Travel Demand Management Toolkit - Managing Network Demand March 2021 - Gov.uk

 
Travel Demand Management Toolkit - Managing Network Demand March 2021 - Gov.uk
Travel Demand
Management Toolkit
Managing Network Demand

March 2021
Travel Demand Management Toolkit - Managing Network Demand March 2021 - Gov.uk
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Travel Demand Management Toolkit - Managing Network Demand March 2021 - Gov.uk
Mott MacDonald | 3

Contents
Toolkit Overview                                                   5
Step 1: Collect and analyse data                                   13
Step 2: Identify Possible Solutions                                24
Step 3: Implementing Solutions                                     35
Step 4: Marketing, Communications
and Engagement                                                     39
Step 5: Monitor, Evaluate and Adapt                                47
Appendix A - TDM Action Plan Template                              53
Appendix B - Scenarios                                             56

 Revision   Date         Originator   Checker   Approver   Description

 1.0        05/03/2021   AG/FI        CH        RM         Final
Travel Demand Management Toolkit - Managing Network Demand March 2021 - Gov.uk
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Travel Demand Management Toolkit - Managing Network Demand March 2021 - Gov.uk
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Toolkit Overview
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Toolkit Overview
This report was produced by Mott MacDonald for the Department for Transport in
December 2020. Since the report was written, there have been a number of further
changes to COVID-19 restrictions and guidance. However, this does not affect the function
and role of the toolkit.
Context
                                                        learned from existing plans should be used
This Travel Demand Management (TDM)                     as these will be a good starting point to
Toolkit sets out a framework for Combined               consider the effects of other disruptions
and Local Transport Authorities (LTAs) in               that will happen as we move through our
England to develop and implement effective              response to the pandemic.
TDM plans.
                                                        This toolkit should be read in conjunction
This is a standalone document which should              with the latest Government’s COVID-19
be used to help you navigate the effects of             national guidance for transport and travel.
the COVID-19 pandemic on the travelling
public and your transport networks.            As we go through the winter months, and as
Crucially, it is a tool to help you manage     the weather conditions and light deteriorate,
a range of scenarios that may happen as        we face the normal reduction in active travel.
a result of the pandemic, including where      At this point in a typical year, public transport
pressures on the transport network mean        operators would experience a spike in
there is a need to manage a mismatch           demand, but from our engagement with all
between supply and demand.                     LTAs across England we know this not to be
                                               the case, and that public transport usage
The need for English LTAs to develop           continues to be low. The expectation is that
strategic TDM plans was first acknowledged this will change when employees begin a
in response to the Secretary of State for      return to their place of work, however there
Education’s announcement that all education is a very real possibility that private vehicle
facilities in England would reopen to all year usage will increase and public transport
groups at the start of the new academic year use will stay low leading to prolonged and
in September 2020. This followed a period      additional network congestion. This presents
of lockdown due to COVID-19. Since the         a challenge of needing to actively promote
issuing of the first iteration of this toolkit and capitalise on the emergency and more
in July 2020, a tiered system has been         recent active travel funded schemes as well
adopted across England to control the virus, as promote public transport as a safe and
which means that demand and pressures          reliable means of travel.
for travel both within and between different
local authorities has varied.                  The application of social distancing
                                               measures on public transport continues to
Whilst this TDM toolkit has drawn upon         cause a significant reduction in effective
lessons learnt from TDM plans rolled out       capacity, and habitual shift towards
to support the return of trips for education   private vehicles provides a challenge in
during the COVID-19 pandemic, this             daily transportation of the population
new guidance has been prepared as a            to education, employment, leisure and
standalone document. It has been designed healthcare.
to provide LTAs with a suggested framework
for managing transport demand during times As such this second iteration of the TDM
of uncertainty and change. Therefore, it can   Toolkit has been developed to assist LTA’s
be applied more widely than the previous       in managing the demands posed on the
version to cover all trips for all journey     transport network caused by these new
purposes and to help address specific          outcomes of the pandemic and the further
transport challenges. This will help to create uncertainties that are faced when travel and
a legacy of TDM activity that can be applied movement picks up again as more commuter
when different disruptions or pressures        and leisure trips are made.
occur on the transport network. The lessons
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Some examples of the uncertainties
currently faced by LTAs include:
• Continuation of social distancing measures • Continuation of the requirement to travel
  for the foreseeable future, including on        for education and university.
  public transport.                             • Uncertainty over the future of capacity
• Changing Government COVID-19response            creation funding.
  Tiers that the LTA falls into, and impacts of • Continued implementation of COVID-19
  if / when these change.                         related schemes such as emergency active
• Poor weather and darker evenings driving        travel fund (EATF) which may cause
  up demand for both public transport and         network   disruption through road
  car use and the reduction of walking and        reallocation
  cycling.                                      • The return of sporting events
• A phased return to work for employees         • Implementation of low traffic
  that are currently continuing working from      neighbourhoods
  home.
• Potential increase in staff absenteeism and
  the ability to maintain service levels.

