programs and activities were prepared jointly by EMI and NSET. The KMC RSLUP underwent a limited round of public consultations and validations, facilitated by KM government and NSET. • The document highlighted the need to integrate KMC RSLUP with a similarly risk sensitive Kathmandu Valley wide physical framework which was not available at the time. KMC RSLUP updating and completion is believed to hinge upon KV ph framework.

• A three year plan was proposed in the KMC RSLUP document on how the KV plans and local land use plans in the Valley can Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 9 Milestone in Integrating DRR and CCA into the Physical Development Long term development plan, cored on policies and strategies that address KV urban expansion and management, environmental protection and management, efficient infrastructure development, safe settlement patterns; natural calamity mitigation; and institutional capacity building specially on land use management and enforcement.

No detailed plan or physical framework was Earthquake Risk Assessment was prepared for the Valley and recommendations on risk reduction and emergency management activities were given. Identification of possible temporary and permanent spaces for evacuation and settlement were identified. Partial inventory of structures and a typology of these structures KMC, EMI and NSET and other local and international partners risk management master plan (DRMMP) for 2006.

The long term goal of the policy is to contribute in poverty alleviation through sustainable urbanization of the development addresses this through appropriate planning urbanization activities, reversing the deteriorating urban environment, and providing clearer roles of central and local The concept for mainstreaming DRR in land use planning was presented as a framework and process by EMI. (See Figure 1.0). This is the EMI RSLUP project, KMC, EMI and NSET collaborated to craft the KMC RSLUP to guide the future . It integrated hazard, vulnerability and (disaster) risk assessment (HVRA) and mitigation elements into local land use planning by: (a) using available seismic, flood, fire hazard and risk information, especially utilizing the 2002 Earthquake study (not updated); (b) including emergency management parameters (e.g., evacuation roads), and (c) prescribing a series of disaster risk reduction strategies and actions in the land use planning Three other related documents were prepared with this plan: Draft Zoning Ordinance, KMC Socio Economic Profile and Advocacy programs and activities were prepared jointly by EMI and NSET.

The KMC RSLUP underwent a limited round of public consultations and validations, facilitated by KMC The document highlighted the need to integrate KMC RSLUP with a similarly risk sensitive Kathmandu Valley wide physical framework which was not available at the time. KMC RSLUP updating and completion is believed to hinge upon KV physical A three year plan was proposed in the KMC RSLUP document on how the KV plans and local land use plans in the Valley can

10 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks 2009 NAPA-National Action Plan for Climate Change 2009 National Strategy for Disaster Management 2010-2013 Three Year National Plan 2011-2012 Kathmandu Metropolitan City RSLUP endorsement and adoption-(GoN Flagship Programme 1 & funded by UNDP-Nepal) 2012 Framework (Road Map) for Making KV 2020 Development Concept (GoN Flagship Programme 1 & funded by UNDP-Nepal) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared be made risk sensitive.

National Action Plan for Climate Change • A Program of Action by the GoN to address climate change such as those related to disastrous floods and reduced freshwater supplies. Indirect impacts of climate change could be experienced due to extreme events that may increase food prices and /or damage livelihood, assets of th communities.

National Strategy for Disaster Management The NSDRM prepared by the GoN, follows a paradigm shift from merely responding to post disaster situations to disaster prevention through development. Its main vision is to have disaster resilient communities in Nepal. To do this, the long term strategies include: • Development and restructuring of institutional structures; • Strengthen policy-wide and legal arrangements to ensure stakeholders' participation while adhering to integrat and decentralized implementation process.

• Create enabling environment from the central to household level within the State to prepare and implement disaster risk reduction and preparedness plans.

• Ensure mainstreaming disaster reduction into ov development process along with sectoral development and poverty reduction plans. Three Year National Plan This plan has given the importance to the disaster risk management and sets the long term vision for developing the capacity of the country for coping with any type of natural and human-induced disasters. It has clearly mentioned in the policy and actions under the section 6.3 (Disaster Risk Management), that the preparation of risk sensitive land use plan and following the building code will be made compulsory in urban and urbanizing areas.

It has also mentioned about the minimization of the impacts of climate change by protecting environment and availing opportunities; increasing the access of people in water induced disaster prevention services; developing safe, low cost and environment friendly housings; developing appropriate settlements and cities from the environmental and social perspective.

Kathmandu Metropolitan (GoN Flagship amme 1 & funded The KMC RSLUP prepared in 2010 went into another round of review and updating. An endorsement through a validation workshop in Dec. 2011 was made, subject to the conditions outlined by the participants from various levels of Government. The RSLUP was later approved by KMC Council and adopted for implementation in early 2012. Framework (Road Map) for Making KV 2020 Development Concept - Programme 1 & funded Taking off from the recommendations made in the KMC RSLUP 2010 that a risk sensitive KV framework is needed towards proper land use planning of KMC and other member municipalities, sub metropolitan cities and VDCs in KV.

A review, analysis of KV 2020 and road map are presented (this document) on how the KV physical framework (Valley-wide land use plan) can be made risk sensitive.

This document suggests the use of the KMC mainstreaming framework for analyzing and planning for Kathmandu Valley. Integrating risk reduction in periodic plans (through the physical development plan) would be the way of preparing local risk sensitive land use plans. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET A Program of Action by the GoN to address direct impacts of climate change such as those related to disastrous floods and reduced freshwater supplies. Indirect impacts of climate change could be experienced due to extreme events that may increase food prices and /or damage livelihood, assets of the vulnerable The NSDRM prepared by the GoN, follows a paradigm shift from merely responding to post disaster situations to disaster prevention through development.

Its main vision is to have disaster resilient communities in Nepal. To do this, the long term Development and restructuring of institutional structures; wide and legal arrangements to ensure stakeholders' participation while adhering to integrated policy and decentralized implementation process.

Create enabling environment from the central to household level within the State to prepare and implement disaster risk Ensure mainstreaming disaster reduction into overall development process along with sectoral development and This plan has given the importance to the disaster risk management and sets the long term vision for developing the ountry for coping with any type of natural and induced disasters. It has clearly mentioned in the policy and actions under the section 6.3 (Disaster Risk Management), that the preparation of risk sensitive land use plan and following e will be made compulsory in urban and urbanizing areas.

It has also mentioned about the minimization of the impacts of climate change by protecting environment and availing opportunities; increasing the access of people in water n services; developing safe, low cost and environment friendly housings; developing appropriate settlements and cities from the environmental and social The KMC RSLUP prepared in 2010 went into another round of review and updating. An endorsement through a validation- workshop in Dec. 2011 was made, subject to the conditions outlined by the participants from various levels of Government. er approved by KMC Council and adopted for Taking off from the recommendations made in the KMC RSLUP hat a risk sensitive KV framework is needed towards proper land use planning of KMC and other member municipalities, sub- metropolitan cities and VDCs in KV.

A review, analysis of KV 2020 and road map are presented (this document) on how the KV wide land use plan) can be made risk This document suggests the use of the KMC mainstreaming framework for analyzing and planning for Kathmandu Valley. Integrating risk reduction in periodic plans (through the physical plan) would be the way of preparing local risk

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET Post 2012- Proposed Continuati on Risk Sensitive- Kathmandu Valley Development & Physical Framework Land use planning is identified as one of the most effective ways to achieve DRR and to take the National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change (2009) fast growing urban areas such as the physical framework plan and spatial plans by engaging the government (at various levels), private sector, civil society, international development organizations, and other key stakeholders (e.g.

academe, media, private sector, etc.). The land use planning process helps the need to reduce disaster risks as part of its pursuit for sustainable development The work done by Kathmandu Municipal City (KMC) in completing a Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan (RSLUP) in 201 experience to local and national government officials be enhanced or made risk sensitive reduction, climate change adaptation towards sustainable development necessary that existing planning structures (institutions) and legal frameworks are in place, and that tools and process are appropriate They collectively provide the environmen enable communities to develop sustainably and become disaster resilient.

RSLUP is illustrated in Figure Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Development & Physical An updated KV concept plan and risk sensitive physical framework is prepared that will be used to guide the urbanizing and urbanized VDCs, municipalities and sub- and KMC.

identified as one of the most effective ways to achieve DRR and to take National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (2009) and the Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change (2009) forward. For highly vulnerable fast growing urban areas such as the Kathmandu Valley, a risk sensitive land use plan or physical framework plan offers an opportunity to incorporate risk reduction into development and spatial plans by engaging the government (at various levels), private sector, civil society, international development organizations, and other key stakeholders (e.g. academe, media, . The land use planning process helps the Kathmandu Valley need to reduce disaster risks as part of its pursuit for sustainable development The work done by Kathmandu Municipal City (KMC), NSET, EMI, and other local partners Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan (RSLUP) in 2010 provided experience to local and national government officials that traditional land use planning can be enhanced or made risk sensitive and be used to meet national and local agendas on risk ion, climate change adaptation towards sustainable development necessary that existing planning structures (institutions) and legal frameworks are in place, and that tools and process are appropriate They collectively provide the environmen enable communities to develop sustainably and become disaster resilient.

Figure 3.

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 11 An updated KV concept plan and risk sensitive physical ill be used to guide the urbanizing -metropolitan cities identified as one of the most effective ways to achieve DRR and to take ) and the National Adaptation forward. For highly vulnerable and risk sensitive land use plan or to incorporate risk reduction into development and spatial plans by engaging the government (at various levels), private sector, civil society, international development organizations, and other key stakeholders (e.g.

academe, media, Kathmandu Valley address its need to reduce disaster risks as part of its pursuit for sustainable development. , NSET, EMI, and other local partners provided the learning that traditional land use planning can to meet national and local agendas on risk ion, climate change adaptation towards sustainable development. However, it is necessary that existing planning structures (institutions) and legal frameworks are in place, and that tools and process are appropriate They collectively provide the environment that will enable communities to develop sustainably and become disaster resilient.

The framework for

12 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks Figure 3. Model for Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning used for KMC This enabling environment may be anchored on several themes as: environmental protection & management, land use planning and management, safe infrastructure & building construction and enforcement, disaster risk management and good governance.

Hence, in practice, mainstreaming disaster use planning) requires one to review existing systems and identify gaps in the following: • Supportive legal, institutional arrangements; - Clear mandates, functions, responsibilities and jurisdictions; - Legal frameworks; - Capacities; • A clear framework for plan formulation and implementation; - Planning process and linkage (ex.

linkage between sectoral development and land use) ; - Participatory planning; - Planning practice and implementation/ enforcement; - Implementation tools used (ex. zoning, building by • Plan outputs; - Norms and standards used - Use of scientific information(ex. hazard and risks) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared Model for Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning used for KMC This enabling environment may be anchored on several themes of development policies such as: environmental protection & management, land use planning and management, safe infrastructure & building construction and enforcement, disaster risk management and good Hence, in practice, mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in development planning (ex.

land use planning) requires one to review existing systems and identify gaps in the following: Supportive legal, institutional arrangements; Clear mandates, functions, responsibilities and jurisdictions; frameworks; A clear framework for plan formulation and implementation; Planning process and linkage (ex. linkage between sectoral development and land Participatory planning; Planning practice and implementation/ enforcement; Implementation tools used (ex. zoning, building by- laws, incentives) Norms and standards used Use of scientific information(ex. hazard and risks) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET Model for Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning used for KMC of development policies such as: environmental protection & management, land use planning and management, safe infrastructure & building construction and enforcement, disaster risk management and good risk reduction in development planning (ex.

land use planning) requires one to review existing systems and identify gaps in the following: Planning process and linkage (ex. linkage between sectoral development and land laws, incentives)

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET - Analytical process (ex. suitability mapping) Recommendations are then made to ensure that these that which is desired are addressed in the different themes or policy areas. Unfortunately, important elements of the RSLUP (middle box in Figure 3 suggested by the relevant stakeholders that the RSLUP for Kathmandu City should be integrated into a full exercise Kathmandu Valley, the EMI RSLUP proje cover the whole Valley.

Thus, th importance of the RSLUP for the Kathmandu Valley is recognized in the Flagship Programme and was originally include Kathmandu Valley is a logical starting point for DRR in the country since it will inadequate development conditions and hazard exposures which translate to its vulnerabilities. Consultation KMC, ADB, JICA and others RSLUP for the Valley. This project should also be recognized and fully integrated in the CDRM Programme.

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Analytical process (ex. suitability mapping) Recommendations are then made to ensure that these gaps between the existing situation and that which is desired are addressed in the different themes or policy areas. Unfortunately, important elements of the RSLUP such as implementation and enforcement 3) were not completed in 2010 due to lack of resources.

the relevant stakeholders that the RSLUP for Kathmandu City should be integrated into a full exercise to develop a risk sensitive physical framework plan for the full the EMI RSLUP project in 2010 did not have the resources cover the whole Valley.

Thus, the work was limited to Kathmandu City importance of the RSLUP for the Kathmandu Valley is recognized in the Flagship Programme and was originally included in Flagship 5. The development of the RSLUP for the Kathmandu Valley is a logical starting point for DRR in the country since it will inadequate development conditions and hazard exposures which translate to its . Consultations with the stakeholders including MoPPW, MoLD, KVTDC, KMC, ADB, JICA and others point to the importance and urgency of the development of a RSLUP for the Valley. This project should also be recognized and fully integrated in the Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 13 gaps between the existing situation and that which is desired are addressed in the different themes or policy areas.

such as implementation and enforcement due to lack of resources. While it was the relevant stakeholders that the RSLUP for Kathmandu City should be to develop a risk sensitive physical framework plan for the full ct in 2010 did not have the resources at that time to was limited to Kathmandu City. Nonetheless, the importance of the RSLUP for the Kathmandu Valley is recognized in the Flagship . The development of the RSLUP for the Kathmandu Valley is a logical starting point for DRR in the country since it will help address inadequate development conditions and hazard exposures which translate to its s with the stakeholders including MoPPW, MoLD, KVTDC, the importance and urgency of the development of a RSLUP for the Valley.

This project should also be recognized and fully integrated in the

14 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks 2 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS Kathmandu Valley (KV) i Nepal. It covers an area of 66,650 hectares of land within Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Madhyapur Thimi Municipali Kirtipur Municipality and 98 Village Development Committees rise behind the green hills in the north to provide an awe city is located at 27°42' north Latitude and 85°20' east Longitude. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS: DISASTERS IN THE KATHMANDU VALLEY Kathmandu Valley (KV) is located in the Bagmati Zone, Central Develo It covers an area of 66,650 hectares of land within Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Thimi Municipality, Bhaktapur Municipality, Lalitpur Sub Kirtipur Municipality and 98 Village Development Committees.

Snow rise behind the green hills in the north to provide an awe-inspiring backdrop at 27°42' north Latitude and 85°20' east Longitude. Figure 4. Location Map Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET KATHMANDU VALLEY one, Central Development Region of It covers an area of 66,650 hectares of land within Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Lalitpur Sub-metropolitan City, . Snow-covered mountains inspiring backdrop to the city. The

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET 2.1 Disaster Losses and Associated Risks Earthquake Vulnerability Concerns over seismic risk to Kathmandu are driven not only by the high rate of seismicity (See Annex 1) but also by the extreme vulnerability of structures and infrastructure and the high density of the built environment. The percent of building construction that could be considered to of earthquake is negligible, whereas the overwhelming majority of buildings and structures indicate a high to very high vulnerability.

The density of buildings and population, the extreme vulnerability, the difficulties of access due to narrow roads and the potential for secondary effects such as fire f earthquake, hazardous material release, landslides, liquefaction and others are indicators of a Table 2: Losses due to Earthquake in Kathmandu Valley, Hazards/Disaster Events No of Data Human Population Death Earthquake 4 3 Table 3: Loss estimation figures for mid Municipality / VDC Projected Population, Buildings and Impacts due to Scenario Earthquake in Population Kathmandu District Kathmandu Metropolitan City (35 Wards) 956,364 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Disaster Losses and Associated Risks Earthquake Vulnerability oncerns over seismic risk to Kathmandu are driven not only by the high rate of seismicity but also by the extreme vulnerability of structures and infrastructures and the high density of the built environment.

The percent of building construction that could be considered to withstand the impact earthquake is negligible, whereas the ming majority of buildings and structures indicate a high to very high vulnerability. The density of buildings and population, the extreme vulnerability, the difficulties of access due to narrow roads and the potential for secondary effects such as fire f earthquake, hazardous material release, landslides, liquefaction and others are indicators of a large scale urban catastrophe waiting to happen with a level of destruction that is unprecedented. Further, Kathmandu is also subject to other haza such as flooding, landslides and has high exposure to climate change because of its location and fragile environment, which aggravate the vulnerability of the city to natural hazards (KMC RSLUP, 2011) The following tables reveal actual losses (past events) and potential losses estimated from the Mid Nepal earthquake scenario.

Losses due to Earthquake in Kathmandu Valley, 1971 Human Population Buildings Evacuated Farming/Forests(ha) Missing Injuries Victims Affected Destroyed Damage --- 6 - 10 254 - - (Source: Nepal DesInventar data base, NSET 2011) Loss estimation figures for mid-Nepal Earthquake (intensity Projected Population, Buildings and Impacts due to Scenario Earthquake in 2009 Population No. of Buildings Death Injury (Severe and Moderate) Building Damage (Heavy and Partial) 956,364 187,137 14,585 120,717 87,193 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 15 ming majority of buildings and structures indicate a high to very high vulnerability.

The density of buildings and population, the extreme vulnerability, the difficulties of access due to narrow roads and the potential for secondary effects such as fire following an earthquake, hazardous material release, landslides, liquefaction and others are indicators of a large scale urban catastrophe waiting to happen with a level of destruction that is unprecedented. Further, Kathmandu is also subject to other hazards such as flooding, landslides and has high exposure to climate change because of its location and fragile environment, which aggravate the vulnerability of (KMC RSLUP, 2011).

The following tables reveal actual losses (past ents) and potential losses estimated from the Mid- 1971-2011 Farming/Forests(ha) Livestock Education Centre Losses value(NRs) - 9 - - (Source: Nepal DesInventar data base, NSET 2011) Nepal Earthquake (intensity IX MMI) Projected Population, Buildings and Impacts due to Scenario Earthquake in Building Damage (Heavy and Partial) Displaced Population 87,193 291,232

16 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks Kirtipur Municipality (19 Wards) 50,065 VDCs (Total 56 VDCs) 494,684 Kathmandu District Total 1,501,112 Lalitpur District Lalitpur Sub Metropolitan City (22 Wards) 211,501 VDCs (Total 26 VDCs) 218,863 Lalitpur District Total 430,364 Bhaktapur District Bhaktapur Municipality (17 Wards) 82,574 MadhyapurThimi Municipality (17 Wards) 64,770 VDCs (Total 16 VDCs) 139,371 Bhaktapur District Total 286,714 Total Valley 2,218,191 2.1.1 Flood, Landslide and Debris Flood There are more than 6,000 rivers and streams in Nepal, most of which flow from north to south generally at high velocity due to steep river gradient.

The majority of the larger rivers are snow fed from the Himalayas. Since the topography of the country is steep and rugged, with high-angle slopes and complex geology, large quantities of rainfall during the monsoon season lead to floods, landslides, and debris flows in a number of cities. Costly yet ineffective land conservation causes flooding and landslides. Unplanned settlements and structures built without consideration of natural hazards aggravate the situation. In addition, landslides caused by torrential rains add enormous volume to streams a floods and debris flows downstream that kill numerous people and inflict immense harm to agricultural lands, crops, and properties.

In July 1993, the Tarai region experienced a destructive flood which claimed the lives 1,336 people and affected another 487,534. In 1998, floods and landslides struck various parts of the country, mainly the Tarai and middle Hill regions, killing 273, injuring 80, and impacting 33,549 families. The floods and landslides also ruined 45,00 Similar flooding occurred in 1999 and continues to occur annually. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared 9,065 240 2,030 4,563 494,684 89,722 8,996 74,578 51,426 1,501,112 285,924 23,821 197,325 143,182 211,501 45,202 990 8,310 19,355 218,863 39,583 2,463 20,523 21,833 430,364 84,785 3,452 28,834 41,188 12,381 271 2,287 5,836 10,423 147 1,249 4,359 139,371 24,065 925 7,759 11,996 286,714 46,869 1,342 11,295 22,191 2,218,191 417,577 28,616 237,454 206,561 (Source: Nepal DesInventar data base, NSET 2011) Flood, Landslide and Debris Flood There are more than 6,000 rivers and streams in Nepal, most of which flow from north to south generally at high velocity due to steep river gradient.

The majority of the larger rivers from the Himalayas. Since the topography of the country is steep and rugged, angle slopes and complex geology, large quantities of rainfall during the monsoon season lead to floods, landslides, and debris flows in a number of cities. Costly yet ineffective land conservation causes flooding and landslides. Unplanned settlements and structures built without consideration of natural hazards aggravate the situation. In addition, landslides caused by torrential rains add enormous volume to streams a floods and debris flows downstream that kill numerous people and inflict immense harm to agricultural lands, crops, and properties.

(KMC, RSLUP, 2011) In July 1993, the Tarai region experienced a destructive flood which claimed the lives 1,336 people and affected another 487,534. In 1998, floods and landslides struck various parts of the country, mainly the Tarai and middle Hill regions, killing 273, injuring 80, and impacting 33,549 families. The floods and landslides also ruined 45,00 Similar flooding occurred in 1999 and continues to occur annually. (KMC, RSLUP, 2011) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET 4,563 18,673 51,426 227,784 143,182 537,689 19,355 49,016 21,833 95,224 41,188 144,239 5,836 25,011 4,359 17,656 11,996 53,944 22,191 96,612 206,561 778,540 (Source: Nepal DesInventar data base, NSET 2011) There are more than 6,000 rivers and streams in Nepal, most of which flow from north to south generally at high velocity due to steep river gradient.

The majority of the larger rivers from the Himalayas. Since the topography of the country is steep and rugged, angle slopes and complex geology, large quantities of rainfall during the monsoon season lead to floods, landslides, and debris flows in a number of cities. Costly yet ineffective land conservation causes flooding and landslides. Unplanned settlements and structures built without consideration of natural hazards aggravate the situation. In addition, landslides caused by torrential rains add enormous volume to streams and rivers causing floods and debris flows downstream that kill numerous people and inflict immense harm to In July 1993, the Tarai region experienced a destructive flood which claimed the lives of 1,336 people and affected another 487,534.

In 1998, floods and landslides struck various parts of the country, mainly the Tarai and middle Hill regions, killing 273, injuring 80, and impacting 33,549 families. The floods and landslides also ruined 45,000 hectares of crops. (KMC, RSLUP, 2011)

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET Table 4: Losses due to flood and lan Hazards/D isaster Events No of Data Human Population Death Missing Injuries Flood 60 53 18 8 Landslide 60 68 6 20 2.1.2 Fire Fire occurs mainly between April and June during the dry season when it seldom rains and temperatures in the Tarai region reach higher than 35°C. Fires are common to the rural Tarai and Hill regions where 90.8 percent of the total population lives in very poor housing conditions.

Houses in rural regions, especially Tarai, are composed of straw or timber and tend to be very close to each other, thereby increasing the risk of fire and fire spread. In 1999 a blaze killed 39 people, injured 10, and affected 1,065 families. The fire, with estimated total losses of NRs 45.23 million, destroyed 1,035 houses, 52 cattle sheds and 148 livestock. Table 5: Losses due to fire in Kathmandu Valley, 1971 Hazards/Dis aster Events No of Data Human Population Death Missing Injuries Fire 603 126 50 168 Natural hazards which threaten Madhyapur Municipality through the years 2004 to 2011 can be categorized as related to: fire, hailstorm, rains and monsoon, earthquake, landslides.

Fire appears frequent and occurred in this city four times, in the following year: 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011, with a single human loss in 2010. The hail storm in 2007 caused huge destroy of ripen crops. In 2011, heavy rains and flood destroyed the several houses and cultivated area Roads were water -logged for several hours. In 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.9 caused minor losses and landslides seriously affected the historic and picnic spot of the city so called Nil Barahi jungle area. About a decade ago, a large landslide oc the mostly the east and west part of this Significant Temple area.