Figure 1 - Illustration of Capacity Gap
Image illustrating how available capacity on the transport
network is much lower with social distancing measures.
Capacity Creation, Network Management and Behaviour
Change are therefore required
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The issues will vary not just across the                Developing and implementing a TDM plan
country but also within LTA areas. TDM plans            will clearly require resource to undertake.
should be developed and implemented                     When considering the scale of travel
to reflect your local area, ensuring that               behaviour change required, especially
education, work and leisure trips can all               in short timescales, it is important that
be accommodated on the network as                       resources are allocated efficiently to achieve
trips continue to increase when elements                maximum impact. When delivered well,
of society reopen and return to ‘the new                TDM plans are proven to be very effective
normal’.                                                in managing travel demand during periods
                                                        of additional stress on the network. For
It is therefore essential that measures to              example, 14% of drivers changed their
reduce the impacts of lower public transport            behaviour as a result of a TDM project
capacity, changes in travel behaviour and               supporting the major reconstruction of the
changes to your transport systems are                   A406 in north London. The City of Sydney
planned, implemented and communicated                   achieved an absolute 11% mode shift of
to support the smooth operation of your                 private vehicle movements as a result of a
transport networks.                                     TDM project that was introduced to mitigate
We anticipate the need for you to work                  the impacts of long-term redevelopment of
closely with transport, education, business             the city centre.
and leisure stakeholders developing your                Aim of this Toolkit
plans, in or-der to consider the impact of
any future in-crease in transport demand.               The aim of this TDM Toolkit is to provide
We acknowledge that you may already have                you with a framework to deliver an effective
significant experience of TDM work and                  TDM plan to support network resilience in
so may well be familiar with the concepts               times of heightened demand, stress and
covered, but this toolkit could still serve as a        uncertainty. The plan will help you influence
useful checklist for what you need to cover.            the travel behaviours of all transport
                                                        users in order to address gaps not only in
                                                        capacity due to social distancing and related
                                                        COVID-19 measures, but also beyond that
                                                        once restrictions become fully lifted. This
                       What is TDM?                     Toolkit contains:
                                                        • Step by step guidance on what tasks
                                                          should be undertaken to develop and
    Travel Demand Management ‘TDM’ is                     implement a TDM plan, including the
    an umbrella term for the application of               development of the ‘core narrative’ which
    strategies and policies to reduce travel              is the data driven central messaging of the
    demand, or to redistribute this demand                TDM strategy.
    in space, mode or in time.
                                                        • A template for a TDM Plan (see Appendix
    An effective TDM plan is based                        A), which you can use as the basis for
    around three key pillars: the creation                designing a tailored Action Plan for your
    of capacity, network management and                   LTA.
    travel behaviour change solutions (see
    Step 2 for more details).                           • Some practical walked through examples
                                                          on how to develop a TDM plan are located
                                                          in Appendix B, reflecting likely scenarios
                                                          that LTA will face over the coming months.
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Five Steps for an efective TDM Action Plan

Figure 2 - The fve steps required for an efective TDM action Plan. This document is structured around these
fve steps