For Kathmandu City, using a 41 year record, (1971 among hazards, in number of deaths, injuries and missing persons losses to built- up areas. With forest fires included, it gives a picture that fire hazards are the most destructive to KMC environment. Floods appear to affect lesser numbers of people and very few had been recorded to die from floo There is a short record and lack of damage estimates to indicate destructive impacts of Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Losses due to flood and landslide in Kathmandu Valley, Human Population Buildings Evacuated Farming/Forests(ha) Victims Affected Destroyed Damage ---- 10,579 186 225 322 33,252 62 --- 573 134 39 --- 21 5 (Source: Nepal DesInventar data base, NSET 2011) Fire occurs mainly between April and June during the dry season when it seldom rains and temperatures in the Tarai region reach higher than 35°C.

Fires are common to the rural Tarai ere 90.8 percent of the total population lives in very poor housing conditions. Houses in rural regions, especially Tarai, are composed of straw or timber and tend to be very close to each other, thereby increasing the risk of fire and fire spread. In 1999 a blaze killed 39 people, injured 10, and affected 1,065 families. The fire, with estimated total losses of NRs 45.23 million, destroyed 1,035 houses, 52 cattle sheds and 148 livestock. Losses due to fire in Kathmandu Valley, 1971- Human Population Buildings Evacuated Farming/Forests(ha) Livestock Injuries Victims Affected Destroyed Damage 168 --- 1,336 390 296 3 0.5 1293 (Source: Nepal DesInventar data base, NSET 2011) Natural hazards which threaten Madhyapur Municipality through the years 2004 to 2011 can be categorized as related to: fire, hailstorm, rains and monsoon, earthquake, landslides.

Fire ccurred in this city four times, in the following year: 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011, with a single human loss in 2010. The hail storm in 2007 caused huge destroy of ripen crops. In 2011, heavy rains and flood destroyed the several houses and cultivated area logged for several hours. In 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.9 caused minor losses and landslides seriously affected the historic and picnic spot of the city so called Nil Barahi jungle area. About a decade ago, a large landslide occurred causing the erosion of the mostly the east and west part of this Significant Temple area. For Kathmandu City, using a 41 year record, (1971-2011), fire events (295 events) rank first among hazards, in number of deaths, injuries and missing persons and in terms of damage up areas.

With forest fires included, it gives a picture that fire hazards are the most destructive to KMC environment. Floods appear to affect lesser numbers of people and very few had been recorded to die from floods, but it leads fires in terms of building damages. There is a short record and lack of damage estimates to indicate destructive impacts of Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 17 slide in Kathmandu Valley, 1971-2011 Livestock Education Centre Losses value(NRs) 62 - 58,674,000 5 - 35,012,050 (Source: Nepal DesInventar data base, NSET 2011) Fire occurs mainly between April and June during the dry season when it seldom rains and temperatures in the Tarai region reach higher than 35°C.

Fires are common to the rural Tarai ere 90.8 percent of the total population lives in very poor housing conditions. Houses in rural regions, especially Tarai, are composed of straw or timber and tend to be very close to each other, thereby increasing the risk of fire and fire spread. In 1999, a blaze killed 39 people, injured 10, and affected 1,065 families. The fire, with estimated total losses of NRs 45.23 million, destroyed 1,035 houses, 52 cattle sheds and 148 livestock. -2011 Education Centre Losses value(NRs) 2 591,558,339 (Source: Nepal DesInventar data base, NSET 2011) Natural hazards which threaten Madhyapur Municipality through the years 2004 to 2011 can be categorized as related to: fire, hailstorm, rains and monsoon, earthquake, landslides.

Fire ccurred in this city four times, in the following year: 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011, with a single human loss in 2010. The hail storm in 2007 caused huge destroy of ripen crops. In 2011, heavy rains and flood destroyed the several houses and cultivated areas. logged for several hours. In 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.9 caused minor losses and landslides seriously affected the historic and picnic spot of the city so called curred causing the erosion of 2011), fire events (295 events) rank first and in terms of damage up areas. With forest fires included, it gives a picture that fire hazards are the most destructive to KMC environment.

Floods appear to affect lesser numbers of people and ds, but it leads fires in terms of building damages.

There is a short record and lack of damage estimates to indicate destructive impacts of

18 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks earthquakes; but they are perceived to be more devastating when left unaddressed considering the vulnerability of buildings and structures mentioned in this land use plan. Fire and building collapse appears frequent in Lalitpur. The earthquake of 2011 had revealed that damage to structure will be more under stronger earthquakes.

In Bhaktapur municipality, based on a 10 collapse has contributed to the many affected people and building damages. Based on the Table shown below; fire flood, rain, structural collapse and epidemic account for most of the hazard threats to the forest fire and structural collapse comprise the monetary losses from damages. Table 6: Hazard Threats to the Population in Kathmandu Valley Table:EventwiseHuman population death and other losses dueto differentnatural disasters in Kathmandu Valley, 1971 - 2011 Deaths Missing Injuries Accident 73 77 1 BoatCapsize 3 6 - Cold Wave 2 3 - Earthquake 4 - - Epidemic 72 58 - Explosion 15 10 - Fire 603 126 50 Flood 60 53 18 Forestfire 7 - - Frost 1 - - Hail strom 17 - - Landslide 60 68 6 Other 5 4 1 Panic 1 70 - Plague 8 - - Pollution 2 - - Rains 24 4 - SnowStorm 1 - - Storm 5 - - Strong wind 10 4 - Struct.

Collapse 128 91 6 Thunderstorm 25 19 - Total 1,126 593 82 1,049 Source:Nepal DesInventar Database, NSET 2011 Note:Nepal DesInventar Databaseincludes for theperiod of January 1, 1971 to June15, 2011 Human Population No.of Data- Hazard / Disaster events Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared earthquakes; but they are perceived to be more devastating when left unaddressed considering uildings and structures mentioned in this land use plan.

Fire and building collapse appears frequent in Lalitpur. The earthquake of 2011 had revealed that damage to structure will be more under stronger earthquakes. In Bhaktapur municipality, based on a 10 year record: fire, flood, landslide and structural collapse has contributed to the many affected people and building damages. Based on the Table shown below; fire flood, rain, structural collapse and epidemic account for most of the hazard threats to the population in Kathmandu Valley. Fire, flood, landslide, forest fire and structural collapse comprise the monetary losses from damages. Hazard Threats to the Population in Kathmandu Valley Table:EventwiseHuman population death and other losses dueto differentnatural disasters in Kathmandu Valley, 1971 - 2011 Injuries Victims Affected Destroyed Damaged 19 - 5 - 7 - 7 - - 6 - - 10 254 - - 486 222 4,495 - 11 - 4 - 1 - - 168 - 1,336 390 296 3 0.5 1,293 8 - 10,579 186 225 322 332.52 - 45 - - 5 2 - - 9 - 8 - 851.1 20 - 573 134 39 - 21 - 2 - 97 - - - 10 - 1,096 14 6 - - - - 10 - - 12 - 14 - - 170 - 548 149 50 - 0.25 26 - - 3 4 - - 1,049 222 18,648 888 907 327 1250.37 2,527 Note:Nepal DesInventar Databaseincludes for theperiod of January 1, 1971 to June15, 2011 Human Population Livestock Farming and forest (Ha) Evacuated Buildings Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET earthquakes; but they are perceived to be more devastating when left unaddressed considering uildings and structures mentioned in this land use plan.

Fire and building collapse appears frequent in Lalitpur. The earthquake of 2011 had revealed year record: fire, flood, landslide and structural collapse has contributed to the many affected people and building damages. Based on the Table shown below; fire flood, rain, structural collapse and epidemic account for population in Kathmandu Valley. Fire, flood, landslide, forest fire and structural collapse comprise the monetary losses from damages. Hazard Threats to the Population in Kathmandu Valley - - - - - - - - - - 9 - - - - - - 65,200 1,293 2 591,558,339 62 - 58,674,000 - - 2,710,000 - - 520,000 - - 4,500,000 5 - 35,012,050 - - - - - - 1159 - - - - - 3 - 1,760,000 - - 1,000,000 - 1 120,000 - - - 2 - 2,829,000 3 - 403,000 2,527 12 699,151,589 Losses Value (NRs) Education Centre Livestock

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET 2.2 Climate Change and Variability Impacts Infrastructures Nepal’s climate is influenced by the Himalayan mountain range and the South Asian Monsoon. The climate is characterized into four distinct seasons: pre monsoon (June-September), post monsoon (Octo February). Annual average rainfall is about 1800 mm yearly. The monsoon rain is abundant in the east and gradually declines as it moves westwards; while winter rains are higher in the northwest declining as it moves sou mid-hill areas around Pokhara and northeast and east of the Kathmandu Valley.

Temperature tends to increase from north to south.

In terms of projections, mean annual temperature may increase betw by 2030 and about 1.7 deg C by 2050. Increases in temperature from 2 be expected until 2100. Precipitation may increase in the range of 15 to 20% for the whole country during summer months. Generally there is rainfall in terms of intensity of rainfall. Nepal, largely an agrarian economy resource availability (i.e. water resources). The NAPA report indicates that very high rating in terms of a vulnerability index. Essentially, it describe vulnerable to loss of physical capital (damage to shelter and infrastructure), human capital (malnutrition and disease), social capital (displacement of communities) and financial capital (more disasters and lower income).

In that same report, it indicated that disastrous floods and reduce be experienced due to extreme events that may increase food prices and /or damage livelihood assets of the vulnerable communities. The report further adds that climate change is likely to result in incre buildings, energy services, telecommunications, transport structures and water services, hence, generally affecting the quality of lives and safety of local communities. 4 Excerpts of this section are culled from the of the Ministry of Environment Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Climate Change and Variability Impacts to Urban Settlements and Nepal’s climate is influenced by the Himalayan mountain range and the South Asian Monsoon.

The climate is characterized into four distinct seasons: pre-monsoon (March September), post monsoon (October- November) and winter (December February). Annual average rainfall is about 1800 mm yearly. The monsoon rain is abundant in the east and gradually declines as it moves westwards; while winter rains are higher in the northwest declining as it moves south-eastwards. The highest rainfall occurs in the central and hill areas around Pokhara and northeast and east of the Kathmandu Valley. Temperature tends to increase from north to south.

In terms of projections, mean annual temperature may increase between 1.2 deg C by 2030 and about 1.7 deg C by 2050. Increases in temperature from 2 deg be expected until 2100. Precipitation may increase in the range of 15 to 20% for the whole country during summer months. Generally there is an increase in monsoon and post monsoon rainfall in terms of intensity of rainfall. Nepal, largely an agrarian economy, is highly sensitive to these changes in climate and nature resource availability (i.e. water resources).4 The NAPA report indicates that Kathmandu is one among the more vulnerable districts with a very high rating in terms of a vulnerability index.

Essentially, it described vulnerable to loss of physical capital (damage to shelter and infrastructure), human capital lnutrition and disease), social capital (displacement of communities) and financial capital (more disasters and lower income).

it indicated that the direct impacts of climate change may result to disastrous floods and reduced freshwater supplies. Indirect impacts of climate change could be experienced due to extreme events that may increase food prices and /or damage livelihood assets of the vulnerable communities. The report further adds that climate change is likely to result in incre buildings, energy services, telecommunications, transport structures and water services, hence, generally affecting the quality of lives and safety of local communities. Excerpts of this section are culled from the of the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2009 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 19 Urban Settlements and Nepal’s climate is influenced by the Himalayan mountain range and the South Asian monsoon (March-May), November) and winter (December- February).

Annual average rainfall is about 1800 mm yearly. The monsoon rain is abundant in the east and gradually declines as it moves westwards; while winter rains are higher in the eastwards. The highest rainfall occurs in the central and hill areas around Pokhara and northeast and east of the Kathmandu Valley. Temperature een 1.2 deg C- 1.4 deg C deg C to 3 deg C may be expected until 2100. Precipitation may increase in the range of 15 to 20% for the whole an increase in monsoon and post monsoon is highly sensitive to these changes in climate and nature Kathmandu is one among the more vulnerable districts with a d that poor people are vulnerable to loss of physical capital (damage to shelter and infrastructure), human capital lnutrition and disease), social capital (displacement of communities) and financial capital the direct impacts of climate change may result to r supplies.

Indirect impacts of climate change could be experienced due to extreme events that may increase food prices and /or damage livelihood The report further adds that climate change is likely to result in increased damage to buildings, energy services, telecommunications, transport structures and water services, hence, generally affecting the quality of lives and safety of local communities. National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2009 of the

20 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks 3 VULNERABILITY OF KAT The Nepal, Kathmandu Va world. It is ranked 11th among 150 countries, according to the Humanitarian Aid Office of the European Commission. In addition, there are certain social, economic and political factors in t which tend to aggravate the impact of hazard events. the development related aspects which contribute to the physical, social and environmental vulnerability of the Valley.

Information was mainly 2001 and various agency reports.

3.1 Population and Social 3.1.1 Population The Valley district growth includes Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur, five (5) municipalities and ninety and rural growth rate was 3.6million people in 202 be living in the Kathmandu District, 1 A significant percentage, a areas and 20% in the rural areas. migration on the Kathmandu metropolitan area. natural increase alone in the Valley population 3.1.2 Social Aspects Kathmandu Valley continues to components of vulnerability reveal the following: • Widespread Poverty the effects of which exacerbate environmental disasters, for example, deforestation or destruction of forests • Movement to High risk areas areas such as unstable slopes, river banks, or along road and rail rights of way and along easements of power lines.

This exposes the poor directly to hazards and their deprivation reduces their capacity to cope with disasters, much less recover quickly from the effects of disasters.

• Political Instability conflicts which have displaced country and lack of security and safety of life and property in the rural areas compelled many families to move to urban dissolved on 27th May 2012 at the stroke of midnight constitution. • Threat to Cultural and Heritage Sites world heritage sites, namely Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Swayambhunath, Boudhanath, Pas risk to damage from environmental hazards. These heritage sites consist of numerous temples, monasteries, stupas, palaces, chowks, ponds, and waterspouts etc., which represent the culture, heritage sites, there are also more than thirty religious and monument sites in various places such as Dakshin Bajra Yogini and Budha Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared VULNERABILITY OF KATHMANDU VALLEY TO DISASTERS Nepal, Kathmandu Valley is considered one of the most disaster-prone countries in the among 150 countries, according to the Humanitarian Aid Office of the In addition, there are certain social, economic and political factors in the which tend to aggravate the impact of hazard events.

The following section briefly describes related aspects which contribute to the physical, social and environmental vulnerability of the Valley. Information was mainly sourced from KV Development Concept 2001 and various agency reports.

Social Aspects Valley district growth includes Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur, five (5) municipalities and ninety-eight (98) VDCs. Urban growth rate was and rural growth rate was 1.03% (2001 -2011). Population projections indicate a rise to 21 from 2.642 million in 2011. Among these, sixty eight (6 be living in the Kathmandu District, 18% in Lalitpur district and 12.5% in Bhaktapur district. A significant percentage, about 80% of the Valley population will be residing in the urban areas and 20% in the rural areas. The burden will be on KMC. There is a great pressure of Kathmandu metropolitan area.

It is highlighted in the KV report that a atural increase alone in the Valley population can propel the urbanization on its own. Kathmandu Valley continues to experience a number of pressing social issues. omponents of vulnerability reveal the following: Widespread Poverty: Poverty drives many people to engage in unsustainable livelihoods the effects of which exacerbate environmental disasters, for example, deforestation or forests.

o High risk areas: Poverty also drives some people to inhabit high such as unstable slopes, river banks, or along road and rail rights of way and along easements of power lines. This exposes the poor directly to hazards and their deprivation uces their capacity to cope with disasters, much less recover quickly from the effects Political Instability: The long-running conflicts (1996-2006) have triggered armed conflicts which have displaced many communities living in the remote areas of the country and lack of security and safety of life and property in the rural areas compelled many families to move to urban centres.

The four year-old Constituent Assembly May 2012 at the stroke of midnight without delivering a new Threat to Cultural and Heritage Sites: Seven cultural heritage sites enlisted in the world heritage sites, namely Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Swayambhunath, Boudhanath, Pasupatinath, Changunarayan, risk to damage from environmental hazards. These heritage sites consist of numerous temples, monasteries, stupas, palaces, chowks, ponds, and waterspouts etc., which represent the culture, history, religion and architecture of the Valley. Apart from the there are also more than thirty religious and monument sites in various places such as Dakshin Kali, Nil Barahi, Bajra Barahi, Surya Binayak, Karya Binayak, and Budha Nilakanth.

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET TO DISASTERS prone countries in the among 150 countries, according to the Humanitarian Aid Office of the he Kathmandu Valley, The following section briefly describes related aspects which contribute to the physical, social and environmental sourced from KV Development Concept Valley district growth includes Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur, and encompasses growth rate was 3.38% per year rojections indicate a rise to ixty eight (69.5%) will % in Bhaktapur district.

bout 80% of the Valley population will be residing in the urban There is a great pressure of It is highlighted in the KV report that a can propel the urbanization on its own. a number of pressing social issues. Key Poverty drives many people to engage in unsustainable livelihoods the effects of which exacerbate environmental disasters, for example, deforestation or to inhabit high-risk such as unstable slopes, river banks, or along road and rail rights of way and along easements of power lines. This exposes the poor directly to hazards and their deprivation uces their capacity to cope with disasters, much less recover quickly from the effects have triggered armed living in the remote areas of the country and lack of security and safety of life and property in the rural areas compelled old Constituent Assembly without delivering a new Seven cultural heritage sites enlisted in the world heritage sites, namely Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, Bhaktapur upatinath, Changunarayan, etc.

are at risk to damage from environmental hazards. These heritage sites consist of numerous temples, monasteries, stupas, palaces, chowks, ponds, and waterspouts etc., which cture of the Valley. Apart from the there are also more than thirty religious and monument sites in various , Nil Barahi, Bajra Barahi, Surya Binayak, Karya Binayak,

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET 3.1.3 Economy Tourism, agro-service, business, commerce and industry sector fuels the growth in Kathmandu’s economy. The manufacturing industries engaged a total of 123,000 persons (National Research Associates, Nepal 1999).Such principal industries are carpets, textil ready-made garments, weaving/hosiery, factories. A great number of hotels and resorts may be found in the Valley • Economic infrastructure support is weak and facilities can no longer cope and can For this, employment and services and facilities, in addition to economic opportunities, should be expanded in • The Agriculture sector is also weakening.

3.1.4 Environment & Resource Related Day-to-day risks are faced by the people living in the Valley and are strongly related to environmental degradation.

• Degraded and denuding water resources Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology Integrated Mountain Development Programme (UNEP) surface water sources, such as rivers and “kunds” from increasing population and economic activities. The pressure on these water sources has also increased over the years as the agricultural sector intensified its de water. Almost all major rivers have been tapped at source for drinking water supplies. This supply is only about 120 million liters per day (mld) during the rainy season and 80 mld during dry season, against the estimated daily demand of 170 mld ( dry season, 60-70 percent of the water supply comes from groundwater.

Only 79 percent of the total demand for water of the urban population has been met. (MoEST, ICIMOD and UNEP, 2007). In view of the climate change impacts identified in the 2009, there is a need to address these resource issues immediately. • Hazard Prone & Disaster areas sourced from various agencies, NGO database (Nepal DesInventar, NSET, 2011) and from project reports specially related to earthquake and flood impacts. - Natural hazard & risk information integrated in Development plans and processes: Most of the reports on natural hazard impacts in the Valley had been published after the KV 2001 plan.

Hence, haz information were not available during KV 2020 plan conception and finalization. • Land, Water & Air Pollution the Valley included motor vehicles, factories, bio emission is the major factor. The reasons for aggravating vehicular emission can be attributed to the use of old vehicles, poor maintenance and use of substandard fuel, among others.

• Poor sanitation& waste management in household sewage and wastes, and industrial effluents dumped into the river without treatment. There is also a high level of air pollution due to poor road conditions producing dust and particulates. Improper solid waste disposal du of garbage along roadsides also contributes to urban pollution in the city. 3.1.5 Land Use Related The agricultural, non-agricultural and forest zones occupy 41%, 28%, and 31% of the total land of the Valley (as of 1998) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes service, business, commerce and industry sector fuels the growth in Kathmandu’s economy.

The manufacturing industries engaged a total of 123,000 persons (National Research Associates, Nepal 1999).Such principal industries are carpets, textil weaving/hosiery, handicrafts and wooden craft, furniture, brick and tile A great number of hotels and resorts may be found in the Valley Economic infrastructure support is weak: As a result of fast urban expansion, s and facilities can no longer cope and can eventually destabilize the urban management. r this, employment and services and facilities, in addition to economic opportunities, should be expanded in urbanizing areas. The carrying capacity needs to b The Agriculture sector is also weakening.

Environment & Resource Related day risks are faced by the people living in the Valley and are strongly related to environmental degradation. Degraded and denuding water resources: According to a joint study Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MoEST), International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and United Nations Environment ) titled, “Kathmandu Valley Environmental Outlook,” the Valle surface water sources, such as rivers and “kunds”, have received tremendous pressure from increasing population and economic activities. The pressure on these water sources has also increased over the years as the agricultural sector intensified its de water.

Almost all major rivers have been tapped at source for drinking water supplies. This supply is only about 120 million liters per day (mld) during the rainy season and 80 mld during dry season, against the estimated daily demand of 170 mld ( 70 percent of the water supply comes from groundwater. Only 79 percent of the total demand for water of the urban population has been met. (MoEST, ICIMOD and UNEP, 2007). In view of the climate change impacts identified in the 2009, there is a need to address these resource issues immediately. Hazard Prone & Disaster areas: Information on hazards and negative impacts may be sourced from various agencies, NGO database (Nepal DesInventar, NSET, 2011) and ct reports specially related to earthquake and flood impacts.

Natural hazard & risk information integrated in Development plans and Most of the reports on natural hazard impacts in the Valley had been published after the KV 2001 plan. Hence, hazard information and other vital information were not available during KV 2020 plan conception and finalization. Land, Water & Air Pollution: The KV report had identified the cause of air pollution in motor vehicles, factories, bio-mass and fuel; out of which, vehicular emission is the major factor. The reasons for aggravating vehicular emission can be use of old vehicles, poor maintenance and use of substandard fuel, among Poor sanitation& waste management in Kathmandu Valley: This is mainly due to household sewage and wastes, and industrial effluents dumped into the river without treatment.

There is also a high level of air pollution due to poor road conditions producing dust and particulates. Improper solid waste disposal due to temporary dumping of garbage along roadsides also contributes to urban pollution in the city. agricultural and forest zones occupy 41%, 28%, and 31% of the total land of the Valley (as of 1998), respectively. There is much diversification of land use. Urban Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 21 service, business, commerce and industry sector fuels the growth in Kathmandu’s economy.

The manufacturing industries engaged a total of 123,000 persons (National Research Associates, Nepal 1999).Such principal industries are carpets, textiles and wooden craft, furniture, brick and tile A great number of hotels and resorts may be found in the Valley. As a result of fast urban expansion, services eventually destabilize the urban management. r this, employment and services and facilities, in addition to economic opportunities, areas. The carrying capacity needs to be determined.

day risks are faced by the people living in the Valley and are strongly related to a joint study in 2007 by International Centre for United Nations Environment titled, “Kathmandu Valley Environmental Outlook,” the Valley’s have received tremendous pressure from increasing population and economic activities. The pressure on these water sources has also increased over the years as the agricultural sector intensified its demand for water. Almost all major rivers have been tapped at source for drinking water supplies. This supply is only about 120 million liters per day (mld) during the rainy season and 80 mld during dry season, against the estimated daily demand of 170 mld (NWSC 2001).

In 70 percent of the water supply comes from groundwater. Only 79 percent of the total demand for water of the urban population has been met. (MoEST, ICIMOD and UNEP, 2007). In view of the climate change impacts identified in the NAPA report of Information on hazards and negative impacts may be sourced from various agencies, NGO database (Nepal DesInventar, NSET, 2011) and ct reports specially related to earthquake and flood impacts. Natural hazard & risk information integrated in Development plans and Most of the reports on natural hazard impacts in the Valley had been ard information and other vital information were not available during KV 2020 plan conception and finalization.

cause of air pollution in s and fuel; out of which, vehicular emission is the major factor. The reasons for aggravating vehicular emission can be use of old vehicles, poor maintenance and use of substandard fuel, among This is mainly due to household sewage and wastes, and industrial effluents dumped into the river without treatment. There is also a high level of air pollution due to poor road conditions e to temporary dumping of garbage along roadsides also contributes to urban pollution in the city. agricultural and forest zones occupy 41%, 28%, and 31% of the total re is much diversification of land use.