Timetable
                                                         information. It will also be useful to
Winter 2020/21                                           understand what the key uncertainties
 • LTAs record any lessons learned from                  are to help with planning. This step also
   TDM plans used to support the return of               sets out guidance on identifying the
   trips for education                                   transport user groups in your area who
                                                         will need to adapt their travel behaviours.
 • LTAs use lessons learned to develop                   It is an essential building block of the core
   TDM plans to manage all network users                 narrative for the TDM Plan which will be
   through periods of uncertainty                        developed and addressed throughout the
 • LTAs implement, monitor and evaluate                  following steps. The core narrative forms
   progress on TDM plans.                                the central ‘story book’ for the TDM plan.
                                                         It uses the main objectives, the main facts
 • LTAs maintain the momentum of                         and fgures that underpin these objectives
   communication campaigns.                              and sets the framework for reaching the
 • LTAs adapt their approach if problems                 right solution. The core narrative - that
   arise. This will require ongoing                      consistent set of messages – is built upon
   engagement with delivery partners                     and informed by the available data.
   to ensure that the transport networks               • Step 2: Identify Possible Solutions: This
   are sufciently resilient, that the                    step sets out a long list of solutions that
   communication channels you have                       could be considered for your LTA. For
   chosen are the right ones and that supply             ease, these are framed around the three
   is matched with demand across your                    pillars of TDM – capacity creation (such
   networks.                                             as the provision of additional vehicles;
Legacy into 2021 and beyond                              network management (such as creating
                                                         exclusion zones around education facilities
LTAs continue implementation of TDM plans                to restricting private car use drop of) and
to manage supply and demand and adapt as                 behaviour change (such as campaigns
circumstances change.                                    around agile working and re-timing
How to use this Toolkit                                  journeys to work). Measures should be
                                                         considered for all network users. It is
The toolkit is split into a number of key steps          important to keep in mind that the TDM
- with specifc guidance and advice on what               plan should have measures that infuence
to do at each step.                                      all trips where appropriate. This step sets
• Step 1: Collect and Analyse Data: This                 out how to identify and prioritise solutions
  step sets out guidance on how to collect               which best address the issues identifed
  information to understand the key                      in step 1. The appropriate set of solutions
  transport capacity issues and to address               is informed by the data collected in step
  any gaps in data if there is insufcient                1. You will be encouraging the target
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    audience to make use of these solutions               the identifed measures and key objectives,
    through the messaging in the core                     based on that initial data collection.
    narrative.
                                                         • Step 5: Monitor, Evaluate and Adapt:
 • Step 3: Implementation of Solutions:                    This step sets out the important role of
   This step sets out how to identify and                  how to quickly and successfully monitor
   work efectively with your delivery                      and evaluate the efectiveness of your
   partners to implement the required                      TDM plan. If the TDM plan is not meeting
   solutions. Delivery partners will play a                the desired objectives then it may need
   critical role in delivering and monitoring              to be adapted. This step sets out how to
   the solutions required for an efective                  monitor and evaluate, as well as when and
   TDM plan, as well as delivering the key                 how to adapt and change the message
   messages to transport users. Key to this                to be responsive to those uncertainties.
   step is ensuring that all key stakeholders              Monitoring provides the loop back to
   are bought in to the overall approach to                the initial stages and informs if, and
   tackling the network challenges. At this                when, these need to be reviewed and
   stage you will also be working closely                  updated. You will need to look at how your
   with your marketing and communication                   network is performing and if there are still
   colleagues to identify the channels that                problems occurring, try to address these
   can be used to communicate with the                     by either strengthening your core narrative
   travelling public. You now have the three               messages, use more communication
   key elements to create the core narrative:              channels or provide more transport
   data to inform the required level of                    capacity.
   behaviour change; a set of solutions to
   deliver that change and a framework for
   implementing interventions with all key
   stakeholders.
 • Step 4: Implementation of Marketing
   and Communications: Once the solutions
   have been identifed and are ready for
   delivery, it is essential to communicate
   the plan to deliver behaviour change in
   accordance with meeting the desired
   objectives. This step outlines how to
   develop a communications plan to ensure
   your audiences are reached at the right
   time, with the right message through
   the right channels so they can make the
   right decision. This step is the creation
   and dissemination of the narrative
   which has been informed by steps 1, 2
   and 3. You need to work with all your
   stakeholders to ensure you can access
   their communication channels to push
   your behaviour change messages out.
   Step 4 is the outward facing articulation of
   the plan and therefore is tied inherently to
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What are the key success factors for an efective TDM?
    10 Critical Success Factors for an Efective TDM Plan