Urban

22 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks residential use covers about 7% while rural settlement covers 12.6%. covers about 66,665 hectares. rapid decline of the agriculture land of 2041-51 B. (1984-1994), a total of 7642 hectares of agriculture land was converted for urban uses whereas during the period of 2051 of agriculture land was converted. It is estimated that 3600 hectares of land will be required for the next 20 years at the rate of 300 persons per hectare.

structures were promoted mentioned in the report is deemed to help in preserving the a hand, new sites for urban expansion must be pre 3.1.6 Key contributors of vulnerability: • A rapid urbanization of the Valley is uncontrolled population growth and inadequate services and facilities will eventually destabilize the urban management. - Rapid conversion of unproductive agricultural lands constraints is that habitation with low density of population was taking place in the Valley and causing decline of fertile agriculture land. The report mentions that between 2041B.S.

decreased from 64 percent to 42 percent.

If this trend continues, the agriculture land in the Valley will go to zero in 2082 B.S. • Rapid and haphazard urban transformation of the Kathmandu Valley inflicted a great pressure on the Valley's precious natura land, environment, cultural heritage, services and facilities; and the way of life of the people in the Valley has changed and their living is getting dearer and more painful growth of settlements in the Valley is gene planning intervention on the part of the government to guide its directions. The low density urban sprawl and uncontrolled settlement development in rural areas similarly pose a challenge for urban managers becau maintaining municipal services • Densification issues KV 2020 at 300 persons per hectare (or net density of 600 persons per hectare) considering a 50% occupation for residential purposes.

Given the assumption that 500 persons per hectare (ne densification. Standards for land allocation for educational or health institutions were provided in the report where this maybe cons • Current causes and effects and trends of urbanization need to be updated Use Plan of the Valley 2033 B.S. (1976) remained in effect until the reported period (2001) when KV 2020 was crafted. The current causes and effects, trends of urbanization should be analyzed for Kathmandu Valley to aid decision making • Basin or watershed approach is not yet developed for Kathmandu how a basin wide approach may be tackled as the watershed planning covers a wider 5 Source: KV 2020 6 Source: KV 2020, RSLUP E-Learning, 2012 Discussion Forum 7 Ibid.

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared residential use covers about 7% while rural settlement covers 12.6%. covers about 66,665 hectares. The analysis of the land use trend of the Valley culture land and that this trend is likely continuing 1994), a total of 7642 hectares of agriculture land was converted for urban uses whereas during the period of 2051-57 B.S. (1994-2000), a total of f agriculture land was converted.

t is estimated that 3600 hectares of land will be required for the next 20 years at the rate of 300 persons per hectare. Because land for built up areas are getting scarce, m promoted in the development concept plan. This densification approach, mentioned in the report is deemed to help in preserving the agricultural land hand, new sites for urban expansion must be pre-identified. Key contributors of vulnerability: ation of the Valley is uncontrolled: It is likely that the uncontrolled population growth and inadequate services and facilities will eventually destabilize the Rapid conversion of unproductive agricultural lands: One of the derived raints is that habitation with low density of population was taking place in the Valley and causing decline of fertile agriculture land.

The report mentions that between 2041B.S. (1984) and 2057B.S. (2000), the agriculture land in the Valley 64 percent to 42 percent. If this trend continues, the agriculture land in the Valley will go to zero in 2082 B.S. (2025)5 .

Rapid and haphazard urban transformation of the Kathmandu Valley inflicted a great pressure on the Valley's precious natural resources such as agriculture land, environment, cultural heritage, services and facilities; and the way of life of the people in the Valley has changed and their living is getting dearer and more painful growth of settlements in the Valley is generally spontaneous, and there is very little planning intervention on the part of the government to guide its directions. The low density urban sprawl and uncontrolled settlement development in rural areas similarly pose a challenge for urban managers because of the high cost of providing and maintaining municipal services” (MoEST, ICIMOD and UNEP, 2007) Densification issues: The average gross residential density in the Valley was proposed in KV 2020 at 300 persons per hectare (or net density of 600 persons per hectare) considering a 50% occupation for residential purposes.

Given the assumption that 500 (net density-KV 2020 report), there is still enough room for densification. Standards for land allocation for educational or health institutions were in the report, cultural and entertainment areas; however, there is no study on where this maybe considering the hazard risks and terrain of the Valley. Current causes and effects and trends of urbanization need to be updated Use Plan of the Valley 2033 B.S. (1976) remained in effect until the reported period (2001) when KV 2020 was crafted. The current approved plan is still current causes and effects, trends of urbanization should be analyzed for Kathmandu Valley to aid decision making7 .

Basin or watershed approach is not yet developed for Kathmandu in wide approach may be tackled as the watershed planning covers a wider Learning, 2012 Discussion Forum Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET residential use covers about 7% while rural settlement covers 12.6%. The total land area The analysis of the land use trend of the Valley in 2001 reveals and that this trend is likely continuing. During the period 1994), a total of 7642 hectares of agriculture land was converted for 2000), a total of 5,738 hectares t is estimated that 3600 hectares of land will be required for the next 20 years at the rate of Because land for built up areas are getting scarce, multi-storeyed This densification approach, gricultural land.

On the other is likely that the uncontrolled population growth and inadequate services and facilities will eventually destabilize the One of the derived raints is that habitation with low density of population was taking place in the Valley and causing decline of fertile agriculture land. The report mentions that (2000), the agriculture land in the Valley 64 percent to 42 percent. If this trend continues, the agriculture land Rapid and haphazard urban transformation of the Kathmandu Valley: It has l resources such as agriculture land, environment, cultural heritage, services and facilities; and the way of life of the people in the Valley has changed and their living is getting dearer and more painful6 .“The rally spontaneous, and there is very little planning intervention on the part of the government to guide its directions.

The low- density urban sprawl and uncontrolled settlement development in rural areas similarly se of the high cost of providing and ” (MoEST, ICIMOD and UNEP, 2007). The average gross residential density in the Valley was proposed in KV 2020 at 300 persons per hectare (or net density of 600 persons per hectare) considering a 50% occupation for residential purposes. Given the assumption that 500 , there is still enough room for densification. Standards for land allocation for educational or health institutions were , cultural and entertainment areas; however, there is no study on idering the hazard risks and terrain of the Valley.

Current causes and effects and trends of urbanization need to be updated: The Land Use Plan of the Valley 2033 B.S. (1976) remained in effect until the reported period in effect. The current causes and effects, trends of urbanization should be analyzed for Kathmandu Basin or watershed approach is not yet developed for Kathmandu: It is not yet clear in wide approach may be tackled as the watershed planning covers a wider

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET scope of uses, generally settlements or built up areas, agriculture and crop areas, forest areas (protected forests and agro Urban Development natural resources (forest, agriculture 3.2 Building, Infrastructure 3.2.1 Building Related In principle, future constructions should not increase vulnerabilities or risks to already high risk areas. However, there is an increasing risk to building stock damage to a very strong earthquake, not only because of old buildings (non enforcement of local byelaws and national • Increasing physical vulnerability of Kathmandu Valley factors related to poor building planning, lack of municipal land use plan and a supporting transport plan to guide development construction standards.

• Poor site planning of spaces major roads in the Valley. The current land use trend reveals that rural settlements are scattered and building works are being done around such settlements in an unplanned manner9 . 3.2.2 Transport and Infrastruc • Traffic congestion: and poor condition of such vehicles have caused congestion of motor vehicles in the urban area of the Valley and been increasing air and noise pollution of pedestrian walking, bicycle and rickshaw has also caused conges vehicles.10 • Small internal roads important urban roads. This will similarly improve the sit In doing so, undeveloped areas and open spaces and the places where there is no wider road and there is difficulty with movement should be chosen.

(KV 2020 be a need to reduce internal vehicular traffic i • Lack of service roads difficult.

• Lack of open space adjustments or realignments difficult to • Lack of adequate supply of clean safe drinking water some communities to stagnant water which causes occasional outbreaks of water diseases. • Lack of fire fighting Kathmandu Valley renders them unable to cope with frequent fires especially during the hot dry months. 8 Source: KV 2020 9 Ibid 10 Ibid Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes scope of uses, generally settlements or built up areas, agriculture and crop areas, forest areas (protected forests and agro-forests), and inland waters.

The Kathmandu Valley evelopment Authority, when formed, will need to integrate broader plans on natural resources (forest, agriculture) with Valley wide urban plans8 .

Infrastructure &Transport related n principle, future constructions should not increase vulnerabilities or risks to already high However, there is an increasing risk to building stock damage to a very strong earthquake, not only because of old buildings (non-seismic designed) b enforcement of local byelaws and national building codes. Increasing physical vulnerability of Kathmandu Valley: This is a result of several factors related to poor building planning, lack of municipal land use plan and a supporting nsport plan to guide development and poor enforcement of building codes and construction standards.

Poor site planning of spaces: Buildings and other structures are built in either side of the major roads in the Valley. The current land use trend reveals that rural settlements are scattered and building works are being done around such settlements in an unplanned Transport and Infrastructure Related The rise of private vehicles as compared to public transport vehicles and poor condition of such vehicles have caused congestion of motor vehicles in the urban area of the Valley and been increasing air and noise pollution. Non of pedestrian walking, bicycle and rickshaw has also caused congestion of motor Small internal roads: It is necessary to improve internal roads and improve surface of important urban roads.

This will similarly improve the situation of transport in the future. In doing so, undeveloped areas and open spaces and the places where there is no wider road and there is difficulty with movement should be chosen. (KV 2020 be a need to reduce internal vehicular traffic in inner roads to reduce congestion. Lack of service roads: This absence makes transition from main road to interior areas Lack of open space: There is currently a lack of open space in urban areas, making adjustments or realignments difficult to pursue.

Lack of adequate supply of clean safe drinking water or the prolonged exposure of some communities to stagnant water which causes occasional outbreaks of water fire fighting equipment: Lack of modern (fire fighting) equipm renders them unable to cope with frequent fires especially during the Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 23 scope of uses, generally settlements or built up areas, agriculture and crop areas, forest forests), and inland waters.

The Kathmandu Valley , when formed, will need to integrate broader plans on n principle, future constructions should not increase vulnerabilities or risks to already high- However, there is an increasing risk to building stock damage to a very strong seismic designed) but because of poor This is a result of several factors related to poor building planning, lack of municipal land use plan and a supporting and poor enforcement of building codes and other structures are built in either side of the major roads in the Valley. The current land use trend reveals that rural settlements are scattered and building works are being done around such settlements in an unplanned The rise of private vehicles as compared to public transport vehicles and poor condition of such vehicles have caused congestion of motor vehicles in the .

Non-encouragement tion of motor It is necessary to improve internal roads and improve surface of uation of transport in the future.

In doing so, undeveloped areas and open spaces and the places where there is no wider road and there is difficulty with movement should be chosen. (KV 2020). There may also n inner roads to reduce congestion. This absence makes transition from main road to interior areas There is currently a lack of open space in urban areas, making or the prolonged exposure of some communities to stagnant water which causes occasional outbreaks of water-borne ) equipment in the renders them unable to cope with frequent fires especially during the

24 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks 3.2.3 Institutional Aspects There are laws covering both land use planning and disaster risk management interlinked by the policy & strategi Operationalization of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation through land use planning, periodic planning and their implementation has yet to be realized in a Valley wide scale.

There seems to be very limited funding to support reforms related to DRRM at the Valley and local level • The lack of the institutional capacity to effectively manage state of urbanization The policies of the Kathman control land developments and construction works are not becoming effective to mitigate the effects of the externalities in the Valley.

• Weak enforcement of public safety and environmental regulations mentioned in the KV report (and in the current project) as a prime concern related to disaster proneness of the Kathmandu Valley. 4 THE KATHMANDU VALLEY AND GAPS ANALYSIS The actual target of this review and an Plan. The content of the intervention is mainly the preparation of plans assumed that the KV planning practice of planning at the KV level. The analysis is geared towards how the KV 2020 can be made risk sensitive and what can be recommended to implement it. 4.1 The KV Planning System The Kathmandu Valley level components, namely; 1) the planning structure planning mandates (or what particular process (how the plans will be be implemented).

The KV Table 7: KATHMANDU VALLEY PLANNING SYSTEM Local Planning Structure Who are involved? (A) General Land Use Planning Process in Kathmandu Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared There are laws covering both land use planning and disaster risk management by the policy & strategies of NAPA and the NDRM of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation through land use planning, periodic planning and their implementation has yet to be realized in a Valley wide There seems to be very limited funding to support for institutional and organizational related to DRRM at the Valley and local level.

The lack of the institutional capacity to effectively manage state of urbanization The policies of the Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee control land developments and construction works are not becoming effective to mitigate the effects of the externalities in the Valley. Weak enforcement of public safety and environmental regulations mentioned in the KV report (and in the current project) as a prime concern related to proneness of the Kathmandu Valley. THE KATHMANDU VALLEY DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT PLAN: A REVI AND GAPS ANALYSIS this review and analysis is the Kathmandu Valley Development Concept he content of the intervention is mainly the preparation of plans planning process, described in the KV 2001 report, captures the existing at the KV level.

The analysis is geared towards how the KV 2020 can be made risk sensitive and what can be recommended to implement it. The KV Planning System Kathmandu Valley level planning system may be said to be composed of several 1) the planning structure (those involved in formulation), planning mandates (or what particular plans are required to be prepare will be prepared), and 4) the KV implementation tools KV planning system is summarized in Figure 5. KATHMANDU VALLEY PLANNING SYSTEM General Land Use Planning Process in Kathmandu Valley What is the process? (B) Implementing Tools Used in Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET There are laws covering both land use planning and disaster risk management and are es of NAPA and the NDRM.

However, the of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation through land use planning, periodic planning and their implementation has yet to be realized in a Valley wide institutional and organizational The lack of the institutional capacity to effectively manage state of urbanization: du Valley Town Development Committee (now KVDA) to control land developments and construction works are not becoming effective to mitigate Weak enforcement of public safety and environmental regulations: These have been mentioned in the KV report (and in the current project) as a prime concern related to CONCEPT PLAN: A REVIEW Kathmandu Valley Development Concept he content of the intervention is mainly the preparation of plans at KV level.

It is process, described in the KV 2001 report, captures the existing at the KV level. The analysis is geared towards how the KV 2020 can be may be said to be composed of several formulation), 2) the KV prepared), 3) the planning KV implementation tools (how plans can KATHMANDU VALLEY PLANNING SYSTEM Implementing Tools Used in KV How are the plans implemented? (C)

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET • Political Decisions-Who performs these? • Deliberation – KVDA, MPPW, • Policies Formulation – GoN, MPPW/KVDA • Decision taking – GoN, MPPW • Technical Aspects-Who are involved in the following? • Data generation for sectoral and land use planning- (Sectoral departments) • Formulation of Goals, Objectives • (Sectoral agencies with participatory process)(KVDA along with MPs) • Identifies programs and Projects (Sectoral ministries/ dept./ municipalities KVDA) • Conducts Public consultations • (Sectoral agencies, • Municipalities, KVDA) • Monitors Programs, Project Implementation • (Sectoral agencies, KVDA) • Conducts detailed researches and analysis- (outsourced by DUDBC/KVDA) Figure 5 11 Adapted from : Serote, 2004, Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Management of Local Territories, C Territory: Foundations of Land Use Planning 9 8 7 6 1 2 3 4 5 **Spatial plan not yet prepared Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes • • • • • • • • • 5.

Identified Planning System at KV level 11 Adapted from : Serote, 2004, Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Management of Local Territories, C- Planning in the Philippines; School of Urban and Regional Planning, UP Detailing & Refinement OF Formulating Policies & Implementation Tools Plan Adoption & Legitimization Implementation, Monitoring & Feedback Inter-Agency Consultation Data Collection & Inventory Inter- & Intra-Area Analysis Goals/Objectives Setting Generation Of Alterative Strategies Evaluation & Selection Of Preferred strategy Public Consultatio n Various- Stages Inter- Agency **Spatial plan not yet prepared **Development concept prepared Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 25 Are the plans implemented by the following?

Zoning (building by-laws by KVDA) Co-management (with municipalities) Development regulation (Zoning Bye- Laws- KVDA& Municipalities) Local investment programs (KVDA& Municipalities, sectoral agencies, MPs) New Taxation – (local Gov. property tax) Private Investments – (FNCCI) Innovative Approaches – (Academia) -9, Property, Patrimony and Regional Planning, UP-PLANADES

26 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks Note: Intra area analysis refers to spatial and sectoral analysis (socio economic, demographic, environment, and infrastructure) among municipalities within Kathmandu Valley.

Inter area analysis refer to spatial and sectoral relationships of adjacent distr 4.2 On Planning Structure As shown in Figure 5, the local planning structure consists of the political and the technical working group deliberate, formulate the of KVTDC (currently KVDA) Government of Nepal. Th strategies, plan and coordinate KV wide programs, design projects and source funds from national government budgets, financial institutions, and foreign donors (among others) towards plan implementation.

decision makers. They are in charge of data generation; analysis; policy options in order programs, projects, and activities. members from sectoral Ministries, MPs Municipalities, representatives from the ministry government agencies with field offices in the locality. 4.3 On KV Plan (KV Concept) and In 2056-57 B.S (1999/2000) a Kathmandu Valley long prepared by the Kathmandu instructions by the Board formed under the development concept provides the policy framework and a road map that will guide Valley wide activities and physical development, to include land use and physical and infrastructure development in a sustainable manner.

The empha the Valley provides for a balanced built and un underwent many consultations in the following years governmental Organization (NGOs), local authorities and experts. These interactions took place in four stages and culminated into a final draft in the same year.

The draft plan was prepared by various Following Figure 5 in column (B), the sectoral profiles for the Development concept plan was initially prepared by the collected by various bodies order to reduce error. The intra then KVTDC with consultations among government agencies. From this t interactions to validate the analysis B.S. (2000/01) on the draft plan prepared in fiscal year 2056/057 B.S. (1999/2000). vision and goal setting, identification and validation of sectoral development thrusts, policy frameworks and strategies were made through concerned bodies, local authorities and experts 12 Source: KV Concept Plan, 2001 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared Note: Intra area analysis refers to spatial and sectoral analysis (socio economic, demographic, environment, and infrastructure) among municipalities within Kathmandu Valley.

Inter area analysis refer to spatial and sectoral relationships of adjacent districts of Kathmandu Valley. On Planning Structure the local planning structure consists of the political the technical working group. The political component represents the persons who will deliberate, formulate the policies and head the decision making and is composed of members TDC (currently KVDA), minister of MoPPW and other representatives from the Government of Nepal. These groups are the decision makers who deliberate on the policies, coordinate KV wide programs, design projects and source funds from national government budgets, financial institutions, and foreign donors (among others) towards plan implementation.

The technical working group provides technical support They are in charge of data generation; analysis; generates and evaluates policy options in order to aid decision makers towards resource allocation and approval of programs, projects, and activities. Comprising the technical group may be sectoral Ministries, MPs representing KVDA, VDC chairperson, Mayor of Municipalities, representatives from the District Development Committees ministry government agencies with field offices in the locality. (KV Concept) and Planning Process 57 B.S (1999/2000) a Kathmandu Valley long-term draft development concept was prepared by the Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee (KVTDC), under instructions by the Board formed under the Ministry of Physical Planning and Works development concept provides the policy framework and a road map that will guide Valley wide activities and physical development, to include land use and physical and infrastructure development in a sustainable manner.

The emphasis on incorporating environmental values of the Valley provides for a balanced built and un-built environment. The draft concept plan underwent many consultations in the following years 2057/58 (2000/2001) involving Non governmental Organization (NGOs), People’s Organizations (POs), intellectuals, politicians, local authorities and experts. These interactions took place in four stages and culminated into a final draft in the same year.

The draft plan was prepared by various thematic teams appointed by KV 5 in column (B), the sectoral profiles for the Development concept plan was initially prepared by the Committee's employees who (a) gathered information and data various bodies (b) did on-site inspection and (c) verified information and data The intra-analysis and inter analysis were likely prepared initially by with consultations among government agencies. From this t to validate the analysis took place at various four stages in fiscal year 2057/058 (2000/01) on the draft plan prepared in fiscal year 2056/057 B.S. (1999/2000).

vision and goal setting, identification and validation of sectoral development thrusts, policy tegies were made through these interactions and participated in by the concerned bodies, local authorities and experts concerned12 .

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET Note: Intra area analysis refers to spatial and sectoral analysis (socio economic, demographic, environment, and infrastructure) among municipalities within Kathmandu Valley. Inter area icts of Kathmandu Valley. the local planning structure consists of the political decision makers . The political component represents the persons who will policies and head the decision making and is composed of members PPW and other representatives from the ese groups are the decision makers who deliberate on the policies, coordinate KV wide programs, design projects and source funds from national government budgets, financial institutions, and foreign donors (among others) technical support to the generates and evaluates to aid decision makers towards resource allocation and approval of group may be the following: , VDC chairperson, Mayor of District Development Committees and other heads of term draft development concept was Town Development Committee (KVTDC), under al Planning and Works.

This development concept provides the policy framework and a road map that will guide Valley wide activities and physical development, to include land use and physical and infrastructure sis on incorporating environmental values of built environment. The draft concept plan 57/58 (2000/2001) involving Non- People’s Organizations (POs), intellectuals, politicians, local authorities and experts. These interactions took place in four stages and culminated into thematic teams appointed by KV Committee.

5 in column (B), the sectoral profiles for the Development concept plan was gathered information and data information and data in analysis and inter analysis were likely prepared initially by with consultations among government agencies. From this technical viewpoint, place at various four stages in fiscal year 2057/058 (2000/01) on the draft plan prepared in fiscal year 2056/057 B.S. (1999/2000). The vision and goal setting, identification and validation of sectoral development thrusts, policy participated in by the

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET 4.4 Gaps Analysis 4.4.1 Hazards Information One important parameter that the KV 2020 information that may guide urban expansion.

New environmentally constrained areas may need to be mapped as a result of the new information. Interviews and surveys with members of Kathmandu Valley Development Ad already pointed the following as necessary for updating the • The disaster prone areas should be shown clearly in KV Plans; • Physical infrastructure must be able to mitigate the effect of • Areas for rescue and relief need to be identified and protected; • Areas for future expansion of infrastructure need to be designated; • Open spaces must be defined; • Conflicts in sensitive areas (ex. encroachment in sensitive areas) must be identifi addressed; • Integration of KV Plan with Local Periodic Plans; Updating hazards and exposure information appear critical for the Kathmandu Valley.

The succeeding process for detailing the spatial component of the updating of the previous Earthquake Impact study made in 2002 and a review of the Flood Study in 2009 and explained in terms of the following: • Exposure and condition of settlements • Exposure of condition production areas • Exposure and condition of buildings and infrastr • Exposure and condition of environmentally constrained areas For the fire-related hazards, an updated inventory will help determine the places of highest fire hazard risks.

Within the Kathmandu Valley, the risk reduction and emerg municipalities, Village Development Committees ( area will need to undertake shall depend on th 4.4.2 KV Level Committee to Manage and Communicate Ha The generation of risk information, integration of risk information in plans, interpretations may require a group at the KV level to carry them out. These tasks are left un answered in the KV plan: • Hazard risks and climate change • Interpretation and simplification of the assessments for the deliberative body and stakeholders; • Advocacy for awareness and better understanding of the following change risks and environmental management, rural and urban land use management, climate proofing of structures, community preparedness and social development; • Coordination and engagement of hazard (mandated) related agencies (ex.

Mines and Geology (DMG) 13 Formerly the Kathmandu Valley Town and Development Committee Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes One important parameter that the KV 2020 Plan has yet to incorporate is the hazard risk information that may guide urban expansion. New environmentally constrained areas may need to be mapped as a result of the new information. Interviews and surveys with members Kathmandu Valley Development Administration13 (KVDA), NSET, M already pointed the following as necessary for updating the KV 2020Plan The disaster prone areas should be shown clearly in KV Plans; Physical infrastructure must be able to mitigate the effect of disasters; Areas for rescue and relief need to be identified and protected; Areas for future expansion of infrastructure need to be designated; Open spaces must be defined; Conflicts in sensitive areas (ex.

encroachment in sensitive areas) must be identifi Integration of KV Plan with Local Periodic Plans; Updating hazards and exposure information appear critical for the Kathmandu Valley. The succeeding process for detailing the spatial component of the KV 2020P the previous Earthquake Impact study made in 2002 and a review of the Flood Study in 2009 and explained in terms of the following: Exposure and condition of settlements Exposure of condition production areas Exposure and condition of buildings and infrastructures, transport network Exposure and condition of environmentally constrained areas related hazards, an updated inventory will help determine the places of highest Within the Kathmandu Valley, the risk reduction and emergency management actions that Village Development Committees (VDC), sub-metropolitan and metropolitan area will need to undertake shall depend on the severity of risks that will be KV Level Committee to Manage and Communicate Hazard Risk Information The generation of risk information, integration of risk information in plans, interpretations may require a group at the KV level to carry them out.