    • Level of support and endorsement from all agencies in your LAs
      (leadership).
    • A clear defnition of the problem (the size of your challenge).
    • Having a range of alternative travel options available.
    • A strength of message to enable you to infuence travel.
    • Saturation and reach of message across all audiences (communication
      channels).
    • Having a focused approach (audience and mode segmentation).
    • Quality of information provided to the audience (trust and credibility).
    • A consistent message given out by all stakeholders (based on the
      core narrative).
    • Time and resources available to implement the programme.
    • The ability to track and monitor your impact.
Continuous improvement
The process for developing, implementing
  and reviewing your TDM plans should
 accord with quality assurance processes
  in place in local government. This can
 be illustrated by the Deming Cycle in the
  fgure below or the ‘Kaizen principles’.

    The Deming cycle is a continuous
 improvement and problem solving model
            made up of 4-steps:
   PLAN: Design or revise the process
      components to improve results
  DO: Implement the plan and measure its
       performance on a small scale
  CHECK: Assess the measurements and
           identify their meaning
   ACT: Decide on changes needed to
            improve the process

   By way of example, the Check and Act
    stages of this aligns with TDM Step
    5 which is focussed on monitoring,
    evaluating and updating TDM plans.
1. Denning Cycle: https://iso15189resources.siterubix.com/what-is-the-deming-cycle/
2. Kaizen Principles: https://www.managementstudyguide.com/what-is-kaizen.htm
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Image showing cars driving on the highway
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Step 1: Collect and analyse
                       data
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Step 1: Collect and analyse
data

Figure 3 -The fve steps for an efective TDM Action Plan - Collect and analyse data.

Introduction
                                                          continuation of issues caused by education
Step 1 is about getting to the crux of the                and higher education trips by students.
transport issues and understanding the                    Figure 4 illustrates some examples of
shortfall in capacity locally as journey needs            potential disruptors to the transport network.
and modes change in the winter months and
beyond. The guidance for this step sets out               The data you collect will help decide the
what sources of qualitative and quantitative              scale of the solutions that may be required
data you may fnd useful to make this                      and the strength of messaging that needs to
analysis.                                                 go out to specifc audiences to infuence a
                                                          change in travel behaviour. Essentially you
You will know your local context better than              are trying to infuence people to travel in
anyone else and may already be planning                   the way you know will keep your networks
for this time. The more you can understand                moving and you should establish objectives
about who uses what type of transport,                    that refect your local situation.
where your pressures will be and how much
transport capacity will be reduced the more               It is understood that there may be time and
efective your TDM plan will be. As part of                resource constraints for developing your
this stage it will be useful to consider what             TDM plan. If that is the case, then your focus
the key disrupters are likely to be over the              should be on confrming what quantitative
coming months in your area, even if these                 data and supporting qualitative information
are uncertain at this stage – whether this is             is already available or easily obtained.
an anticipated phased return to employment
for people that are currently working from
home, capacity grant uncertainties or the

Figure 4 - Illustrative timeline of possible disruptors to the transport network
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Figure 5 - Capacity Constraints - How TDM can address the shortfall between pre-COVID capacity and post-
COVID capacity