These tasks are left un answered in the KV plan: Hazard risks and climate change related risk assessments preparation (new or updated); Interpretation and simplification of the assessments for the deliberative body and Advocacy for awareness and better understanding of the following disaster risks, climate and environmental management, rural and urban land use management, climate proofing of structures, community preparedness, and implications and social development; Coordination and engagement of hazard (mandated) related agencies (ex. Mines and Geology (DMG), Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention (DWIDP) Formerly the Kathmandu Valley Town and Development Committee Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 27 lan has yet to incorporate is the hazard risk information that may guide urban expansion.

New environmentally constrained areas may need to be mapped as a result of the new information. Interviews and surveys with members , NSET, MoPPW, and MoLD lan, among others: disasters; Conflicts in sensitive areas (ex. encroachment in sensitive areas) must be identified and Updating hazards and exposure information appear critical for the Kathmandu Valley. The KV 2020Plan shall require the previous Earthquake Impact study made in 2002 and a review of the Flood uctures, transport network related hazards, an updated inventory will help determine the places of highest ency management actions that metropolitan and metropolitan that will be identified.

zard Risk Information The generation of risk information, integration of risk information in plans, and interpretations may require a group at the KV level to carry them out. These tasks are left un- related risk assessments preparation (new or updated); Interpretation and simplification of the assessments for the deliberative body and isaster risks, climate and environmental management, rural and urban land use management, , and implications to economic Coordination and engagement of hazard (mandated) related agencies (ex. Department of Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention (DWIDP)

28 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks scientific organizations, validation and further research; • Preparation of simplified guidelines for mains and climate change a valley level; • Explanation to Local and Valley level officials about the hazards and risks and ensuring that decision makers are aware and risks and their implications to the development thrusts pursued; • Consolidation and taking responsibility over these hazard risk data interpreting these into popular language various channels of communication; • Engaging KVDA, MoLD, MoPPW, ensure that valley-wide development and physical framework are risk sensitive and that common solutions are found among municipalities, cities and VDCs; and • Engaging municipalities, VDCs, physical development plans and land use plans, which will implement the KV physical framework and development obje 4.4.3 Risk Sensitive Physical Framework and Process The detailing and refinement into a physical framework plan have yet to be continued.

Both framework and process for this refinement ha 4.4.4 Norms and Standards A set of performance criteria need to be developed for the risk reduction efforts in the different development sectors or land use policy areas following sectors, namely: • Agriculture and Food security • Health • Education • Shelter, Infrastructure and Physical Planning • Livelihood Protection • Water and Sanitation • Information, Communication, Coordination and Logistics • Search and Rescue, and Damage and Needs Assessment • Institutional Framework for Planning • Transport planning • Prevention and Security (Public Safety, Hazard Materials) • Emergency management program and standards - Hazard identification, vulnerability and risk assessment; - Legal, fiscal and regulatory procedures; - Prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery plans, amo - Incident management - Communications and Warning 14 Source: Emergency Management Accreditation Program (http://www.emaponline.org) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared scientific organizations, and academe towards hazard and risk information interpretations, validation and further research; Preparation of simplified guidelines for mainstreaming disaster risk management ( adaptation (CCA) in KV Plan formulation and implementation at Explanation to Local and Valley level officials about the hazards and risks and ensuring that decision makers are aware of and understand the essential characteristics of hazards and risks and their implications to the development thrusts pursued; Consolidation and taking responsibility over these hazard risk data; translating or interpreting these into popular language; and, disseminating the knowledge through of communication; Engaging KVDA, MoLD, MoPPW, district government and disaster management wide development and physical framework are risk sensitive and that s are found among municipalities, cities and VDCs; and Engaging municipalities, VDCs, districts to prepare risk sensitive periodic plans and physical development plans and land use plans, which will implement the KV physical framework and development objectives.

Risk Sensitive Physical Framework and Process The detailing and refinement into a physical framework plan have yet to be continued. Both framework and process for this refinement have not been formulated. criteria need to be developed for the risk reduction efforts in the different development sectors or land use policy areas for monitoring implementation in the following sectors, namely: Agriculture and Food security ture and Physical Planning Livelihood Protection Water and Sanitation Information, Communication, Coordination and Logistics Search and Rescue, and Damage and Needs Assessment Institutional Framework for Planning Security (Public Safety, Hazard Materials) Emergency management program and standards14 Hazard identification, vulnerability and risk assessment; Legal, fiscal and regulatory procedures; Prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery plans, amo Incident management Communications and Warning Source: Emergency Management Accreditation Program (http://www.emaponline.org) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET academe towards hazard and risk information interpretations, disaster risk management (DRM) mplementation at Explanation to Local and Valley level officials about the hazards and risks and ensuring and understand the essential characteristics of hazards translating or disseminating the knowledge through isaster management units to wide development and physical framework are risk sensitive and that s are found among municipalities, cities and VDCs; and, to prepare risk sensitive periodic plans and physical development plans and land use plans, which will implement the KV physical The detailing and refinement into a physical framework plan have yet to be continued.

Both criteria need to be developed for the risk reduction efforts in the implementation in the Prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery plans, among others;

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET - Support for emergency management (facilities, training, among others) 5 AN ENABLING ENVIRONM The KV Development Concept of 2001 or KV 2020 management by the KVDA of all lands, waters, and other natural resources within its territorial jurisdiction. It provides for a comprehensive policy territory, and can be subdivided into four basic policy areas namely infrastructure, production, and protection area 5.1 Key Policies The areas for settlements, infrastructure, and production comprise the built built form while the protection area constitutes the un area follows the population growth, but left unchecked, the un decreased and may result in an unhealthy ecological situation maintain a healthy balance between the built form and the un mean, in the context of the KV development plan the following: • Forests, agricultural lands, freshwater sources, and the like are kept open to create a healthy and pleasant environment; • Protection from encroachment by human settlements to preven • Clear delineation of settlement areas, production areas, protected areas and infrastructural areas is necessary to reduce conflicts in use; • Buffers and exclusion zones are provided to protect people and their livelihoods; and • Safe carrying capacities, zoning and combinations of mix use, building byelaws and national building codes and standards are risk sensitive and shall be the guide towards managing urban expansion and vertical development.

A risk sensitive KV Development Concept incorporates DRR-sensitive policies for each of the four policy areas. In terms of social dimensions of development follows17 : • There is community d participatory planning or engagement of stakeholders in the planning and implementation; • Local (community) emergency management programs feed into land use planning; • Community decisions and planning regarding built environment take potential natural hazard risks into account (including potential for increasing risks thru interference with ecological, hydrological, geological systems) and vulnerabilities of different grou • Security of land ownership/tenancy rights.

There is low level of homelessness and landlessness; • Communities in safe locations: community members & facilities (homes, workplaces, public & social facilities) not exposed to hazards in high relocated away from unsafe sites; 15 Serote, 2004 16 Ibid 17 Adapted from works by Twigg, 2007 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Support for emergency management (facilities, training, among others) AN ENABLING ENVIRONMENT FOR KV 2020 Development Concept of 2001 or KV 2020 provides a long term policy guide for the gement by the KVDA of all lands, waters, and other natural resources within its It provides for a comprehensive policy covering every portion of its can be subdivided into four basic policy areas namely infrastructure, production, and protection areas15 .

The areas for settlements, infrastructure, and production comprise the built built form while the protection area constitutes the un-built environment. The expansion of an a follows the population growth, but left unchecked, the un-built environment is rapidly decreased and may result in an unhealthy ecological situation16 . It is then important to maintain a healthy balance between the built form and the un-built environment. mean, in the context of the KV development plan the following: Forests, agricultural lands, freshwater sources, and the like are kept open to create a healthy and pleasant environment; Protection from encroachment by human settlements to prevent their degradation; Clear delineation of settlement areas, production areas, protected areas and infrastructural areas is necessary to reduce conflicts in use; Buffers and exclusion zones are provided to protect people and their livelihoods; and carrying capacities, zoning and combinations of mix use, building byelaws and codes and standards are risk sensitive and shall be the guide towards managing urban expansion and vertical development.

A risk sensitive KV Development Concept and Physical Framework therefore is one which sensitive policies for each of the four policy areas. In terms of social dimensions of development, key characteristics of disaster resilient communities are as There is community decision making regarding land use and management; this highlights participatory planning or engagement of stakeholders in the planning and implementation; Local (community) emergency management programs feed into local mmunity decisions and planning regarding built environment take potential natural hazard risks into account (including potential for increasing risks thru interference with ecological, hydrological, geological systems) and vulnerabilities of different grou Security of land ownership/tenancy rights.

There is low level of homelessness and Communities in safe locations: community members & facilities (homes, workplaces, public & social facilities) not exposed to hazards in high-risk areas with relocated away from unsafe sites; Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 29 Support for emergency management (facilities, training, among others) provides a long term policy guide for the gement by the KVDA of all lands, waters, and other natural resources within its covering every portion of its can be subdivided into four basic policy areas namely: settlements, The areas for settlements, infrastructure, and production comprise the built-up area or the built environment.

The expansion of an built environment is rapidly . It is then important to built environment. This shall Forests, agricultural lands, freshwater sources, and the like are kept open to create a t their degradation; Clear delineation of settlement areas, production areas, protected areas and infrastructural Buffers and exclusion zones are provided to protect people and their livelihoods; and carrying capacities, zoning and combinations of mix use, building byelaws and codes and standards are risk sensitive and shall be the guide towards and Physical Framework therefore is one which sensitive policies for each of the four policy areas.

In terms of social key characteristics of disaster resilient communities are as ecision making regarding land use and management; this highlights participatory planning or engagement of stakeholders in the planning and implementation; local development and mmunity decisions and planning regarding built environment take potential natural hazard risks into account (including potential for increasing risks thru interference with ecological, hydrological, geological systems) and vulnerabilities of different groups; Security of land ownership/tenancy rights. There is low level of homelessness and Communities in safe locations: community members & facilities (homes, workplaces, risk areas within locality and/or

30 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks • Meeting more than the basic needs of communities (or resiliency). The key policies and related strategies incorporated in the KV Plan, namely: Environmental Protection & Management, Better Urban Plannin Management, Better Enforcement of Building Improved Disaster Management and Improved Institutional Capacities for Planning and Enforcement shall support a aspects of these policies are Environmental Protection and Management improved, water and air quality, sustainable utilization of land and other natural resources, solid and liquid waste management, among others.

Policy formulation is also cored in regularizing and managing the water supply, protection of wetlands strongly proposed to be done through national legislation Better Urban Planning and Safer Urban Expansion & Management focused on the proper use of land and other natural capacity. It aims to improve the form of the urban areas of the Valley and increase the supply of cost-effective residential houses; strong enforcement of laws are also advocated facilities, land-use and transport, and specification of certain forms and sizes of urbanized and non-urbanizing areas were proposed to be pursued.

vision, there is a need to framework plan to reduce the conflicts in land and resource use. Better Enforcement of Building Bye application of standard engineering procedures are enforced on all types of construction ranging from repairs, rehabilitation, existing building stock; retrofitting to improve the resistance of non retrofitting heritage & historic structures. this also entails amendment or adaptation of the national building code through local ordinances that are responsive to local requirements.

Improved Disaster Management by providing sufficient information, warning stakeholders and authorities.

policies proposed to be continuously Improvement of Institutional Capacities state of urbanization, enforce public safety and environmental regulations which ha the prime concerns related to disaster 5.2 Key National Policies Several key National policies and development action plans that are relevant to disaster risk reduction and management Kathmandu Valley18 . 5.2.1 Three-Year National Plan (2009/10 This plan has given the importance to the disaster risk management and set vision for developing the capacity of the country for coping with any type of natural and human-induced disasters. It has clearly mentioned in the policy and actions under the section 6.3 (Disaster Risk Management) 18 Source: KMC RSLUP, 2011 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared Meeting more than the basic needs of communities (or resiliency).

The key policies and related strategies incorporated in the KV Plan, namely: Environmental Protection & Management, Better Urban Planning and Safer Urban Expansion & Management, Better Enforcement of Building Bye-laws and National Improved Disaster Management and Improved Institutional Capacities for Planning and Enforcement shall support a risk sensitive environment in Kathmandu Valley these policies are discussed below.

Environmental Protection and Management: in the KV plan, it is concerned improved, water and air quality, sustainable utilization of land and other natural resources, solid and liquid waste management, among others. Policy formulation is also cored in regularizing and managing the water supply, protection of wetlands. Poli strongly proposed to be done through national legislation and implemented in the Valley. Better Urban Planning and Safer Urban Expansion & Management focused on the proper use of land and other natural resources with concern on safe carrying It aims to improve the form of the urban areas of the Valley and increase the supply effective residential houses; strong enforcement of zoning ordinance and building bye are also advocated.

Policy measures related to improvement of linkages of parking use and transport, and specification of certain forms and sizes of urbanized and urbanizing areas were proposed to be pursued.Guided by its development concept and there is a need to harmonize and detail these policy areas, to reduce the conflicts in land and resource use. Better Enforcement of Building Bye-Laws and National Building Codes application of standard engineering procedures that result to disaster resilient structures. They are enforced on all types of construction ranging from repairs, rehabilitation, existing building stock; retrofitting to improve the resistance of non-engineered buildings and special e & historic structures.

Building by laws are enforced at the local level but this also entails amendment or adaptation of the national building code through local that are responsive to local requirements.

Improved Disaster Management: These are aimed at directly protecting lives and property by providing sufficient information, warning to and appropriate response by threatened stakeholders and authorities. These should similarly be supported by the continuously pursued in the Valley. Improvement of Institutional Capacities: There is a strong need to effectively manage the state of urbanization, enforce public safety and environmental regulations which ha related to disaster proneness of the Kathmandu Valley.

Key National Policies policies and development action plans that are relevant to disaster risk management reinforce these pro-active policies in Nepal and Year National Plan (2009/10 - 2012/13) This plan has given the importance to the disaster risk management and set vision for developing the capacity of the country for coping with any type of natural and induced disasters.

It has clearly mentioned in the policy and actions under the section 6.3 (Disaster Risk Management), that the preparation of risk sensitive land use plan and Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET The key policies and related strategies incorporated in the KV Plan, namely: Environmental g and Safer Urban Expansion & laws and National building Codes, Improved Disaster Management and Improved Institutional Capacities for Planning and hmandu Valley. To elaborate, n the KV plan, it is concerned with improved, water and air quality, sustainable utilization of land and other natural resources, solid and liquid waste management, among others.

Policy formulation is also cored in . Policy enforcement is implemented in the Valley. Better Urban Planning and Safer Urban Expansion & Management: in the KV plan, it oncern on safe carrying It aims to improve the form of the urban areas of the Valley and increase the supply zoning ordinance and building bye- lated to improvement of linkages of parking use and transport, and specification of certain forms and sizes of urbanized and Guided by its development concept and through a physical Codes: It involves the lient structures. They are enforced on all types of construction ranging from repairs, rehabilitation, existing building engineered buildings and special enforced at the local level but this also entails amendment or adaptation of the national building code through local e aimed at directly protecting lives and property to and appropriate response by threatened other four pro-active There is a strong need to effectively manage the state of urbanization, enforce public safety and environmental regulations which have been of the Kathmandu Valley.

policies and development action plans that are relevant to disaster risk Nepal and especially at This plan has given the importance to the disaster risk management and sets the long term vision for developing the capacity of the country for coping with any type of natural and induced disasters. It has clearly mentioned in the policy and actions under the section isk sensitive land use plan and

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET following the building code will be made compulsory in urban and urbanizing areas.

It has also mentioned about the minimization of the impacts of climate change by protecting environment and availing opportunities; increasin disaster prevention services; developing safe, low cost and environment friendly housings; developing appropriate settlements and cities from the environmental and social perspective 5.2.2 Kathmandu Valley Development Section 6 pertains to the development of Kathmandu Valley by improving existing town development and identifying new areas for urban expansion. It also highlights the development and implementation of land pooling program and building c identified areas.

Section 7 explicitly highlights the need to stop land fragmentation in the identified land use plan area. Land fragmentation is the result of dividing a parcel of land into smaller sizes by the head of the family and dist In many cases, the resulting lots become inadequate in size and shape for the construction of a comfortable house or that the building is built higher in order to accommodate the expanding family occupants. However, whenever the original lots are pooled or consolidated into bigger lots or parcels, the resulting area would yield a building structure with adequate amenities and open spaces for air to flow through.

5.2.3 National Urban Policy 2064 ( The National Urban Policy has been formulated for development and to clarify the role of implementing institution for addressing those issues. This includes giving clear information on how to mobilize necessa private investment for implementation of working policy set in the policy document. The long term goal of the policy is to contribute in poverty alleviation through sustainable urbanization of the development regions. It address activities, reversing the deteriorating urban environment, and providing clearer roles of central and local bodies in urban development Hence, the three main objectives set by the policy clean and developed urban environment disaster risk reduction19 .

1. Balanced national urban structure - North-south corridor (ex. Terai region to equal distribution of facilities to all regional development cent - Develop trade linkage between mountain - Develop at least one large - Develop inter-linkage of other small urban cent physical facilities; - Give priority to large industrial activities in regional urban cent medium industrial activities in medium urban cen - Encourage government and private investment special encouragement to private investment. 19 Source: National Urban Policy 2064, Planning and Works, Department of Urban Development and Bui Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes following the building code will be made compulsory in urban and urbanizing areas.

It has also mentioned about the minimization of the impacts of climate change by protecting environment and availing opportunities; increasing the access of people in water induced disaster prevention services; developing safe, low cost and environment friendly housings; developing appropriate settlements and cities from the environmental and social perspective Development Authority Act of 1988 Section 6 pertains to the development of Kathmandu Valley by improving existing town development and identifying new areas for urban expansion. It also highlights the development and implementation of land pooling program and building c Section 7 explicitly highlights the need to stop land fragmentation in the identified land use plan area.

Land fragmentation is the result of dividing a parcel of land into smaller sizes by the head of the family and distributing the pieces of land to his heir or members of his family. In many cases, the resulting lots become inadequate in size and shape for the construction of a comfortable house or that the building is built higher in order to accommodate the expanding family occupants. However, whenever the original lots are pooled or consolidated into bigger lots or parcels, the resulting area would yield a building structure with adequate amenities and open spaces for air to flow through.

National Urban Policy 2064 (2007) The National Urban Policy has been formulated for an integration of all the issues of urban development and to clarify the role of implementing institution for addressing those issues. This includes giving clear information on how to mobilize necessary resources and public and private investment for implementation of working policy set in the policy document. The long term goal of the policy is to contribute in poverty alleviation through sustainable urbanization of the development regions. It addresses this through appropriate planning urbanization activities, reversing the deteriorating urban environment, and providing clearer roles of central and local bodies in urban development Hence, the three main objectives set by the policy: 1) balanced national urban structure, 2) clean and developed urban environment, and 3) effective urban environment are supportive of Balanced national urban structure.

Working policies proposed were the following: south corridor (ex. Terai region to Hills and Mountain ) shall be developed for equal distribution of facilities to all regional development center; Develop trade linkage between mountain-terai region and boosting tourism; Develop at least one large urban economic center; linkage of other small urban center to it and each other through physical facilities; Give priority to large industrial activities in regional urban center medium industrial activities in medium urban center; government and private investment for fulfillment of these policies and special encouragement to private investment.

Source: National Urban Policy 2064, Unofficial Translation, Nepal Government Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, Department of Urban Development and Building Construction, Babar Mahal Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 31 following the building code will be made compulsory in urban and urbanizing areas. It has also mentioned about the minimization of the impacts of climate change by protecting g the access of people in water induced disaster prevention services; developing safe, low cost and environment friendly housings; developing appropriate settlements and cities from the environmental and social perspective.

Section 6 pertains to the development of Kathmandu Valley by improving existing town development and identifying new areas for urban expansion. It also highlights the development and implementation of land pooling program and building construction in Section 7 explicitly highlights the need to stop land fragmentation in the identified land use plan area. Land fragmentation is the result of dividing a parcel of land into smaller sizes by ributing the pieces of land to his heir or members of his family.

In many cases, the resulting lots become inadequate in size and shape for the construction of a comfortable house or that the building is built higher in order to accommodate the expanding family occupants. However, whenever the original lots are pooled or consolidated into bigger lots or parcels, the resulting area would yield a building structure with adequate amenities and integration of all the issues of urban development and to clarify the role of implementing institution for addressing those issues. ry resources and public and private investment for implementation of working policy set in the policy document.

The long term goal of the policy is to contribute in poverty alleviation through sustainable urbanization es this through appropriate planning urbanization activities, reversing the deteriorating urban environment, and providing clearer roles of al urban structure, 2) urban environment are supportive of . Working policies proposed were the following: ) shall be developed for terai region and boosting tourism; to it and each other through er and small and for fulfillment of these policies and , Nepal Government Ministry of Physical Construction, Babar Mahal

32 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks 2. Clean and developed urban environment - Give priority to conservation of cultu - Give due consideration to urban sanitation and public health; - Minimize natural disaster - Encourage and formulate environment friendly vehicles and transportation system - Promote various economic activities based on local - Increase access of low income group to urban infrastructure facilities; and opportunities and management economic activities in unorganized and informal sectors 3.

Effective urban management Proposed Physical Planning Act shall address the following: - Identify concerned agencies development plan preparation, approval and implementation in the legal framework of law; - Strengthen capacity of local body accordingly by making urban development planning compulsory under it; - Form a separate unit within the central and regional body for physical development planning, approval and implementation; - Declare only those municipalities as required level of physical facilities urban municipality to be a 5.2.4 Building Act of 1999 The Preamble of this Act provides for di standards to make buildings safe from natural disasters like earthquak others.

Section 4 calls for the formulation and adoption of a building code and implementation of the same with t building. Section 8 mandates the categorization of buildings into different classes and the issuance of a building permit prior to construction in the municipal areas. 5.2.5 National Adaptation Programme NAPA is a strategic tool which assesses vulnerability to climate change and variability provides for the process and framework for developing adaptation measures. When related to environmental hazards.

themes of disaster mitigation, prevention and preparedness. NAPA is mainly cored on six basic themes which fall within the national and local development sectors. • Agriculture and Food Security sustainable agricultural land use system, agro conducive governance mechanism. • Forests and Biodiversity improved governance and capacity at the local level. • Water resources and Energy information and technology, stronger and more adaptable institutions, and natural and human-made infrastructure to store water, energy production base, and expand and integrate transmission and distribution networks.

• Climate Change Induced Disasters strengthening resilience, diversifying l developing and early warning system, and community based approaches for DRR. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared Clean and developed urban environment. Working policies proposed were the following: Give priority to conservation of cultural and natural resources; Give due consideration to urban sanitation and public health; Minimize natural disasters; Encourage and formulate environment friendly vehicles and transportation system Promote various economic activities based on local resources and opportunities; Increase access of low income group to urban infrastructure facilities; and opportunities and management economic activities in unorganized and informal Effective urban management.

Working policies proposed were to ensu Proposed Physical Planning Act shall address the following: concerned agencies, their responsibilities, to include bringing physical development plan preparation, approval and implementation in the legal framework pacity of local body accordingly by making urban development planning compulsory under it; eparate unit within the central and regional body for physical development planning, approval and implementation; those municipalities as urban centers when they have required level of physical facilities and urban character; and to help transform the urban municipality to be a responsible for urban development activities.

The Preamble of this Act provides for disaster-resistant building design and construction standards to make buildings safe from natural disasters like earthquake, fire, floods, among Section 4 calls for the formulation and adoption of a building code and implementation of the same with the end in view of improving the quality and safety of each building. Section 8 mandates the categorization of buildings into different classes and the issuance of a building permit prior to construction in the municipal areas. National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) NAPA is a strategic tool which assesses vulnerability to climate change and variability provides for the process and framework for developing adaptation measures.