Analysis is required to determine what                • Where are the clusters of education
solutions will address the shortfall in                 facilities, employment centres and other
capacity, that may be realised from people              trip attractors?
shifting towards greater car use and reduced
capacity on public transport.                         • What are the key travel patterns and what
                                                        travel options and provision are available
This is shown illustratively in Figure 5.               for your LTA?
References to post COVID-19 relate to the
impacts of COVID-19 reducing capacity on              • What additional measures to support
the public transport network.                           capacity and behaviour change are already
                                                        being put in place (such as (emergency)
The outcome of this step should show you                active travel measures, capacity creation
what you need people to do to address the               grants, and road reallocation).
capacity shortfall or demand surge. This
direction will then enable you to develop             Whilst a lot of this will be already core
core travel advice through your narrative             knowledge to you, setting it out like this
which is then added to throughout the                 helps to establish the basis for the core
following steps. The core narrative provides          narrative and to identify the level of required
the single source of truth for all stakeholders       behaviour change. It will help pinpoint
so that all actions and outward messages              and articulate the challenges and possible
are based on the same common advice.                  approaches.
Having this at the heart of the TDM plan              The next step should be to locate
means that you balance your network,                  sources of qualitative and quantitative
maintain consistency and create trust in your         information where possible to build up this
associated plan.                                      understanding. This can then be used to
Understanding the constraints in your LTA             confrm or amend the stakeholder insights
                                                      and to add detail. It can also help prioritise
Get the relevant stakeholders together                and focus. Attitudinal surveys may also
from your LTA and externally and pool                 help (if time permits). They can show you
their knowledge to map and sketch out the             where you may have future problems if your
challenges that are specifc to you. Some              population are saying they will drive more
basic key questions you will want to ask are:
• Where are the typical congestion and
  overcrowding hotspots, by mode and time?                       Have you thought about?
• What issues/areas may be particularly                  Partnering with neighbouring authorities
  exacerbated by social distancing for                         to develop a joint approach
  example how will the capacity of the
  network be afected, how will demand
  have changed?
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when they return to work or if they have low                   For example, you may require
confdence in public transport.                                 supplementary information from education,
                                                               business facilities or transport operators
A data checklist is set out in Table 1-6, which                in your area to understand if there are any
could be useful starting point. This has been                  localised issues.
produced to help visualise simply the impact
that returning trips will have on your network
and what level of efort will be needed to
balance transport supply with demand.
It may also be appropriate to engage with
wider stakeholders to obtain additional data.
It is never too late to gather data which can
then help you refne your plans.

 General                    Population (e.g. Census 2011)
                            Public Transport Mode Share (e.g. Census 2011)
                            What are the key trip attractors that may cause pressure on the network – e.g.
                            employment, education, retail and leisure sites.
                            What are the key data sets such that will help understand where capacity will
                            be constrained – e.g. trafc counts, mode share data for diferent groups,
                            public transport usage data.
                            What measures are already being implemented in your LTA in light of social
                            distancing – such as active travel emergency measures and road space
                            reallocation.
Table 1 - General data checklist

 Number of                  How many businesses?
 Businesses
 Number of                  How many employees?
 Employees
                            Are there part time employees?
 Business                   Is there a travel plan in place?
 Related Travel             Are there shift patterns?
                            What are the peak travel periods?
                            Is there fexible / agile working?
                            Travel for work needs

Table 2 - Business data (business parks, industrial estates, ofce clusters etc) checklist
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Education             How many nurseries are there in your LA?
Institutions          How many primary schools are there in your LA?
                      How many secondary schools are there in your LA?
                      How many further education colleges are there in your LA?
                      How many universities are there in your LA?
Number of             Nursery school pupils
Children in
                      Primary school pupils
Education
                      Secondary school pupils
                      Further education pupils
                      Higher education students
Education             What are the term dates as well as start and fnish times for education facilities
Related Travel        in your area?
                      Do you collect or have access to the main mode of travel to education data?
                      You may have a school / education travel planning team or Modeshift STARS
                      scheme which may hold this information
                      Which education facilities in your area provide a dedicated bus service?
Table 3 - Education data checklist