When related to . In these adaptation measures may fall within the risk reduction themes of disaster mitigation, prevention and preparedness. NAPA is mainly cored on six basic themes which fall within the national and local development sectors. Agriculture and Food Security–adaptation priorities in agriculture have been set sustainable agricultural land use system, agro-biodiversity management and favorable and conducive governance mechanism.

Forests and Biodiversity-adaptation measures set on sustainable forest management, ce and capacity at the local level. Water resources and Energy- adaptation priorities set on better and more accessible information and technology, stronger and more adaptable institutions, and natural and made infrastructure to store water, transport and treat water, and to maintain energy production base, and expand and integrate transmission and distribution networks. Climate Change Induced Disasters- relevant to adaptation, the DRR practices include strengthening resilience, diversifying livelihood, planning, providing insurance and developing and early warning system, and community based approaches for DRR.

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET Working policies proposed were the following: Encourage and formulate environment friendly vehicles and transportation system; resources and opportunities; Increase access of low income group to urban infrastructure facilities; and opportunities and management economic activities in unorganized and informal were to ensure that the bringing physical development plan preparation, approval and implementation in the legal framework pacity of local body accordingly by making urban development eparate unit within the central and regional body for physical development when they have developed a to help transform the responsible for urban development activities.

resistant building design and construction e, fire, floods, among Section 4 calls for the formulation and adoption of a building code and he end in view of improving the quality and safety of each building. Section 8 mandates the categorization of buildings into different classes and the issuance of a building permit prior to construction in the municipal areas. NAPA is a strategic tool which assesses vulnerability to climate change and variability and provides for the process and framework for developing adaptation measures. When related to fall within the risk reduction themes of disaster mitigation, prevention and preparedness.

NAPA is mainly cored on six basic themes which fall within the national and local development sectors. They are: in agriculture have been set at biodiversity management and favorable and adaptation measures set on sustainable forest management, adaptation priorities set on better and more accessible information and technology, stronger and more adaptable institutions, and natural and transport and treat water, and to maintain energy production base, and expand and integrate transmission and distribution networks. practices include ivelihood, planning, providing insurance and developing and early warning system, and community based approaches for DRR.

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET • Public Health-adaptation strategies focus largely on awareness raising and public health initiatives at local level. Carry out researc IEC on health related issues caused by climate change. • Urban Settlements and Infrastructure Settlements: • improving effective and pro • reduce the threat through prevention • improve coping capacity of vulnerable communities Infrastructures: • formulate and implement sound climate change adaptation • providing enabling conditions to ensure resilient infrastructures CCA measures, especially with regards to hydro surges, windstorms) are management field (i.e.

prevention, mitigation and preparedness practices are still being brought forward by is then critical to view the development of Kathmandu Valley. current and long term vulnerabilities At the local level, implementation of the the purview of the municipal financial and technical support from the Ministries and Districts National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management, (NSDRM National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management is a National Framework with commitment of the Government of Nepal for protection, growth, and promotion of national heritages and physical infrastructures. It provides for a course of action to address the loss of physical properties and human lives, destructions of basic infrastr proposing an organizational structure for DRM in Nepal and by mainstreaming disaster reduction in the development process.

Similar to the NAPA, the NSDRM is an inseparable component of all other sector strategies contributing to sustainable development of Nepal. guide towards reducing disasters in the process of formulation and execution of development programs for national development. The NSDRM follows a paradigm shift from merely resp disaster prevention through development. Its main vision is to have disaster resilient communities in Nepal. To do this, the long term strategies include: • Development and restructuring of institutional structures; • Strengthen policy-wide and legal arrangements to ensure stakeholders' participation while adhering to integrated policy and decentralized implementation process.

20 Source: National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change Environment, 2010 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes adaptation strategies focus largely on awareness raising and public health initiatives at local level. Carry out research, formulate appropriate strategies and conduct IEC on health related issues caused by climate change.

Urban Settlements and Infrastructure- adaptation measures are cored at the following: improving effective and pro-poor structures of governance reduce the threat through prevention improve coping capacity of vulnerable communities formulate and implement sound climate change adaptation measures providing enabling conditions to ensure resilient infrastructures20 especially with regards to hydro-meteorological hazards (ex, floods, storm surges, windstorms) are usually drawn from the best practices and norms of the disaster risk management field (i.e. prevention, mitigation and preparedness).

New experiences and bes being brought forward by CCA practitioners to address adaptation issues to view the CCA and DRR agendas together to support the Kathmandu Valley. The process of planning must identify a current and long term vulnerabilities and the disasters they may bring about At the local level, implementation of the disaster reduction and adaptation measures is within unicipal and city functions and duties. Coordinatio and technical support from the Ministries and Districts are needed to ensure success. National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management, (NSDRM-2009) National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management is a National Framework with commitment of the Government of Nepal for protection, growth, and promotion of national heritages and physical infrastructures.

It provides for a course of action to address the loss of physical properties and human lives, destructions of basic infrastructures. This is done by proposing an organizational structure for DRM in Nepal and by mainstreaming disaster reduction in the development process.

Similar to the NAPA, the NSDRM is an inseparable component of all other sector strategies ustainable development of Nepal. An Inherent objective of this Strategy is to guide towards reducing disasters in the process of formulation and execution of development programs for national development. The NSDRM follows a paradigm shift from merely responding to post disaster situations to disaster prevention through development. Its main vision is to have disaster resilient communities in Nepal. To do this, the long term strategies include: Development and restructuring of institutional structures; wide and legal arrangements to ensure stakeholders' participation while adhering to integrated policy and decentralized implementation process.

Source: National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 33 adaptation strategies focus largely on awareness raising and public health h, formulate appropriate strategies and conduct adaptation measures are cored at the following: meteorological hazards (ex, floods, storm drawn from the best practices and norms of the disaster risk w experiences and best to address adaptation issues.

It to support the sustainable identify and address and the disasters they may bring about. adaptation measures is within oordination, capacity building, needed to ensure success. National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management is a National Framework with the commitment of the Government of Nepal for protection, growth, and promotion of national heritages and physical infrastructures. It provides for a course of action to address the loss of uctures. This is done by proposing an organizational structure for DRM in Nepal and by mainstreaming disaster Similar to the NAPA, the NSDRM is an inseparable component of all other sector strategies Inherent objective of this Strategy is to guide towards reducing disasters in the process of formulation and execution of development onding to post disaster situations to disaster prevention through development.

Its main vision is to have disaster resilient wide and legal arrangements to ensure stakeholders' participation while adhering to integrated policy and decentralized implementation process. Source: National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change, Ministry of

34 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks • Create enabling environment from the central to household level within the State to prepare and implement disaster risk reduction and preparedness plans. • Ensure mainstreaming disaster reduction into overall development process along with sectoral development and poverty reduction plans. The Government of Nepal (GoN) development. Hence, the GoN assessing the nature of potential disaster. This may be seen in Nepal's need development agenda with implementation process: • Put up an institutional framework in place for its implementation by prioritizing DRR at both the national and local levels.

• Strengthen assessment, identification, monitoring, and early warning sy disaster; • Make use of knowledge, new ideas, and education for the development of safety and disaster resilient culture at all levels; • Minimize existing risk factors; and • Make Disaster Preparedness strong enough for effective response. Mainstreaming of DRR in the various development sectors become imperative to ensure that preparedness, mitigation or response arrangements are in place and that damages, losses are reduced, thereby bringing sustainability of development. In the same sense, identified the following sectors as targets for risk reduction efforts: • Agriculture and Food security • Health • Education • Shelter, Infrastructure and Physical Planning • Livelihood Protection • Water and Sanitation • Information, Communication, Coordination and Logistics • Search and Rescue, and Damage and Needs Assessmen • Institutional Framework for Planning 21 Source: NSDRM, 2009 22 Source: NSDRM, Government of Nepal, 2009 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared Create enabling environment from the central to household level within the State to implement disaster risk reduction and preparedness plans.

Ensure mainstreaming disaster reduction into overall development process along with sectoral development and poverty reduction plans. he Government of Nepal (GoN) strongly realizes that disasters are tied up with inappropriate development. Hence, the GoN had set up priorities based on sector assessing the nature of potential disaster. This may be seen in Nepal's need development agenda with HFA 2005-201521 . The NSDRM follows five priorities in the implementation process: Put up an institutional framework in place for its implementation by prioritizing DRR at both the national and local levels.

Strengthen assessment, identification, monitoring, and early warning sy Make use of knowledge, new ideas, and education for the development of safety and disaster resilient culture at all levels; Minimize existing risk factors; and Make Disaster Preparedness strong enough for effective response. Mainstreaming of DRR in the various development sectors become imperative to ensure that preparedness, mitigation or response arrangements are in place and that damages, losses are reduced, thereby bringing sustainability of development. In the same sense, he following sectors as targets for risk reduction efforts: Agriculture and Food security Shelter, Infrastructure and Physical Planning Livelihood Protection Water and Sanitation Information, Communication, Coordination and Logistics Search and Rescue, and Damage and Needs Assessment Institutional Framework for Planning22 SDRM, Government of Nepal, 2009 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET Create enabling environment from the central to household level within the State to implement disaster risk reduction and preparedness plans.

Ensure mainstreaming disaster reduction into overall development process along with s are tied up with inappropriate set up priorities based on sector-wide activities by assessing the nature of potential disaster. This may be seen in Nepal's need-based follows five priorities in the Put up an institutional framework in place for its implementation by prioritizing DRR at Strengthen assessment, identification, monitoring, and early warning system on potential Make use of knowledge, new ideas, and education for the development of safety and Mainstreaming of DRR in the various development sectors become imperative to ensure that preparedness, mitigation or response arrangements are in place and that damages, losses are reduced, thereby bringing sustainability of development.

In the same sense, the GoN has

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET 6 ENHANCING THE CAPACITY In order to support the formulation and implementatio responsive organizational set up as well as acquire the proper capacity to perform following: • Mainstreaming work as described in Figure • Prepare the Land Use plan • Facilitate Generation & Management of hazard risk • Communicate Risks • Support Trainings This KV committee (or subcommittee) forming a technical working group, may comprise of thematic teams of KVDA, dedicated especially towards formulating a risk communication (ex.

creating basic awareness). The thematic teams may be formed from the environment sector, land use sector or from the infrastructure sector. For t aspect, this may comprise of th MoLD and joined by the Valley or District Level Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes CAPACITY OF THE VALLEY PLANNING STRUCTURE support the formulation and implementation of the KV framework, responsive organizational set up as well as acquire the proper capacity to perform Mainstreaming work as described in Figure 7 Prepare the Land Use plan Facilitate Generation & Management of hazard risk information This KV committee (or subcommittee) forming a technical working group, may comprise of thematic teams of KVDA, dedicated to look after all technical DRM especially towards formulating a risk sensitive physical framework plan and its communication (ex.

creating basic awareness). The thematic teams may be formed from the environment sector, land use sector or from the infrastructure sector. For t aspect, this may comprise of the existing deliberative group comprised of the MPPW, KVDA, MoLD and joined by the Valley or District Level Disaster Coordinating Council Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 35 NG STRUCTURE n of the KV framework, it must have a responsive organizational set up as well as acquire the proper capacity to perform the This KV committee (or subcommittee) forming a technical working group, may comprise of DRM-related matters sensitive physical framework plan and its communication (ex.

creating basic awareness). The thematic teams may be formed from the environment sector, land use sector or from the infrastructure sector. For the decision-making e existing deliberative group comprised of the MPPW, KVDA, Disaster Coordinating Council (DCC).

36 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks 7 FRAMEWORK FOR CONCEPT PLAN RISK SE This framework for mainstreamin processes aims to a) guide the Valley in ensuring disaster risk management is integrated in the plans and processes; b) ensure that the proactive policies support DRR in the Development Concept and Physical Framework; and that c) implementation tools adhere to the preferred strategies. These are presented in this chapter.

7.1 Framework for Mainstreaming Figure 6 shows the DRR mainstreaming concept developed by EMI to promote the integration of risk reducti reduction occurs at the local level when local authorities, engaged in the normal conduct of their functions, responsibilities, and practices, integrate DRR measures and objectives in various aspects of local governance such as urban planning.

This framework also suggests that DRR can be mainstreamed in local governance by harnessing existing mechanisms, processes, and systems that are alrea place and making use of such resources.

Figure 6. Framework for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (EMI, copyright) 7.2 Framework for Mainstreaming in Plans Essentially, the risk sensitive an offshoot of a previous study undertaken by KMC, NSET and EMI and other local and international partners to develop a disaster risk management master plan (DRMMP) for Kathmandu City in 2005 assessment and mitigation) into local land use planning by: (a) using available fire hazard and risk information; (b) including emergency management parameters (e.g., evacuation roads), (c) prescribing a series of disaster risk re 23 EMI, 2006 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared FRAMEWORK FOR MAKING KATHMANDU VALLEY DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT PLAN RISK SENSITIVE This framework for mainstreaming DRM in Kathmandu Valley Concept Plan and Planning processes aims to a) guide the Valley in ensuring disaster risk management is integrated in the plans and processes; b) ensure that the proactive policies support DRR in the Development al Framework; and that c) implementation tools adhere to the preferred These are presented in this chapter.

Mainstreaming DRR shows the DRR mainstreaming concept developed by EMI to promote the integration of risk reduction measures in local governance, in a way that significant risk reduction occurs at the local level23 . The mainstreaming framework can be highly effective when local authorities, engaged in the normal conduct of their functions, responsibilities, and ces, integrate DRR measures and objectives in various aspects of local governance such as urban planning. This framework also suggests that DRR can be mainstreamed in local governance by harnessing existing mechanisms, processes, and systems that are alrea place and making use of such resources.

for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (EMI, copyright) Mainstreaming in Plans Essentially, the risk sensitive physical framework planning shown in Figure an offshoot of a previous study undertaken by KMC, NSET and EMI and other local and international partners to develop a disaster risk management master plan (DRMMP) for 2005-2006. The KMC RSLUP integrated elements (i.e. disa assessment and mitigation) into local land use planning by: (a) using available hazard and risk information; (b) including emergency management parameters (e.g., evacuation roads), (c) prescribing a series of disaster risk reduction strategies and actions in Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET ELOPMENT g DRM in Kathmandu Valley Concept Plan and Planning processes aims to a) guide the Valley in ensuring disaster risk management is integrated in the plans and processes; b) ensure that the proactive policies support DRR in the Development al Framework; and that c) implementation tools adhere to the preferred shows the DRR mainstreaming concept developed by EMI to promote the on measures in local governance, in a way that significant risk .

The mainstreaming framework can be highly effective when local authorities, engaged in the normal conduct of their functions, responsibilities, and ces, integrate DRR measures and objectives in various aspects of local governance such as urban planning. This framework also suggests that DRR can be mainstreamed in local governance by harnessing existing mechanisms, processes, and systems that are already in for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (EMI, copyright) Figure 7, came about as an offshoot of a previous study undertaken by KMC, NSET and EMI and other local and international partners to develop a disaster risk management master plan (DRMMP) for 2006.

The KMC RSLUP integrated elements (i.e. disaster risk assessment and mitigation) into local land use planning by: (a) using available seismic, flood, hazard and risk information; (b) including emergency management parameters (e.g., duction strategies and actions in

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET the land use planning practice; and (d) delivering a rational risk guide the future development of Kathmandu. Prior to the initial crafting of the KMC RSLUP in 2010, a to ensure full ownership of the project by KMC and other local partners and build the capacity within local professionals. The engagement of the partners in the project and their integration in a single team was instrumental to the success of th In 2011, and under this same project with UNDP of consultation meetings among KMC stakeholders, leading to the endorsement of the KMC RSLUP.

Later, in early 2012, the KMC Legislative Council approved of i implementation. It is then, a useful framework to follow and use which includes the DRR The KV 2020 development concept already demonstrated that land use planning could be an effective tool to lessen the physical, social and economic vulnerabilities of cities to natural hazards. It aims to combine framework (plan) of Kathmandu Valley municipalities, cities, VDC and higher projects shall be chosen with the participation of affected local residents and in consideration of the inherent natural hazards of the place.

Figure 7. Framework for Main copyright) Note: Also presented in Figure 3 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes the land use planning practice; and (d) delivering a rational risk-sensitive land use plan to guide the future development of Kathmandu. Prior to the initial crafting of the KMC RSLUP in 2010, a participatory approach wa to ensure full ownership of the project by KMC and other local partners and build the capacity within local professionals.

The engagement of the partners in the project and their integration in a single team was instrumental to the success of the project.

, and under this same project with UNDP-Nepal, KMC, NSET and EMI held a round of consultation meetings among KMC stakeholders, leading to the endorsement of the KMC RSLUP. Later, in early 2012, the KMC Legislative Council approved of i implementation. It is then, a useful framework to follow and use for the Valley wide which includes the DRR mainstreaming work. development concept already demonstrated that land use planning could be an to lessen the physical, social and economic vulnerabilities of cities to natural combine several development plan components that will framework (plan) of Kathmandu Valley, and by which land use plans prepared by unicipalities, cities, VDC and higher-level plans are guided.

Regional plans or Valley projects shall be chosen with the participation of affected local residents and in consideration of the inherent natural hazards of the place.

Framework for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in Land Use Planning copyright) Note: Also presented in Figure 3 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 37 sensitive land use plan to approach was applied to ensure full ownership of the project by KMC and other local partners and build the capacity within local professionals. The engagement of the partners in the project and their integration KMC, NSET and EMI held a round of consultation meetings among KMC stakeholders, leading to the endorsement of the KMC RSLUP.

Later, in early 2012, the KMC Legislative Council approved of its adoption and Valley wide planning development concept already demonstrated that land use planning could be an to lessen the physical, social and economic vulnerabilities of cities to natural that will form the physical land use plans prepared by the Regional plans or Valley-wide projects shall be chosen with the participation of affected local residents and in consideration streaming Disaster Risk Reduction in Land Use Planning (EMI,

38 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks 7.3 Mainstreaming Activities With continued efforts by KVDA and local stakeholders, and with strong support by the Nepal Ministry (i.e. MoPPW, by scientific organizations such as NSET and EMI, a blueprint towards sustainable urban development within the Kathmandu Valley can be pursued. The KV Development Concept Plan had already initiated a participatory a the initial document undergo a series of reviews among its stakeholders in latter stages in 2001.

The approved KV Plan consolidated the reviews and comments with the original proposal and formed the basis for future land use planning acti needs updating, the following enhancements are proposed: • A program that includes a wider set of stakeholders to be involved in: - identifying, describing, validating the issues and problems of the Valley; - preparation of the Devel - validating the component plans (settlement, infrastructure, environment and production (economy) plans); • Inclusion of natural hazard risks and their management to the different component plans and their development policy, strategy decision - Hazard, vulnerability and risk information and maps; - Inclusion of past disaster information; - Inclusion of climate change impact assessments to the region (or Valley); - Implications of hazard, vulnerability and risk information to the component plans in terms of land use management, particularly on enforcement issues; - Inclusion and review of current progr development plans for Valley wide development; - Inclusion of risk management options and climate change adapt relevant to the Valley; - Identifying the programs, projects and activities which may be integrated in the periodic plans of Municipalities, and cities; In transforming the KV plan into a spatial framework, suggestions include the following: • Combining the component plans into a preferred physical framework: - Utilizing hazard maps and disaster risk information as constraints to urban expansion areas (ex.

exclusion areas, or development areas with use restrictions and control); - Having appropriat more detailed zoning (ex. municipal level (1:10:000); - Inclusion and review of current programs, projects and activities in the components spatial plans for Valley wide arrangements - Inclusion of spatial components of risk management options and climate change adaptation strategies relevant to the Valley; - A simplified guide to aid in the process of mainstreaming hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment in KV physical framework.

7.4 Capacity building In order to carry out the needed enhancements and crafting of the KV framework plan, capacity building must be directed to the technical, operational and institutional aspects of KV governance. This capacity building objectives by carrying out the policies and strategies set forth in the KV 2020 Development Concept, and further refined towards a physical framework plan. These shall be in accordance Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared Activities With continued efforts by KVDA and local stakeholders, and with strong support by the MoPPW, MoHA, MoLD and DUDBC) and departments by scientific organizations such as NSET and EMI, a blueprint towards sustainable urban the Kathmandu Valley can be pursued.

The KV Development Concept Plan had already initiated a participatory a the initial document undergo a series of reviews among its stakeholders in latter stages in 2001. The approved KV Plan consolidated the reviews and comments with the original proposal and formed the basis for future land use planning activities. However, as the plan needs updating, the following enhancements are proposed: A program that includes a wider set of stakeholders to be involved in: identifying, describing, validating the issues and problems of the Valley; preparation of the Development Vision; validating the component plans (settlement, infrastructure, environment and production (economy) plans); Inclusion of natural hazard risks and their management to the different component plans and their development policy, strategy decisions: Hazard, vulnerability and risk information and maps; Inclusion of past disaster information; Inclusion of climate change impact assessments to the region (or Valley); Implications of hazard, vulnerability and risk information to the component plans in erms of land use management, particularly on enforcement issues; Inclusion and review of current programs, projects and activities in development plans for Valley wide development; Inclusion of risk management options and climate change adaptation strategies relevant to the Valley; Identifying the programs, projects and activities which may be integrated in the periodic plans of Municipalities, and cities; In transforming the KV plan into a spatial framework, suggestions include the following: Combining the component plans into a preferred physical framework: Utilizing hazard maps and disaster risk information as constraints to urban expansion (ex.

exclusion areas, or development areas with use restrictions and control); Having appropriately scaled hazard maps and disaster risk information to provide a more detailed zoning (ex. municipal level (1:10:000); Inclusion and review of current programs, projects and activities in the components spatial plans for Valley wide arrangements of spatial components of risk management options and climate change adaptation strategies relevant to the Valley; A simplified guide to aid in the process of mainstreaming hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment in KV physical framework.

In order to carry out the needed enhancements and crafting of the KV framework plan, capacity building must be directed to the technical, operational and institutional aspects of KV governance. This capacity building should aim for the attainment of th objectives by carrying out the policies and strategies set forth in the KV 2020 Development and further refined towards a physical framework plan. These shall be in accordance Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET With continued efforts by KVDA and local stakeholders, and with strong support by the and departments, by UNDP and by scientific organizations such as NSET and EMI, a blueprint towards sustainable urban The KV Development Concept Plan had already initiated a participatory approach by having the initial document undergo a series of reviews among its stakeholders in latter stages in 2001.

The approved KV Plan consolidated the reviews and comments with the original vities. However, as the plan A program that includes a wider set of stakeholders to be involved in: identifying, describing, validating the issues and problems of the Valley; validating the component plans (settlement, infrastructure, environment and Inclusion of natural hazard risks and their management to the different component plans Inclusion of climate change impact assessments to the region (or Valley); Implications of hazard, vulnerability and risk information to the component plans in erms of land use management, particularly on enforcement issues; ams, projects and activities in the component ation strategies Identifying the programs, projects and activities which may be integrated in the In transforming the KV plan into a spatial framework, suggestions include the following: Combining the component plans into a preferred physical framework: Utilizing hazard maps and disaster risk information as constraints to urban expansion (ex.

exclusion areas, or development areas with use restrictions and control); ely scaled hazard maps and disaster risk information to provide a Inclusion and review of current programs, projects and activities in the components of spatial components of risk management options and climate change A simplified guide to aid in the process of mainstreaming hazard, vulnerability and In order to carry out the needed enhancements and crafting of the KV framework plan, capacity building must be directed to the technical, operational and institutional aspects of KV the attainment of the KV development objectives by carrying out the policies and strategies set forth in the KV 2020 Development and further refined towards a physical framework plan.

These shall be in accordance

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET with existing national laws especially with the NSDRM NAPA for Climate Change continue on the efforts undertaken by this project, where several public officials from various government institutions and KMC were t separate report for this particular element of the project). 7.5 Enhanced Planning Steps This section will focus attention on the 7.5.1 Data Collection & Inventory/Analysis Data from five development sectors and institutions contribute same data shall form the bases for planning the different land use policy areas production, infrastructure and protection land use.

Significant data has already been collected for Kathmandu City in relation to the earlier project on KMC Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan where a sectoral profile was developed. The proposed data collection should be extended to the Valley. Figure 8 provides an example of the Sectoral Profile developed for KMC. To be of more effective use for planning following tasks should be accomplished: • a common data set prepared for both sectoral development and physical framework planning analysis; • indicators of development drawn from the data are used to provide the existing development scenario and to establish trends; • a lead agency shall be assigned towards harmonization or streamlining the information requirements for planning Figure 8.

The Kathmandu Metropolitan City Sectoral Profile as a sample At later stages, these tasks must similarly be done by the municipalities in preparing their periodic plans and component physical development plans. Eventu prepare the individual municipal land use plans: Thematic Mapping. The t of the Valley. The list of thematic maps regards to risk reduction, these shall include from project reports and maps hazard mapping exercises related and geologic disasters. Disaster Risk Mapping. outputs. The Disaster Risk Assessment (DRA) process entails several steps prepared ahead of the planning stage (b) the vulnerabilities and risks of different elements (e.g.

people, buildings, facilities, activities, etc.) in the Valley or component areas, (c) risk parameters represented by estimates Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes with existing national laws especially with the NSDRM for disaster risk management for Climate Change policies and strategies. The capacity building effort should continue on the efforts undertaken by this project, where several public officials from various government institutions and KMC were trained on risk sensitive land use planning (refer to separate report for this particular element of the project).

Enhanced Planning Steps This section will focus attention on the following KV planning steps: Data Collection & Inventory/Analysis five development sectors, namely social, economy, infrastructures, environment, contribute towards developing the socio-economic and physical profile. These same data shall form the bases for planning the different land use policy areas production, infrastructure and protection land use. Significant data has already been collected for Kathmandu City in relation to the earlier project on KMC Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan where a sectoral profile was developed. The collection should be extended to the Valley.

Figure 8 provides an example of the Sectoral Profile developed for KMC. To be of more effective use for planning, the following tasks should be accomplished: a common data set prepared for both sectoral ment and physical framework of development drawn from the data are used to provide the existing development scenario and to establish a lead agency shall be assigned towards harmonization or streamlining the information requirements for planning The Kathmandu Metropolitan City Sectoral Profile as a sample At later stages, these tasks must similarly be done by the municipalities in preparing their periodic plans and component physical development plans.

Eventually, they shall be used to prepare the individual municipal land use plans: . The thematic maps are necessary to build the physical framework plan The list of thematic maps shall cover the different land use policy areas regards to risk reduction, these shall include geo-hazard maps. These maps may and maps on earthquakes and floods, existing databases or from new hazard mapping exercises. These shall be used to determine areas vulnerabl related and geologic disasters.

apping. The risk maps may be drawn from the disaster risk assessment The Disaster Risk Assessment (DRA) process entails several steps prepared ahead of the planning stage. It involves an assessment of the following: (a) hazard, (b) the vulnerabilities and risks of different elements (e.g. people, buildings, facilities, Valley or component areas, (c) risk parameters represented by estimates Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 39 for disaster risk management and the The capacity building effort should continue on the efforts undertaken by this project, where several public officials from various rained on risk sensitive land use planning (refer to , namely social, economy, infrastructures, environment, economic and physical profile.

These same data shall form the bases for planning the different land use policy areas-settlements, production, infrastructure and protection land use. Significant data has already been collected The Kathmandu Metropolitan City Sectoral Profile as a sample At later stages, these tasks must similarly be done by the municipalities in preparing their ally, they shall be used to are necessary to build the physical framework plan shall cover the different land use policy areas. With hazard maps. These maps may be obtained on earthquakes and floods, existing databases or from new determine areas vulnerable to climate- may be drawn from the disaster risk assessment The Disaster Risk Assessment (DRA) process entails several steps and may be involves an assessment of the following: (a) hazard, (b) the vulnerabilities and risks of different elements (e.g.

people, buildings, facilities, Valley or component areas, (c) risk parameters represented by estimates

40 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks of damage or loss, and the ( open access, access routes, etc.) Vulnerability analysis refers socio-economic vulnerability related to determining severity of expressed as monetary loss, loss of function of specific sectors Understanding the implications of the risk assessme experiences and expertise of the planners, scientific experts and stakeholders in different sectors to address these threats.

To treat them as significant or not, or whether they are impediments to development and (KMC RSLUP, 2010) • Emergency management information on possible escape routes of an area, temporary sites for evacuation, and locations of critical infrastructures (e.g. hospitals, water sources) may be mapped and evaluated. The basic informat make use of the aerial images. The information shall be validated on the ground as to suitability in ground conditions.

• Decision zones. Overlays comprising or compatible areas or finding those conflict are called decision zones. For hazard and exposure mapping, a specific hazard map is overlaid with the existing land use map, or with other component plan infrastructures, productive assets, and social infrastructures different levels of vulnerability 7.5.2 DRR-Sensitive Physical Planning Goals If efforts had been made to ensure that the vision statement is goals, particularly the goals of physical development, are expected to be equally risk sensitive. Some examples drawn from the KV 2001 • Rational population distribution concentration of development in the metropolitan cities.

At the local scale, rational population distribution may mean promoting the development of human settlements in hazard-free and well • Environmental integrity m areas are not degraded further and areas under protection remain 7.5.3 DRR-Sensitive Spatial Strategies In drawing up a KV physical framework, a preferred spatial strategy (or spatia support the objectives of the KV development concept and their community is needed.

The physical framework the organizing concept to gui its implementing tools such as the • Demand-supply balancing of land for urban development demand of land for urban development, available areas for urban expansion 24 Serote, 2004 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared and the (d) requirements for emergency management (e.g. open spaces, open access, access routes, etc.).

refers to the following: physical vulnerability of the built environment, economic vulnerability, climate change and variability vulnerability.

R determining severity of consequence (e.g. direct and indirect damages and losses loss, loss of function of specific sectors. Understanding the implications of the risk assessment to development requires the collective experiences and expertise of the planners, scientific experts and stakeholders in different sectors to address these threats. To treat them as significant or not, or whether they are impediments to development and progress, will require further evaluation Emergency management. In view of the spatial requirements for emergencies, information on possible escape routes of an area, temporary sites for evacuation, and locations of critical infrastructures (e.g.

hospitals, water sources) may be mapped and evaluated. The basic information on critical infrastructures, routes, temporary sites can make use of the aerial images. The information shall be validated on the ground as to suitability in ground conditions.

Overlays comprising various thematic maps provide for find or compatible areas or finding those conflicts among land use areas. These common areas are called decision zones. For hazard and exposure mapping, a specific hazard map is overlaid with the existing land use map, or with other component plan infrastructures, productive assets, and social infrastructures and facilities)to reveal of vulnerability or risks to the hazard Sensitive Physical Planning Goals If efforts had been made to ensure that the vision statement is risk sensitive, other sectoral goals, particularly the goals of physical development, are expected to be equally risk sensitive.

Some examples drawn from the KV 2001 include the following: Rational population distribution. For the KV 2001 it means dispers concentration of development in the metropolitan cities. At the local scale, rational population distribution may mean promoting the development of human settlements in free and well-serviced locations.

Environmental integrity maintained. This means that environmentally constrained are not degraded further and areas under protection remain protected at all times. Sensitive Spatial Strategies In drawing up a KV physical framework, a preferred spatial strategy (or spatia support the objectives of the KV development concept and in general the is needed. physical framework of the KV development concept would be this form and will serve as the organizing concept to guide the detailed elaboration of the Valley wide s such as the zoning ordinances.

supply balancing of land for urban development.

In projecting the future demand of land for urban development, the following exclusion areas help identify available areas for urban expansion24 : Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET ) requirements for emergency management (e.g. open spaces, to the following: physical vulnerability of the built environment, variability vulnerability. Risk analysis is indirect damages and losses), nt to development requires the collective experiences and expertise of the planners, scientific experts and stakeholders in different sectors to address these threats.

To treat them as significant or not, or whether they are progress, will require further evaluation by the stakeholders.

In view of the spatial requirements for emergencies, information on possible escape routes of an area, temporary sites for evacuation, and locations of critical infrastructures (e.g. hospitals, water sources) may be mapped and ion on critical infrastructures, routes, temporary sites can make use of the aerial images. The information shall be validated on the ground as to provide for finding suitable These common areas are called decision zones. For hazard and exposure mapping, a specific hazard map is overlaid with the existing land use map, or with other component plan maps (ex. and facilities)to reveal risk sensitive, other sectoral goals, particularly the goals of physical development, are expected to be equally risk include the following: .

For the KV 2001 it means dispersion to prevent over- concentration of development in the metropolitan cities. At the local scale, rational population distribution may mean promoting the development of human settlements in environmentally constrained protected at all times. In drawing up a KV physical framework, a preferred spatial strategy (or spatial form) that will general the people’s vision for of the KV development concept would be this form and will serve as Valley wide land use plan and . In projecting the future sion areas help identify

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET - the land areas of demand. - land areas for future hazards are excluded from consideration - Protected areas and environmentally constrained areas for urban expansion purposes. The result of the demand need to augment supply to satisfy the demand. agricultural land conversions are among other ways of meeting demand. • Designing alternative spatial strategies or urban forms spatial strategies is a major activity in the crafting of framework.

The spatial strategy is Valley (and components) - The evaluation of the alternative spatial strategies advantages and disadvantages of each strategy - Sectoral development issues and concerns hazard risks and other data outp and concerns.

and concerns that reviewed, validated, prioritized the updated KV Development Concept development - Sectoral development objectives and targets vision statement. The development goals and targets are framed from these development issues and concerns. - Sectoral policies of proposed sectoral programs and projects. As with the KV plan, they the spatial trends of settlement expansion, ii) economic concentration and specialization and iii) environmental concerns, iv) risk reduction and adaptation. - Spatial content.

then included in the KV physical framework plan and into the zoning policies, ordinance and other proposed local legislation.

- Sectoral Programs and Projects development identified in the development integrated later - public consultation. consultation. It is expected that the public consultation will result in a consensus on the final vision statement and the preferred spatial strategy. 7.5.4 Evaluation and selection of the preferred strategy The preferred spatial strategy draft RSLUP. The main activities include identifying and mapping the land use policy areas and their sub- components The preferred urban form Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes areas of existing settlements in hazard prone areas are added to the total land areas for future urban development which are highly prone to different types of excluded from consideration if mitigation is not cost effective.

rotected areas and environmentally constrained areas are considered for urban expansion purposes.

The result of the demand-supply balancing process will indicate whether or n need to augment supply to satisfy the demand. In-filling, densification, urban renewal agricultural land conversions are among other ways of meeting demand. Designing alternative spatial strategies or urban forms. Generation of alternat spatial strategies is a major activity in the crafting of risk sensitive KV physical . The spatial strategy is a form or pattern of physical development of the Valley (and components) that will contribute to the realization of the long valuation of the alternative spatial strategies aims to analyze and advantages and disadvantages of each strategy: Sectoral development issues and concerns.

The sectoral profile, thematic maps, hazard risks and other data outputs are used to describe the development issues and concerns. In the context of the KV plan, the previously identified and concerns that still resurface are documented in the updating. These are then reviewed, validated, prioritized among the various sectoral issues and concerns in updated KV Development Concept. Their implications development and their possible solutions are discussed in workshops. Sectoral development objectives and targets. These are derived from the n statement. The development goals and targets are framed from these development issues and concerns.

policies and strategies. These guide the formulation and implementation of proposed sectoral programs and projects. As with the KV plan, they the spatial trends of settlement expansion, ii) economic concentration and specialization and iii) environmental concerns, iv) capacity development and v) risk reduction and adaptation. Spatial content. Spatial content or implications of the different sectoral plans are then included in the KV physical framework plan and into the zoning policies, ordinance and other proposed local legislation.

Sectoral Programs and Projects. Programs and projects necessary to realize the development objectives and achieve the targets of the sectors and subsectors are in the development and physical framework plan later in the periodic plans.

public consultation. The outputs of this stage are then n. It is expected that the public consultation will result in a consensus on the final vision statement and the preferred spatial strategy. Evaluation and selection of the preferred strategy The preferred spatial strategy for Kathmandu Valley serves the basis for the preparation of the draft RSLUP. The main activities include identifying and mapping the land use policy areas components, namely: settlements, protection, production and infrastructure. The preferred urban forms are also reflected in the land use plan. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 41 added to the total which are highly prone to different types of if mitigation is not cost effective.

are considered not available supply balancing process will indicate whether or not there will be a filling, densification, urban renewal, Generation of alternative risk sensitive KV physical form or pattern of physical development of the that will contribute to the realization of the long-term vision. aims to analyze and determine the . The sectoral profile, thematic maps, used to describe the development issues In the context of the KV plan, the previously identified problems the updating. These are then ious sectoral issues and concerns in . Their implications to sectoral workshops.

. These are derived from the KV n statement. The development goals and targets are framed from these the formulation and implementation of proposed sectoral programs and projects. As with the KV plan, they cover: i) the spatial trends of settlement expansion, ii) economic concentration and capacity development and v) different sectoral plans are then included in the KV physical framework plan and into the zoning policies, . Programs and projects necessary to realize the and achieve the targets of the sectors and subsectors are plan. These may be are then subject to public n. It is expected that the public consultation will result in a consensus on the final vision statement and the preferred spatial strategy.

the preparation of the draft RSLUP. The main activities include identifying and mapping the land use policy areas , namely: settlements, protection, production and infrastructure.

42 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks 7.5.5 Detailing the land use plan The chosen spatial strategy or urban form will now become the organizing concept for detailing the Valley wide tools. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared Detailing the land use plan The chosen spatial strategy or urban form will now become the organizing concept for Valley wide land use plan, the zoning ordinances and other Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET The chosen spatial strategy or urban form will now become the organizing concept for and other plan implementation

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET 8 DRR RELATED IMPLEMENTATION 8.1 Zoning The Zoning Ordinance, which basically translates the implementing tool, is frameworks. It is necessary for the KV impose penalties and fines on violators of its provision Fines and Penalties Fines and penalties can also have a regulatory effect. penalized: • Settlement encroachments into “no buil among areas to be included in protected zones.

As “no and buffers are in place to protect communities or resources • Violations in development plan and building plan permitting • Non-conformance of allowed occupancy use • Non-conformance of construction work with approved plans or building bye codes • Non-provision of Open space requirements must be • In a watershed approach areas are considered in evaluating proposed land uses • Non-conformance of owners, developers to approved ordinances. Necessarily, guided by the Valley wide physical framework (spatial) plan. • Degradation of the environment by unlawful activities and poor practices in waste management shall be penalized in the Valley.

• Adopt the “polluter pays” principle. Project proponents whose projects are determined to cause risks to the local population should pay the intended or unintended effects. • Penalties and fines should be used to compensate victims of man proofing of buildings, building collapses). 8.2 Safe Building By-Laws Safe building construction should be integrated in the local building bye equipment needed to enf municipalities, VDCs and cities. • The building by-laws peculiarities, but guided by National Building Code. 25 The implementation tools discussed in this section and from works by Serote, 2004, Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Management of Local Territories, Property, Patrimony and Territory: Foundations of Land Use Planning in the Philippines; School of Urban and Regional Planning, UP Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes IMPLEMENTATION TOOLS25 Zoning Ordinance, which basically translates the KV risk-sensitive land use plan into a is based on the preferred land use plan and the It is necessary for the KVDA to strongly enforce the derived impose penalties and fines on violators of its provision.

Fines and penalties can also have a regulatory effect. Acts such as the following should be Settlement encroachments into “no build” zones. High risk- areas shall be included among areas to be included in protected zones. As “no-build” zones, necessary easements and buffers are in place to protect communities or resources Violations in development plan and building plan permitting conformance of allowed occupancy use conformance of construction work with approved plans or building bye Open spaces. Remaining open spaces must be maintained and that requirements must be determined and met.

tershed approach, interrelationships and impacts of upland activities on lowland are considered in evaluating proposed land uses. conformance of owners, developers to approved building bye-laws and zoning Necessarily, municipal and city land use plans and periodic plans guided by the Valley wide physical framework (spatial) plan. Degradation of the environment by unlawful activities and poor practices in waste management shall be penalized in the Valley. pays” principle. Project proponents whose projects are determined to cause risks to the local population should pay the intended or unintended effects.

Penalties and fines should be used to compensate victims of man-made risks (ex. poor fire buildings, building collapses).

Laws Safe building construction should be guided by the Nepal (National) Building Code should be integrated in the local building bye-laws. The structure, functions, resources and equipment needed to enforce this must be determined by the KVDA and the component municipalities, VDCs and cities. laws (Valley wide) should be more responsive to local needs and peculiarities, but guided by National Building Code. discussed in this section were obtained from the KV 2001 report, E-learning discussion forums and adaptations Serote, 2004, Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Management of Local Territories, Property, Patrimony and Land Use Planning in the Philippines; School of Urban and Regional Planning, UP Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 43 sensitive land use plan into an the land use policy y enforce the derived zoning and to the following should be areas shall be included build” zones, necessary easements conformance of construction work with approved plans or building bye-laws and s.

Remaining open spaces must be maintained and that upland activities on lowland laws and zoning and periodic plans must be Degradation of the environment by unlawful activities and poor practices in waste pays” principle. Project proponents whose projects are determined to cause risks to the local population should pay the intended or unintended effects. made risks (ex. poor fire the Nepal (National) Building Code and laws. The structure, functions, resources and orce this must be determined by the KVDA and the component should be more responsive to local needs and learning discussion forums and adaptations Serote, 2004, Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Management of Local Territories, Property, Patrimony and Land Use Planning in the Philippines; School of Urban and Regional Planning, UP-PLANADES) pp.371-386.

44 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks • Strict enforcement of design and construction of building structures and their foundations. • Monitoring, assessment and evaluation programs for existing structures must be in place • Regular monitoring of must be in place. Appropriate treatment measures ranging from conservation to rehabilitation to redevelopment shall be formulated to create a example, preserving open spaces, non to more compact and efficient forms; monitoring, assessment and evaluation programs must be in place.

8.3 Co-management Ministries (through KVDA) undertake joint responsibility for managing the different land use territorial jurisdiction. Th enforcement of Valley wide building bye environment and natural resource areas (forest land areas) 8.4 Public Investment Programming The annual investment program should be plan. For example, the municipalities and urbanizing VDCs use a portion of their individual annual budgets for its risk sensitive programs, projects and activities 8.5 Private Investments Incentives Incentives are given to private of Government may consider: • Giving fiscal and monetary rewards significant risk reduction measures in their day to day operations or to those that an Environmental Program for Environmental Management allowed to operate in an area Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared ment of safe engineering standards should be encouraged design and construction of building structures and their foundations.

Monitoring, assessment and evaluation programs for existing structures must be in place ing of the structural and environmental quality of residential districts ppropriate treatment measures ranging from conservation to rehabilitation to redevelopment should be considered. Urban expansion shall be formulated to create a balanced built and un-built environment, that is, for preserving open spaces, non-conversion or remaining lands, adjusting systems to more compact and efficient forms; monitoring, assessment and evaluation programs DA) and local governments (e.g. the municipalities, cities and VDCs nsibility for managing the different land use areas that lie within the .

The activities may include enforcement of national buil Valley wide building bye-laws and zoning ordinances, co environment and natural resource areas (forest land areas). Public Investment Programming The annual investment program should be the principal instrument for implementing the For example, the municipalities and urbanizing VDCs use a portion of their individual risk sensitive programs, projects and activities.

Private Investments Incentives private investors for implementing DRM activities; may consider: Giving fiscal and monetary rewards (tax –subsidies) to private firms that significant risk reduction measures in their day to day operations or to those nvironmental Impact Assessments are prepared and a Monitoring, Evaluation Program for Environmental Management are designed and funded before any project is allowed to operate in an area Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET should be encouraged especially in the Monitoring, assessment and evaluation programs for existing structures must be in place.

d environmental quality of residential districts ppropriate treatment measures ranging from conservation to rban expansion and management environment, that is, for conversion or remaining lands, adjusting systems to more compact and efficient forms; monitoring, assessment and evaluation programs the municipalities, cities and VDCs) areas that lie within their may include enforcement of national building codes, laws and zoning ordinances, co-managing the mplementing the KV For example, the municipalities and urbanizing VDCs use a portion of their individual DRM activities; the different levels to private firms that put into practice significant risk reduction measures in their day to day operations or to those who ensure Impact Assessments are prepared and a Monitoring, Evaluation are designed and funded before any project is

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET 9 WAY FORWARD: COMPLETING VALLEY PHYSICAL FRAM It is proposed that to complete the KV Development Concept into a KV Physical framework plan, a 3-year plan be programmed in four stages Tasks STAGE 1: Task 1. Organizing and tasking activities for Risk Sensitive physical framework planning for Kathmandu Valley Task 1.1 KVDA planning committee &structure defined Task 1.2 KV Data inventory and Thematic Map inventory Task 1.3 Work Plan and Approval, Funding source STAGE 2: Task 2.Updating of KV Concept Plan, Task 2.1 Updating of Ecological profile, Task 2.2 RSLUP Guideline preparation STAGE 3: Task 3 Valley Wide Multi Hazards Analysis Task 4.

Valley wide Transport Planning Task 5. Valley wide Physical Framework Planning STAGE 4: Task 6. Selected Sub-Met.Cities,Municipalities RSLUP Task 7. Special Studies (Selected Heritage/Historical Sites) Task 8. Capacity building, monitoring tools development Figure 9. Proposed Activities and Timeline for the Completion of the Risk Sensitive Land Use Stage 1 will focus on composition of KVDA committee for planning, data inventorying, work planning, approval process and budgeting. This stage shall help r agencies and development partners in Nepal on the development strategies, methodology and institutional arrangements for the development of the Kathmandu Valley RSLUP The activities of Stage 2 updating the information about the planning environment (social, economic, physical and environmental aspects) and the development of a simplified guide towards risk sensitive physical framework (land use) planning.

Stage 3 shall include the Valley wide multi hazard analysis, the transport planning and physical framework planning. Because of po acquired by primary data gathering (surveys and interviews), model development and processing, the period is given two (2) years to complete an integrated transport and land use planning for the Kathmandu Valley. MoLD, KVDA, KMC and other Municipalities and VDC’s within Kathmandu Valley. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes COMPLETING THE RISK SENSITIVE KATHMANDU VALLEY PHYSICAL FRAMEWORK PLAN It is proposed that to complete the KV Development Concept into a KV Physical framework be programmed in four stages as indicated in Figure 9.

Year 1 Year 2 Task 1. Organizing and tasking activities for Risk Sensitive physical framework planning for Task 1.1 KVDA planning committee &structure defined Task 1.2 KV Data inventory and Thematic Map and Approval, Funding source Task 2.Updating of KV Concept Plan, Task 2.1 Updating of Ecological profile, Task 2.2 RSLUP Guideline preparation Task 3 Valley Wide Multi Hazards Analysis Valley wide Transport Planning Task 5. Valley wide Physical Framework Planning Met.Cities,Municipalities Task 7. Special Studies (Selected Heritage/Historical building, monitoring tools Proposed Activities and Timeline for the Completion of the Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan for the Kathmandu Valley will focus on organization and preparation for KV risk sensitive planning: KVDA committee for planning, data inventorying, work planning, approval process and budgeting.

This stage shall help reach consensus among the Nepalese government agencies and development partners in Nepal on the development strategies, methodology and stitutional arrangements for the development of the Kathmandu Valley RSLUP Stage 2will include updating of the KV concept plan. This shall include updating the information about the planning environment (social, economic, physical and vironmental aspects) and the development of a simplified guide towards risk sensitive physical framework (land use) planning.

shall include the Valley wide multi hazard analysis, the transport planning and physical framework planning. Because of possible data requirements which can only be acquired by primary data gathering (surveys and interviews), model development and processing, the period is given two (2) years to complete an integrated transport and land use for the Kathmandu Valley. The government partners for the project will be MoPPW, , KMC and other Municipalities and VDC’s within Kathmandu Valley. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 45 KATHMANDU It is proposed that to complete the KV Development Concept into a KV Physical framework Figure 9.

Year 2 Year 3 Proposed Activities and Timeline for the Completion of the Risk Sensitive Land Use organization and preparation for KV risk sensitive planning: KVDA committee for planning, data inventorying, work planning, approval each consensus among the Nepalese government agencies and development partners in Nepal on the development strategies, methodology and stitutional arrangements for the development of the Kathmandu Valley RSLUP. will include updating of the KV concept plan. This shall include updating the information about the planning environment (social, economic, physical and vironmental aspects) and the development of a simplified guide towards risk sensitive shall include the Valley wide multi hazard analysis, the transport planning and ssible data requirements which can only be acquired by primary data gathering (surveys and interviews), model development and processing, the period is given two (2) years to complete an integrated transport and land use The government partners for the project will be MoPPW, , KMC and other Municipalities and VDC’s within Kathmandu Valley.

46 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks Stage 4 will focus on municipal land use planning or periodic planning of selected sub metropolitan cities, municipalities an finalization of the KMC RSLUP. Special studies on heritage areas or historical sites are proposed while the land use plans are similarly prepared, in order that these master plans are concurrent with the land use plan preparation.

Capacity building activities are proposed to be spread over the entire project period and be made parallel to the different tasks.

Capacity building of Nepalese planners in land use planning shall be coursed throu workshop and lectures, field trips and site visits among others. These activities are hoped to support the future implementation of the CDRM and the Flagship Programmes Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared will focus on municipal land use planning or periodic planning of selected sub metropolitan cities, municipalities and urbanizing VDCs.

This stage shall also include the finalization of the KMC RSLUP. Special studies on heritage areas or historical sites are proposed while the land use plans are similarly prepared, in order that these master plans are land use plan preparation.

Capacity building activities are proposed to be spread over the entire project period and be made parallel to the different tasks. Capacity building of Nepalese planners in shall be coursed through active participation in the various activities, workshop and lectures, field trips and site visits among others. These activities are hoped to support the future implementation of the CDRM and the Flagship Programmes Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET will focus on municipal land use planning or periodic planning of selected sub- d urbanizing VDCs.

This stage shall also include the finalization of the KMC RSLUP. Special studies on heritage areas or historical sites are proposed while the land use plans are similarly prepared, in order that these master plans are Capacity building activities are proposed to be spread over the entire project period and be made parallel to the different tasks. Capacity building of Nepalese planners in risk sensitive gh active participation in the various activities, workshop and lectures, field trips and site visits among others. These activities are hoped to support the future implementation of the CDRM and the Flagship Programmes.

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET 10 REFERENCES 1. Earthquakes and Megac Metropolitan City, Nepal; Application in Metro Manila and Kathmandu 2010; Submitted to The German Federal Foreign Affairs Office t 2. Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative (EMI), Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal; megacities: A Pilot-Application in Metro Manila and Ka Deutches Komitee Katasrophenvorsorge 3. Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative (EMI), City, Nepal; A Pilot- German Federal Forei Katasrophenvorsorge 4.

Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative, 2007, Urban and Megacities Disaster Risk Reduction – Manual of Sound Practices. Quezon City, Philippines. 5. Japan International Cooperation Agency and t 2002. The Study on Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley, Kingdom of Nepal, Volume III.

6. Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook, ICIMOD, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmand 7. Municipality Profile of Nepal, a socio Intensive Study and Research Center (Kathmandu). 2008. 8. National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change, Ministry of Environment, 2010 9. National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management, Government of Nepal, 2009 10. National Urban Policy 2064 (200 Government 11. Nepal DesInventar Database, NSET 2011 12. Ministry of Physical Planning and Works Building Construction 13. Pradhan and Perera. 2005. Urban Growth and Its Impact on the Livelihoods of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

14. Serote, E. 2004. Property, Patrimony & Territory: Foundations of Land Use Planning in the Philippines. School of Urban and Regional Planning. University of the Philippines. 9, pp.347-387 15. Serote, E. (2005): Rationalized Local Planning System Urban and Regional Planning, University of the Philippines, unpublished 16. Sharma P., 2003. Population Monograph of Nepal Volume 1: Urbanization and development. Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu. 17. The Preparation of Flood Risk and Vulnerability Map of the Kathmandu Valley, Government of Nepal Disaster Prevention, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nep 18.

Urban Indicators for Managing Cities: Cities Data Book, 2001 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative (EMI) Risk-sensitive Land Use Plan of Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal; Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in megacities: A Pilot Application in Metro Manila and Kathmandu 2010; Submitted to The German Federal Foreign Affairs Office through the Deutches Komitee Katasrophenvorsorge Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative (EMI), Risk-sensitive Land Use Plan of Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal; Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in Application in Metro Manila and Kathmandu 2011 through the Deutches Komitee Katasrophenvorsorge Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative (EMI), Sectoral Profile of Kathmandu Metropolitan -Application in Metro Manila and Kathmandu 2010; Submitted to the German Federal Foreign Affairs Office through the Deutches Komitee Katasrophenvorsorge Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative, 2007, Urban and Megacities Disaster Risk Manual of Sound Practices.

Quezon City, Philippines.

Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Ministry of Home Affairs of Nepal. The Study on Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley, Kingdom , Volume III. Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook, ICIMOD, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu. 2007 Municipality Profile of Nepal, a socio-economic development data base of Nepal. Intensive Study and Research Center (Kathmandu). 2008. National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change, Ministry of y for Disaster Risk Management, Government of Nepal, 2009 National Urban Policy 2064 (2007), Government of Nepal Unofficial Translation, Nepal Nepal DesInventar Database, NSET 2011 Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, Department of Urban Development and Building Construction, Babar Mahal Pradhan and Perera.

2005. Urban Growth and Its Impact on the Livelihoods of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

Serote, E. 2004. Property, Patrimony & Territory: Foundations of Land Use Planning in chool of Urban and Regional Planning. University of the Philippines. Serote, E. (2005): Rationalized Local Planning System in the Philippines, School of Urban and Regional Planning, University of the Philippines, unpublished 2003. Population Monograph of Nepal Volume 1: Urbanization and development. Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu. The Preparation of Flood Risk and Vulnerability Map of the Kathmandu Valley, Government of Nepal 2009, Ministry of Water Resources, Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Urban Indicators for Managing Cities: Cities Data Book, 2001 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 47 sensitive Land Use Plan of Kathmandu Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in megacities: A Pilot- Application in Metro Manila and Kathmandu 2010; Submitted to The German Federal hrough the Deutches Komitee Katasrophenvorsorge sensitive Land Use Plan of Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in thmandu 2011 through the Sectoral Profile of Kathmandu Metropolitan Application in Metro Manila and Kathmandu 2010; Submitted to the gn Affairs Office through the Deutches Komitee Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative, 2007, Urban and Megacities Disaster Risk he Ministry of Home Affairs of Nepal.

The Study on Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley, Kingdom Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook, ICIMOD, International Centre for Integrated economic development data base of Nepal. National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change, Ministry of y for Disaster Risk Management, Government of Nepal, 2009 ), Government of Nepal Unofficial Translation, Nepal Development and Pradhan and Perera. 2005. Urban Growth and Its Impact on the Livelihoods of Serote, E. 2004. Property, Patrimony & Territory: Foundations of Land Use Planning in chool of Urban and Regional Planning.

University of the Philippines. C- in the Philippines, School of Urban and Regional Planning, University of the Philippines, unpublished 2003. Population Monograph of Nepal Volume 1: Urbanization and The Preparation of Flood Risk and Vulnerability Map of the Kathmandu Valley, ent of Water Induced

48 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks According to the Kathmandu Valley DRM Profile (EMI, 2005), the most frequent natural disasters in Nepal are flood, la property. The middle hills are mainly prone to landslides while the flat Tarai region is susceptible to flood and fire. While earthquakes are not frequent, historically, Nepal has experienced several destructive earthquakes with more than 11,000 people killed in four major earthquakes just in the past century.

The more devastating natural hazards for Kathmandu Valley are related to earthquakes, floods and fires. Annex 1. Earthquake The historical earthquak the Himalaya. Historically, Nepal has experienced several destructive earthquakes with more than 11,000 people killed in four major earthquakes just in the past century. Based on the earthquak catalog, Nepal faces one earthquake of Magnitude 7 or greater every 75 years, on average. Such magnitude earthquake could be extremely damaging to urban metropolises as demonstrated by the M7.0 January 2010 Haiti earthquake. Even more alarming is that 1800 five (5) events of M>= 7 have affected Kathmandu; the most recent severe earthquake was the 1934 M8.3 earthquake.

On average earthquake intensities equal to or greater than VIII MMI (Modified Mercalli Intensity) take place every 36 years while intensities of IX MMI or greater take place every 75 years. The last significant earthquake M6.6 causing a loss of 721 lives occurred in east Nepal in 1988. It caused a total direct economic loss of about 5 billion Nepalese Rupees. Further a re and central Nepal as well as north east India causing damage to 30,684 buildings and inflicting a total direct economic loss of 5.65billion Nepalese Rupees. The consolidated earthquake catalogue of Nepal (1255 to 1992 A.D) and Seismological centre (NSC) of Department of Mines and Geology (DMG) shows high frequency of large earthquakes in Nepal.

Based on these observations, it is reasonable to conclude that there is a high likelihood of an eart greater in Kathmandu. Such intensities will create catastrophic damages in the city. Table A.1: Magnitude-Frequency Data on Earthquakes in Nepal and the Surrounding Region No. of Events Approximate Recurrence Interval, yr. Table A.2: Frequency and Various levels of earthquake intensities in Kathmandu since 1800 KATHMANDU 5 Events eventof M=8.3 (1934) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared ANNEXES According to the Kathmandu Valley DRM Profile (EMI, 2005), the most frequent natural disasters in Nepal are flood, landslide, and fire causing loss of life and severe damage to property.

The middle hills are mainly prone to landslides while the flat Tarai region is susceptible to flood and fire. While earthquakes are not frequent, historically, Nepal has eral destructive earthquakes with more than 11,000 people killed in four major earthquakes just in the past century.

The more devastating natural hazards for Kathmandu Valley are related to earthquakes, floods The historical earthquake catalogue of UNDP/UNCHS (1994) showed high seismicity along Historically, Nepal has experienced several destructive earthquakes with more than 11,000 people killed in four major earthquakes just in the past century. Based on the earthquak catalog, Nepal faces one earthquake of Magnitude 7 or greater every 75 years, on average. Such magnitude earthquake could be extremely damaging to urban metropolises as demonstrated by the M7.0 January 2010 Haiti earthquake. Even more alarming is that 1800 five (5) events of M>= 7 have affected Kathmandu; the most recent severe earthquake was the 1934 M8.3 earthquake.

On average earthquake intensities equal to or greater than VIII MMI (Modified Mercalli Intensity) take place every 36 years while intensities of IX MMI or greater take place every 75 years. The last significant earthquake M6.6 causing a loss of 721 lives occurred in east Nepal in 1988. It caused a total direct economic loss of about 5 billion Nepalese Rupees. Further a recent M6.9 event shook eastern and central Nepal as well as north east India causing damage to 30,684 buildings and inflicting a total direct economic loss of 5.65billion Nepalese Rupees. The consolidated earthquake catalogue of Nepal (1255 to 1992 A.D) and subsequent reporting by National Seismological centre (NSC) of Department of Mines and Geology (DMG) shows high frequency of large earthquakes in Nepal.

Based on these observations, it is reasonable to conclude that there is a high likelihood of an earthquake which will cause intensities of 8 or greater in Kathmandu. Such intensities will create catastrophic damages in the city. Frequency Data on Earthquakes in Nepal and the Surrounding Region (1911-1991) Earthquakes of Magnitudes in Richter 5 to 6 6 to 7 7 to 7.5 41 17 10 Approximate Recurrence Interval, yr. 2 5 8 Source: Earthquake Catalogue in BCDP, 1994 Frequency and Various levels of earthquake intensities in Kathmandu since 1800 A.D (Source: EMI from historical earthquake catalogue) KATHMANDU 5 Events of M>=7 since 1800 with one eventof M=8.3 (1934) Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET According to the Kathmandu Valley DRM Profile (EMI, 2005), the most frequent natural ndslide, and fire causing loss of life and severe damage to property.

The middle hills are mainly prone to landslides while the flat Tarai region is susceptible to flood and fire. While earthquakes are not frequent, historically, Nepal has eral destructive earthquakes with more than 11,000 people killed in four The more devastating natural hazards for Kathmandu Valley are related to earthquakes, floods e catalogue of UNDP/UNCHS (1994) showed high seismicity along Historically, Nepal has experienced several destructive earthquakes with more than 11,000 people killed in four major earthquakes just in the past century. Based on the earthquake catalog, Nepal faces one earthquake of Magnitude 7 or greater every 75 years, on average.

Such magnitude earthquake could be extremely damaging to urban metropolises as demonstrated by the M7.0 January 2010 Haiti earthquake. Even more alarming is that since 1800 five (5) events of M>= 7 have affected Kathmandu; the most recent severe earthquake was the 1934 M8.3 earthquake. On average earthquake intensities equal to or greater than VIII MMI (Modified Mercalli Intensity) take place every 36 years while earthquake intensities of IX MMI or greater take place every 75 years. The last significant earthquake M6.6 causing a loss of 721 lives occurred in east Nepal in 1988. It caused a total direct cent M6.9 event shook eastern and central Nepal as well as north east India causing damage to 30,684 buildings and inflicting a total direct economic loss of 5.65billion Nepalese Rupees.

The consolidated subsequent reporting by National Seismological centre (NSC) of Department of Mines and Geology (DMG) shows high frequency of large earthquakes in Nepal. Based on these observations, it is reasonable to hquake which will cause intensities of 8 or greater in Kathmandu. Such intensities will create catastrophic damages in the city. Frequency Data on Earthquakes in Nepal and the Surrounding Region Earthquakes of Magnitudes in Richter Scale 7.5 to 8 >8 2 1 40 81 Source: Earthquake Catalogue in BCDP, 1994 Frequency and Various levels of earthquake intensities in Kathmandu since 1800 (Source: EMI from historical earthquake catalogue)

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET For example, it was reported that in 1833, a strong earthquake resulted in the destruction of 643 houses, and death of 414 people. The 1934 Bihar shaking in Kathmandu Valle destroyed 20 percent and damaged 40 percent of the valley’s building stock. In Kathmandu itself, one quarter of all homes was destroyed along with many historic buildings. In Kathmandu valley 19,000 buildings were heavily damaged, 3800 people were killed and 1000 people were seriously wounded by 1934 earthquake (from a study by JICA and MOHA in 2002).

Figure 3 presents the historical epicentral distributions in and around Nepal. The epicentral distribution map indicates the following characteristics: • There are three main tectonic lines running across Nepal, namely, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), and many of the past earthquakes occurred in • Seismicity is active in the west of Nepal. • The central part of Nepal has suffered relatively few earthquakes. A study by JICA and MOHA in 2002 covered seismic risk assessment for the whole Kathmandu Valley. It was, however, c resources. At that time, there was no official building inventory of the area so the total number of buildings was estimated from population and household distribution as reported in the 1991 census.

Information on building vulnerability was based on an inventory survey of only 1,000 buildings and from onsite observation of the main sites. Figure A.1: Epicentral Distribution around Nepal, 1255 to 2001 There are several faults in the Kathmandu Valley. If one of in the Valley will be severely damaged, even if the damaged area is not so large. The nature of damage from the earthquake in the valley will be different from that of a huge earthquake that occurs outside the Valley.

According to the same earthquake study, the main source of seismic activity in Nepal is the subduction of the Indian plate under the Tibetan plate or Himalayas. Another earthquake 26 Source: Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley, March 2002 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes For example, it was reported that in 1833, a strong earthquake resulted in the destruction of 643 houses, and death of 414 people. The 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake produced strong shaking in Kathmandu Valley, the country’s political, economic and cultural capital, and destroyed 20 percent and damaged 40 percent of the valley’s building stock.

In Kathmandu itself, one quarter of all homes was destroyed along with many historic buildings. In 9,000 buildings were heavily damaged, 3800 people were killed and 1000 people were seriously wounded by 1934 earthquake (from a study by JICA and MOHA in Figure 3 presents the historical epicentral distributions in and around Nepal. The epicentral istribution map indicates the following characteristics: There are three main tectonic lines running across Nepal, namely, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), and many of the past earthquakes occurred in the area between MCT and MBT.

Seismicity is active in the west of Nepal.

The central part of Nepal has suffered relatively few earthquakes. A study by JICA and MOHA in 2002 covered seismic risk assessment for the whole Kathmandu Valley. It was, however, conducted within a short duration of time under limited resources. At that time, there was no official building inventory of the area so the total number of buildings was estimated from population and household distribution as reported in nformation on building vulnerability was based on an inventory survey of only 1,000 buildings and from onsite observation of the main sites. Epicentral Distribution around Nepal, 1255 to 2001 There are several faults in the Kathmandu Valley.

If one of them moves, part of this lineament in the Valley will be severely damaged, even if the damaged area is not so large. The nature of damage from the earthquake in the valley will be different from that of a huge earthquake that occurs outside the Valley.

ording to the same earthquake study, the main source of seismic activity in Nepal is the subduction of the Indian plate under the Tibetan plate or Himalayas. Another earthquake Source: Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley, March 2002. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 49 For example, it was reported that in 1833, a strong earthquake resulted in the destruction of Nepal Earthquake produced strong y, the country’s political, economic and cultural capital, and destroyed 20 percent and damaged 40 percent of the valley’s building stock.

In Kathmandu itself, one quarter of all homes was destroyed along with many historic buildings. In 9,000 buildings were heavily damaged, 3800 people were killed and 1000 people were seriously wounded by 1934 earthquake (from a study by JICA and MOHA in Figure 3 presents the historical epicentral distributions in and around Nepal. The epicentral There are three main tectonic lines running across Nepal, namely, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), and many the area between MCT and MBT.

A study by JICA and MOHA in 2002 covered seismic risk assessment for the whole onducted within a short duration of time under limited resources. At that time, there was no official building inventory of the area so the total number of buildings was estimated from population and household distribution as reported in nformation on building vulnerability was based on an inventory survey of Epicentral Distribution around Nepal, 1255 to 2001 26 them moves, part of this lineament in the Valley will be severely damaged, even if the damaged area is not so large. The nature of damage from the earthquake in the valley will be different from that of a huge earthquake ording to the same earthquake study, the main source of seismic activity in Nepal is the subduction of the Indian plate under the Tibetan plate or Himalayas.

Another earthquake

50 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks generator in the Valley is the identified seismic gap zone in the middle of Nep seismic records dating back to 1255, destructive earthquakes (estimated to have reached M7 or greater) have occurred in 1255, 1408, 1681, 1767, 1803, 1810, 1833, and 1866, 1913, 1916, 1934 and 1936 with the M8.3 1934 earthquake being the large earthquake.

Annex 2. The Kathmandu Valley Development Concept of 2001: The main objective of the KV plan was to maintain coordination between the land use and transportation system for the well objectives, outlined in the KV report were as follows a.

Pursue the carrying capacity as the basic ground in order to manage the population growth in the Valley. b. Maintain the balance between the urban growth and the scarce natural resources, by conserving the social, economic and environmental values. c. Improve the quality of life of the Valley people. d. Select possible places for areas with transport facility and its development in order to encourage urban development only in the designated areas.

e. Constantly monitor the land development. f. Identify the land available for urban development, and analyze its constraints and opportunities. g. Guide the land-use by arranging for efficient transportation. h. Involve all the concerned stakeholders in the planning process. In essence, the following principles had been advocated by the KV draft concept plan in order that KV will succeed in conserving its finite natural resources and make the life of the future generation enjoyable, by guiding the future urbanization through land use fixation, transport management and infrastructure services risk sensitive: Principle 1: Participatory planning and a strong engagement of Committees (DDCs), Municipalities and Village Development Committees (VDCs) in plan formulation, plan implementation and enforcement of local and national laws.

1.1 Central and local bodies have a prime responsibility to initiate developmen construction works in the Valley. This means that the five municipalities have to prepare and enforce land 1.2 Properly plan urban development and to provide essential services and facilities to their constituents; 1.3 Village Development committees have to give emphasis on protection of agricultural land, natural resources and building physical infrastructures in their respective areas. Principle 2: A Valley wide structure plan or physical framework shall be ba watershed development concept.

• The District Development Committees have to consolidate interrelationship of rural and urban areas in the Valley and establish a useful and dynamic synergy among them; Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared generator in the Valley is the identified seismic gap zone in the middle of Nep seismic records dating back to 1255, destructive earthquakes (estimated to have reached M7 or greater) have occurred in 1255, 1408, 1681, 1767, 1803, 1810, 1833, and 1866, 1913, 1916, 1934 and 1936 with the M8.3 1934 earthquake being the largest magnitude recorded The Kathmandu Valley Development Concept of 2001: The main objective of the KV plan was to maintain coordination between the land use and transportation system for the well-planned urban development of the Valley.

objectives, outlined in the KV report were as follows: ursue the carrying capacity as the basic ground in order to manage the population growth in the Valley.

Maintain the balance between the urban growth and the scarce natural resources, by ving the social, economic and environmental values. ity of life of the Valley people. Select possible places for areas with transport facility and its development in order to encourage urban development only in the designated areas. tly monitor the land-use situation in order to manage population and urban Identify the land available for urban development, and analyze its constraints and use by arranging for efficient transportation.

all the concerned stakeholders in the planning process. In essence, the following principles had been advocated by the KV draft concept plan in order that KV will succeed in conserving its finite natural resources and make the life of the future on enjoyable, by guiding the future urbanization through land use fixation, transport management and infrastructure services.

These principles stated in the KV 2020 are deemed Participatory planning and a strong engagement of D Municipalities and Village Development Committees (VDCs) in plan formulation, plan implementation and enforcement of local and national laws. Central and local bodies have a prime responsibility to initiate developmen construction works in the Valley. This means that the five municipalities have to prepare and enforce land –use plans in their respective municipal areas; Properly plan urban development and to provide essential services and facilities to ituents; Village Development committees have to give emphasis on protection of agricultural land, natural resources and building physical infrastructures in their respective areas.

A Valley wide structure plan or physical framework shall be ba watershed development concept.

The District Development Committees have to consolidate interrelationship of rural and urban areas in the Valley and establish a useful and dynamic synergy among them; Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET generator in the Valley is the identified seismic gap zone in the middle of Nepal. Based on seismic records dating back to 1255, destructive earthquakes (estimated to have reached M7 or greater) have occurred in 1255, 1408, 1681, 1767, 1803, 1810, 1833, and 1866, 1913, st magnitude recorded The Kathmandu Valley Development Concept of 2001: The main objective of the KV plan was to maintain coordination between the land use and planned urban development of the Valley.

Its other ursue the carrying capacity as the basic ground in order to manage the population Maintain the balance between the urban growth and the scarce natural resources, by Select possible places for areas with transport facility and its development in order to use situation in order to manage population and urban Identify the land available for urban development, and analyze its constraints and In essence, the following principles had been advocated by the KV draft concept plan in order that KV will succeed in conserving its finite natural resources and make the life of the future on enjoyable, by guiding the future urbanization through land use fixation, transport These principles stated in the KV 2020 are deemed District Development Municipalities and Village Development Committees (VDCs) in plan formulation, plan implementation and enforcement of local and national laws.

Central and local bodies have a prime responsibility to initiate development and construction works in the Valley. This means that the five municipalities have to use plans in their respective municipal areas; Properly plan urban development and to provide essential services and facilities to Village Development committees have to give emphasis on protection of agricultural land, natural resources and building physical infrastructures in their respective areas. A Valley wide structure plan or physical framework shall be based on a The District Development Committees have to consolidate interrelationship of rural and urban areas in the Valley and establish a useful and dynamic synergy among them;

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET • Governmental and semi wide programs in accordance with the structure plan (or guided by the development concept); Principle 3: The Valley must be planned taking into consideration its natural, historical, cultural (built) resources and its primary • The land must be utilized considering its opportunities for best and highest use and takes into account its inherent constraints (ex.

ecological fragility, hazards) and derived constraints (ex. pollution, poverty) In order to carry out these principles, two main strategies are pursued in the development concept, Strategy 1: Deconcentration of economic and capital investment in the Valley in other regions.

The implementation of this strategy involves pursuing economic diver a) Developing and expanding the tourism sector and hinges on the cultural and religious heritage of the Valley; thereby, creating employment opportunities and business; b) Shifting of incompatible and highly cement and brick factories) away from settlement areas and environmentally sensitive areas. c) Promoting state of the art but environment friendly technologies; d) Transferring police and military premises covering much land located in inner urb into the periphery of the Valley; e) Develop traditional agricultural system commercially and protect cottage and handicraft industries.

Strategy 2: Pursue studies that will clarify as to where and how urban development of the Valley shall be channelled a. Ensure well-planned development and expansion of the Valley; congestion and organize built and un b. The boundaries of urban and rural areas of the Valley will be delineated using legal, policy and financial measures patterns for each area and reduce the fragmentation of agricultural land. Currently, the legal provision of minimum c. Urban development works shall be expansion areas; - A minimum of 300pph may bring a change in la it encourages higher FAR, resulting to multi individual low rise d.

Harmonization of the physical, transport development and land use policies; e. An extensive improvement and adjustment in the existing institutional structures and separate laws will be made to implement the plan Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Governmental and semi-governmental bodies shall formulate and implement valley wide programs in accordance with the structure plan (or guided by the development The Valley must be planned taking into consideration its natural, historical, resources and its primary role in Nation building.

The land must be utilized considering its opportunities for best and highest use and takes into account its inherent constraints (ex. ecological fragility, hazards) and derived constraints (ex. pollution, poverty) ry out these principles, two main strategies are pursued in the Deconcentration of economic and capital investment in the Valley in other The implementation of this strategy involves pursuing economic diversity: Developing and expanding the tourism sector and hinges on the cultural and religious heritage of the Valley; thereby, creating employment opportunities and business; Shifting of incompatible and highly pollute industries (e.g.

carpet, ready cement and brick factories) away from settlement areas and environmentally sensitive Promoting state of the art but environment friendly technologies; Transferring police and military premises covering much land located in inner urb into the periphery of the Valley; Develop traditional agricultural system commercially and protect cottage and handicraft Pursue studies that will clarify as to where and how urban development of the nnelled.

planned development and expansion of the Valley;(i.e. Reduce sprawl, congestion and organize built and un-built spaces) The boundaries of urban and rural areas of the Valley will be delineated using legal, policy and financial measures. This is to facilitate the differentiation of development patterns for each area and reduce the fragmentation of agricultural land. Currently, the legal provision of minimum plot size is enforceable for the entire Valley Urban development works shall be guided in existing urban areas and in proposed urban A minimum of 300pph may bring a change in land use patterns and densities it encourages higher FAR, resulting to multi-storied apartment buildings in place of individual low rise structures.

Harmonization of the physical, transport development and land use policies; An extensive improvement and adjustment in the existing institutional structures and separate laws will be made to implement the plan. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 51 formulate and implement valley- wide programs in accordance with the structure plan (or guided by the development The Valley must be planned taking into consideration its natural, historical, The land must be utilized considering its opportunities for best and highest use and takes into account its inherent constraints (ex.

ecological fragility, hazards) and derived ry out these principles, two main strategies are pursued in the KV 2020 Deconcentration of economic and capital investment in the Valley in other sity: Developing and expanding the tourism sector and hinges on the cultural and religious heritage of the Valley; thereby, creating employment opportunities and business; industries (e.g. carpet, ready-made-garment, cement and brick factories) away from settlement areas and environmentally sensitive Transferring police and military premises covering much land located in inner urban areas Develop traditional agricultural system commercially and protect cottage and handicraft Pursue studies that will clarify as to where and how urban development of the Reduce sprawl, The boundaries of urban and rural areas of the Valley will be delineated using legal, .

This is to facilitate the differentiation of development patterns for each area and reduce the fragmentation of agricultural land. Currently, the size is enforceable for the entire Valley; guided in existing urban areas and in proposed urban nd use patterns and densities because storied apartment buildings in place of Harmonization of the physical, transport development and land use policies; An extensive improvement and adjustment in the existing institutional structures and

52 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks i. The Valley-wise regional the role of adviser and regulator; ii. Local authorities and sectoral agencies will be implementers and operators iii. An act will contain provisions that these bodi projects subject to the regional plan of the Valley; iv. KVDA to provide the regulatory guidelines, coordinate, and facilitate preparation and approval of plans, programs and projects made by the various bodies with the Plan; v.

Provisions of KVDA and semi-governmental agencies which operates programs contrary of the Plan; and vi. Provisions of their executive powers woul - To withhold fully or partly grants and loans provi and; - Regulatory powers such as cancellation of approval certificates for designs.

Annex 3. Kathmandu Valley Development Guiding Policies The following guiding policies (or goals) describe the conditions and characteristics of sustainable development in the various land use policy areas: settlements (ex. related to urban development and housing), economy (ex. diversification), physical infrastructu environment (ex. open spaces, environmental management). A risk sensitive KV Plan therefore is one which incorporates DRR of the above mentioned land use policy areas. Necessarily, hazard, vulnerability and risk information and emergency management concerns should inform these land use policy areas.

Annex 4. General Settlements Policy a. Regional basis The Valley is considered as a single unit based on its geographically limited size, natural resources and its social setting. F development of the Valley should make joint efforts in tune with the specified goals of the proposed Plan.

b. Hierarchy of development nodes It is imperative that the hierarchical set up of development no Valley be geared towards balanced development. c. Interrelationship between land use and transportation For planned urban development, the proposed Plan maintains an interrelationship between the land-use and transportation. Prop air and noise pollution, and traffic volume on the roads. d. Land use efficiency A land-use system should be practical and sustainably developed and managed. The land in the outer areas will be utiliz 27 Source: KV 2020 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared wise regional planning body to be established under Nepali law will play the role of adviser and regulator; (i.e.

currently taken as KVDA) Local authorities and sectoral agencies will be implementers and operators An act will contain provisions that these bodies will prepare their plans, programs and projects subject to the regional plan of the Valley; to provide the regulatory guidelines, coordinate, and facilitate preparation and approval of plans, programs and projects made by the various bodies KVDA legislative powers to curtail annual budget of the governmental governmental agencies which operates programs contrary Provisions of their executive powers would include the following: To withhold fully or partly grants and loans provided by His Majesty’s Government Regulatory powers such as cancellation of approval certificates for Kathmandu Valley Development Guiding Policies lowing guiding policies (or goals) describe the conditions and characteristics of sustainable development in the various land use policy areas: settlements (ex.

related to urban development and housing), economy (ex. diversification), physical infrastructu environment (ex. open spaces, environmental management). A risk sensitive KV Plan therefore is one which incorporates DRR-sensitive policies for each of the above mentioned land use policy areas. Necessarily, hazard, vulnerability and risk rmation and emergency management concerns should inform these land use policy areas. General Settlements Policy27 The Valley is considered as a single unit based on its geographically limited size, natural resources and its social setting. For this, all the stakeholders having concerns with the development of the Valley should make joint efforts in tune with the specified goals of the Hierarchy of development nodes It is imperative that the hierarchical set up of development nodes in various places of the Valley be geared towards balanced development.

Interrelationship between land use and transportation For planned urban development, the proposed Plan maintains an interrelationship between the use and transportation. Proper balance between the land-use and transportation reduces air and noise pollution, and traffic volume on the roads. Land use efficiency use system should be practical and sustainably developed and managed. The land in the outer areas will be utilized for (future) urban expansion, properly utilizing the unoccupied Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET planning body to be established under Nepali law will play Local authorities and sectoral agencies will be implementers and operators; es will prepare their plans, programs and to provide the regulatory guidelines, coordinate, and facilitate preparation and approval of plans, programs and projects made by the various bodies in consonance legislative powers to curtail annual budget of the governmental governmental agencies which operates programs contrary to the objectives d include the following: ded by His Majesty’s Government Regulatory powers such as cancellation of approval certificates for non-complying lowing guiding policies (or goals) describe the conditions and characteristics of sustainable development in the various land use policy areas: settlements (ex.

related to urban development and housing), economy (ex. diversification), physical infrastructure, natural sensitive policies for each of the above mentioned land use policy areas. Necessarily, hazard, vulnerability and risk rmation and emergency management concerns should inform these land use policy areas. The Valley is considered as a single unit based on its geographically limited size, natural or this, all the stakeholders having concerns with the development of the Valley should make joint efforts in tune with the specified goals of the des in various places of the For planned urban development, the proposed Plan maintains an interrelationship between the use and transportation reduces use system should be practical and sustainably developed and managed.

The land in urban expansion, properly utilizing the unoccupied

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET land in the urban area. It also encompasses the matters of discouraging uncontrolled urban expansion and conserving agriculture land. e. Formulation of plan based on easy transport linkage It was proposed to develop dense settlements in various places of the Valley through linkage, easy and accessibility between urban settlements.

f. Accessibility to public open space Provision of public open space in the neighbourhood and community is important viewpoint of plan formulation.

Public open spaces are necessary in rescue works in times of emergency and in public functions, etc. Places which are not suitable for the construction, such as riverbanks and unstable slopes, shall be protected through environmental balance. Hence, a policy should be pursued to identify and protect such lands. g. Settlement area with physical facility Creation of physical environment liveable for the communities is necessary from the viewpoint of urban development.

Provision of basic infrastructures such as road, drinking water, drainage and sanitation, proximity to community facilities such as school, and public transport, with proper protection and promotion of the natural environment. h. Carrying capacity The proposed urban expansion strategy will, to some extent, increase the carrying capacity of the Valley. The carrying capacity of the Valley accommodate maximum population without destroying its natural resources or disrupting environmental balance must be followed Annex 5. Urban expansion policy a. To have equitable urban ex The projection of the Valley's future urban population reveals that most population will concentrate in the Kathmandu metropolitan city.

This will consequently exert excessive pressure on the services and facilities. To avert this, facilities and creation of employment opportunities in other towns adjoining the Valley and increase population should be promoted b. To have urban expansion conforming to infrastructure capacity In carrying out development works in an should be taken into account so that such works do not cause adverse impacts on the environment.

c. To carry out development works in the designated areas Planned growth can be ensured with the provisio designated by the plan. The haphazard urban growth can, to a concentrating economic investment in certain d. To control urban exp 28 Source: KV 2020 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes land in the urban area. It also encompasses the matters of discouraging uncontrolled urban expansion and conserving agriculture land.

Formulation of plan based on easy transport linkage proposed to develop dense settlements in various places of the Valley through linkage, easy and accessibility between urban settlements.

Accessibility to public open space Provision of public open space in the neighbourhood and community is important viewpoint of plan formulation. Public open spaces are necessary in rescue works in times of emergency and in public functions, etc. Places which are not suitable for the construction, such as riverbanks and unstable slopes, shall be protected through plantation or farming in such places; it will help maintain environmental balance. Hence, a policy should be pursued to identify and protect such lands. Settlement area with physical facility Creation of physical environment liveable for the communities is necessary from the viewpoint of urban development.

Provision of basic infrastructures such as road, drinking water, drainage and sanitation, proximity to community facilities such as school, play-ground, hospital, police post, market and public transport, with proper protection and promotion of the natural environment. The proposed urban expansion strategy will, to some extent, increase the carrying capacity of he carrying capacity of the Valley must be respected. It accommodate maximum population without destroying its natural resources or disrupting must be followed.

Urban expansion policy 28 urban expansion The projection of the Valley's future urban population reveals that most population will concentrate in the Kathmandu metropolitan city.

This will consequently exert excessive pressure on the services and facilities. To avert this, an equitable provision of services and facilities and creation of employment opportunities in other towns adjoining the Valley and should be promoted. To have urban expansion conforming to infrastructure capacity In carrying out development works in any location of the Valley, the infrastructures available should be taken into account so that such works do not cause adverse impacts on the To carry out development works in the designated areas Planned growth can be ensured with the provision of facilities and services designated by the plan.

The haphazard urban growth can, to a larger extent, be streamlined by concentrating economic investment in certain areas and in areas with transportation facility. To control urban expansion in risky and environmentally sensitive areas Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 53 land in the urban area. It also encompasses the matters of discouraging uncontrolled urban proposed to develop dense settlements in various places of the Valley through linkage, Provision of public open space in the neighbourhood and community is important from viewpoint of plan formulation.

Public open spaces are necessary in rescue works in times of Places which are not suitable for the construction, such as riverbanks and unstable slopes, plantation or farming in such places; it will help maintain environmental balance. Hence, a policy should be pursued to identify and protect such lands. Creation of physical environment liveable for the communities is necessary from the Provision of basic infrastructures such as road, drinking water, drainage and sanitation, ground, hospital, police post, market and public transport, with proper protection and promotion of the natural environment.

The proposed urban expansion strategy will, to some extent, increase the carrying capacity of . It means its ability to accommodate maximum population without destroying its natural resources or disrupting The projection of the Valley's future urban population reveals that most population will concentrate in the Kathmandu metropolitan city. This will consequently exert excessive vision of services and facilities and creation of employment opportunities in other towns adjoining the Valley and y location of the Valley, the infrastructures available should be taken into account so that such works do not cause adverse impacts on the n of facilities and services only in the areas larger extent, be streamlined by areas and in areas with transportation facility.

ansion in risky and environmentally sensitive areas

54 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks Naturally risk prone areas such as seismically active areas, liquefaction zones, steep slopes, areas with risk of flood will be identified and construction works will be prohibited in such areas. Construction works in the environmentally sensitive areas such as ponds, forests and wetlands are not appropriate areas because such areas are very necessary to maintain ecological and environmental balance.

Annex 6. Urban Expansion Management Policies a. Orderly transition It is highly essential to manage urbanization process in the rural area in order to manage urban expansion. It is also necessary to proceed with urban development in a certain pattern by controlling the urban expansion t The planned urbanization can be ensured through measures such as provision of land for the future, classification of urban and rural land and preservation of agricultural land. Moreover, infrastructure development, housing strongly.

b. Delineation of urban and rural areas The Kathmandu Valley is suffering from problems such as gradual loss of agriculture land, lack of employment, environmental degradation, lack of infrastructu control urban expansion by having clear delineation of urban and rural areas.

c. Preservation of agriculture land There is need to preserve the agriculture land in the Valley, which are as follows: • To maintain the reservoir of un • To recycle/ filter the polluted air and gas emanating from the urban area, • To meet the requirement of open space around the town. d. Land reserved for urban development The future urban expansion will be encouraged only in the development. A mixed land of land-uses shall be pursued. Annex 7. Housing Policy An appropriate housing policy will be pursued in order to improve the form of the urban of the Valley and increase the supply of residential houses.

Such housing schemes will be encouraged so as to maintain certain population density in the urban area and have efficient utilization of the limited land through development of cost Annex 8. Infrastructures Policy Regional level infrastructures such as highway, arterial road, drinking water supply system, sewerage, electricity and telecommunications, and unplanned urbanization will be controlled. 29 Ibid Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared Naturally risk prone areas such as seismically active areas, liquefaction zones, steep slopes, areas with risk of flood will be identified and construction works will be prohibited in such ction works in the environmentally sensitive areas such as ponds, forests and wetlands are not appropriate areas because such areas are very necessary to maintain ecological and Urban Expansion Management Policies29 from rural setting to urbanization It is highly essential to manage urbanization process in the rural area in order to manage urban expansion.

It is also necessary to proceed with urban development in a certain pattern by controlling the urban expansion that is taking place haphazardly. The planned urbanization can be ensured through measures such as provision of land for the future, classification of urban and rural land and preservation of agricultural land. Moreover, infrastructure development, housing policies etc. are necessary to move ahead this act Delineation of urban and rural areas The Kathmandu Valley is suffering from problems such as gradual loss of agriculture land, lack of employment, environmental degradation, lack of infrastructures.

So, it is imperative to control urban expansion by having clear delineation of urban and rural areas. Preservation of agriculture land There is need to preserve the agriculture land in the Valley, which are as follows: To maintain the reservoir of underground water resources, To recycle/ filter the polluted air and gas emanating from the urban area, To meet the requirement of open space around the town. for urban development The future urban expansion will be encouraged only in the designated areas for urban development. A mixed land-use rather than specification of separate places for different types uses shall be pursued.

Housing Policy An appropriate housing policy will be pursued in order to improve the form of the urban of the Valley and increase the supply of residential houses. Such housing schemes will be encouraged so as to maintain certain population density in the urban area and have efficient utilization of the limited land through development of cost-effective infrastructures. Infrastructures Policy Regional level infrastructures such as highway, arterial road, drinking water supply system, sewerage, electricity and telecommunications, and unplanned urbanization will be controlled. Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET Naturally risk prone areas such as seismically active areas, liquefaction zones, steep slopes, areas with risk of flood will be identified and construction works will be prohibited in such ction works in the environmentally sensitive areas such as ponds, forests and wetlands are not appropriate areas because such areas are very necessary to maintain ecological and It is highly essential to manage urbanization process in the rural area in order to manage urban expansion.

It is also necessary to proceed with urban development in a certain pattern by The planned urbanization can be ensured through measures such as provision of land for the future, classification of urban and rural land and preservation of agricultural land. Moreover, policies etc. are necessary to move ahead this act The Kathmandu Valley is suffering from problems such as gradual loss of agriculture land, res. So, it is imperative to control urban expansion by having clear delineation of urban and rural areas. There is need to preserve the agriculture land in the Valley, which are as follows: To recycle/ filter the polluted air and gas emanating from the urban area, designated areas for urban use rather than specification of separate places for different types An appropriate housing policy will be pursued in order to improve the form of the urban area of the Valley and increase the supply of residential houses.

Such housing schemes will be encouraged so as to maintain certain population density in the urban area and have efficient e infrastructures.

Regional level infrastructures such as highway, arterial road, drinking water supply system, sewerage, electricity and telecommunications, and unplanned urbanization will be controlled.

Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET The land pooling and guided should be guided by appropriate principles. In order to reduce the demand of motor vehicles, measures such as discouraging the use of private vehicles and attracting the people towards public transp walking in inner city will be adopted.

Provision of high capacity trolley buses on the ring road and Kathmandu Kathmandu-Bhaktapur routes will reduce the number of motor vehicles; mitigate air pollution and fuel consumption. Policy measures such as improvement in the linkage of parking facility, land transport and specification of certain form and area of the cities are pursued. Annex 9. Protection of Cultural Heritage and Landscapes A policy to protect and promote age-old religion, culture and parts of the Valley. This will help develop tourism business and consolidate the economy of the Valley.

Annex 10. Environmental Policy Air quality The air quality of the urban area in the Valley shall be improved to protect health of the Valley inhabitants, foster tourism, attract external investment and enhance the vitality and aesthetics of the city.

Annex 11. Natural resources Forests It is necessary to formulate a program that w improve the living standard of the i • To protect the forests around the Valley as the green belt, by not allowing the increase in settlement there and if possible to shi appropriate places; • To enhance entertainment and tourism attraction in certain areas and make provision that the inhabitants in those areas will be the beneficiaries of the plan; • To prepare a work plan t users' committee Rivers and rivulets The rivers and rivulets in the Valley are playing an important role in the preservation of underground water resources, exit of rainwater, irrigation of agr drinking water and preservation of religious and cultural activities shall be protected.

• Demarcation of river boundary has become because of changes in river flow each year; • After such demarcation, not to allow encroachment on such • Extraction of sand near these water bodies will be prohibited; • To discourage the disposal of solid wastes and liquid wastes in the river; • Public gardens and parks will be built in the riverbanks on either side of the bridges; Wetland Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes The land pooling and guided land development programs, which are being practiced now, should be guided by appropriate principles.

In order to reduce the demand of motor vehicles, measures such as discouraging the use of private vehicles and attracting the people towards public transport and encouraging pedestrian walking in inner city will be adopted. Provision of high capacity trolley buses on the ring road and Kathmandu Bhaktapur routes will reduce the number of motor vehicles; mitigate air pollution Policy measures such as improvement in the linkage of parking facility, land transport and specification of certain form and area of the cities are pursued. Protection of Cultural Heritage and Landscapes A policy to protect and promote cultural and religious sites will go on in order to preserve the old religion, culture and parts of the Valley.

This will help develop tourism business and consolidate the economy of the Valley.

Environmental Policy urban area in the Valley shall be improved to protect health of the Valley inhabitants, foster tourism, attract external investment and enhance the vitality and Natural resources It is necessary to formulate a program that will sustainably utilize natural resources to improve the living standard of the inhabitants around the areas, particularly: To protect the forests around the Valley as the green belt, by not allowing the increase in settlement there and if possible to shift the currently existing settlements there to other To enhance entertainment and tourism attraction in certain areas and make provision that the inhabitants in those areas will be the beneficiaries of the plan; To prepare a work plan to develop leasehold forests and community forests, through the The rivers and rivulets in the Valley are playing an important role in the preservation of underground water resources, exit of rainwater, irrigation of agriculture land, supply of drinking water and preservation of religious and cultural activities shall be protected.

Demarcation of river boundary has become because of changes in river flow each year; After such demarcation, not to allow encroachment on such areas; Extraction of sand near these water bodies will be prohibited; To discourage the disposal of solid wastes and liquid wastes in the river; Public gardens and parks will be built in the riverbanks on either side of the bridges; Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes 55 land development programs, which are being practiced now, In order to reduce the demand of motor vehicles, measures such as discouraging the use of ort and encouraging pedestrian Provision of high capacity trolley buses on the ring road and Kathmandu-Lalitpur and Bhaktapur routes will reduce the number of motor vehicles; mitigate air pollution Policy measures such as improvement in the linkage of parking facility, land-use and transport and specification of certain form and area of the cities are pursued.

cultural and religious sites will go on in order to preserve the old religion, culture and parts of the Valley. This will help develop tourism business and urban area in the Valley shall be improved to protect health of the Valley inhabitants, foster tourism, attract external investment and enhance the vitality and ill sustainably utilize natural resources to nhabitants around the areas, particularly: To protect the forests around the Valley as the green belt, by not allowing the increase in ft the currently existing settlements there to other To enhance entertainment and tourism attraction in certain areas and make provision that o develop leasehold forests and community forests, through the The rivers and rivulets in the Valley are playing an important role in the preservation of iculture land, supply of drinking water and preservation of religious and cultural activities shall be protected.

Demarcation of river boundary has become because of changes in river flow each year; To discourage the disposal of solid wastes and liquid wastes in the river; Public gardens and parks will be built in the riverbanks on either side of the bridges;

56 Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks • It is necessary to demarcate the construction works in those areas; • Local Authorities should strictly apply the rule that prohibits construction works up to 20 meters from the riverbank and allows const consonance with certain standards; Natural Calamity mitigation • It is essential that on the one hand urban expansion and construction works here should be controlled and on the other hand public awareness should be en • The concerned bodies and general public will be informed in time about the risky areas that are vulnerable to land Policy on Solid Waste Management • Solid waste management shall not only focus on focus on lesser waste generation, recycling and reuse; involvement of stakeholders in the proper waste management; Policy on Water Supply • A need to regularize and manage the water supply in the Valley.

It is necess increase the quantity of drinking water and it is highly imperative to develop well distribution system; • A number of the water sources and quantity of water therefrom can be increased by protecting the forests in the hilly areas around the V • Rain water harvesting and storage shall be promoted; Rural Development Demarcation of the rural and urban area proposed in this Plan will make it easy to formulate separate policy and regulation for the rural area. On the one hand provision of minim physical infrastructures in the rural area; Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Road Map for Making Kathmandu Valley Development Concept Plan Risk Sensitive: Frameworks and Processes Prepared It is necessary to demarcate the river and wetland areas in the survey map and control construction works in those areas; Local Authorities should strictly apply the rule that prohibits construction works up to 20 meters from the riverbank and allows construction works in other wetlands only in consonance with certain standards; Natural Calamity mitigation It is essential that on the one hand urban expansion and construction works here should be controlled and on the other hand public awareness should be enhanced; The concerned bodies and general public will be informed in time about the risky areas that are vulnerable to land-erosion, collapse and the geographically risky areas; Policy on Solid Waste Management Solid waste management shall not only focus on collection and proper disposal, but also focus on lesser waste generation, recycling and reuse; involvement of stakeholders in the proper waste management; Policy on Water Supply A need to regularize and manage the water supply in the Valley.

It is necess increase the quantity of drinking water and it is highly imperative to develop well A number of the water sources and quantity of water therefrom can be increased by protecting the forests in the hilly areas around the Valley; Rain water harvesting and storage shall be promoted; Demarcation of the rural and urban area proposed in this Plan will make it easy to formulate separate policy and regulation for the rural area. On the one hand provision of minim physical infrastructures in the rural area; Technical Services for Strengthening Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning and Implementation (RSLUP) in Nepal Prepared jointly by: EMI & NSET wetland areas in the survey map and control Local Authorities should strictly apply the rule that prohibits construction works up to 20 ruction works in other wetlands only in It is essential that on the one hand urban expansion and construction works here should be hanced; The concerned bodies and general public will be informed in time about the risky areas erosion, collapse and the geographically risky areas; collection and proper disposal, but also focus on lesser waste generation, recycling and reuse; involvement of stakeholders in the A need to regularize and manage the water supply in the Valley.

It is necessary to increase the quantity of drinking water and it is highly imperative to develop well-planned A number of the water sources and quantity of water therefrom can be increased by Demarcation of the rural and urban area proposed in this Plan will make it easy to formulate separate policy and regulation for the rural area. On the one hand provision of minimum

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