Number of             How many diferent stores?
individual            Type of retail (furniture, appliances, clothes, food)?
retailers
Numbers of            How many employees?
employees             Are there part time employees?
                      Peak time of day?
Number of             Weekday average number?
visitors              Weekend average number?
                      Which education facilities in your area provide a dedicated bus service?
Employees             Is there a travel plan in place?
travel needs          Are there shift patterns?
                      What are the peak travel periods?
                      Is there fexible / agile working?
                      Travel for work needs
Visitor travel        What is the modal split?
needs                 Are there facilities in place to allow for all modes of travel (cycle parking, taxi
                      drop of etc)
                      Are there allowances for home delivery?
Freight and           Can freight and logistics movements be quantifed?
Deliveries            Have these movements increased?
Table 4 - Retail (high streets, retail parks, shopping centres, supermarkets, markets etc) checklist
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 Type of trip               What is the purpose of the trip generator?
 generator
 Number of                  How many employees?
 Employees
                            Are there part time employees?
 Number of                  Weekday average number?
 visitors                   Weekend average number?
                            Peak time of day?
 Employees                  Is there a travel plan in place?
 travel needs               Are there shift patterns?
                            What are the peak travel periods?
                            Is there fexible / agile working?
                            Travel for work needs
 Visitor travel             What is the modal split?
 needs                      Are there facilities in place to allow for all modes of travel (cycle parking, taxi
                            drop of etc)
                            Are there allowances for home delivery?
 Freight and                Can freight and logistics movements be quantifed?
 Deliveries                 Have these movements increased?
Table 5 - Large trip generator data checklist

 Public Transport           Do you know the capacity of the public transport network in your area pre
                            COVID-19? Such as the number of buses/trains/trams per hour serving each
                            school
                            Do you/ your local transport operators know the capacity of the public
                            transport network in your area with the need to observe social distancing
                            requirements?
                            How likely are you to have a shortfall in capacity on public transport in your
                            area when there will be peaks in demand?
                            Do you understand the likely new level of demand on public transport, taking
                            into account wider background changes in travel patterns such as home
                            working?
 Highways                   Do you already know where road congestion normally occurs on your
 Network                    network?
                            Do you have access to trafc counts, a highway trafc model that can tell you
                            this information?

Table 6 - Travel demand data checklist

 Communication              Do you have dedicated Travel Demand Management and/or communications
                            teams that already communicate travel messages?
                            Are you engaging with education facilities across your local transport area to
                            communicate about travel?
                            Are you engaging with businesses and large trip generators and travel in your local
                            transport area?
                            Do you run any annual national / global events such as ‘European Mobility Week’?

                            Are there any campaigns being led through partners such as public health?

Table 7 - Travel campaigns data checklist
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Understanding the transport users                Set local objectives
This step is also about understanding which      It is advised that LTAs establish objectives,
transport user groups (i.e. the audience)        based on what the key local challenges are.
need to adapt their travel behaviours to         A key way to frame any local objectives will
accommodate the increase in trips on the         be to articulate what level of travel behaviour
network. For example, is there a particular      change is required, by whom, by what
target in one area which can be associated       mode, and when. For example reducing
with congestion, are students the only           background demand on the rail network by
group that need to afect a change in the         30% to facilitate sport supporters attending
traditional network peak, or do other groups     a game before a match or reducing
need to change behaviour as the economy          background demand on the road network
reopens, such as businesses? It may be           by 30% during planned roadworks allowing
that commuting trips on certain modes may        for public transport to continue running to
need to be reduced or retimed to increase        schedule during the changes. This will help
the capacity at school opening times to          with developing the core narrative which
allow students to get to education facilities    will need to be communicated to diferent
on time. Therefore, you should consider          transport users (detailed in step 4) as well as
what range of transport users may need to        the monitoring and evaluation of your TDM
change travel behaviours including:              Plan (detailed in step 5).
• Students, parents and staf;
• Commuters;
• Users requiring travel for other reasons            To help you develop Step 1, please
  such as retail, leisure and health; and                  refer to Appendix B for some
• Freight, deliveries and servicing                    illustrations of particular transport
This will then enable you to start considering          network disrupters that might be
what messages may be appropriate for                  relevant to you and how to plan for
these diferent users in step 4.                                        them.

                                                     – such as the phased return to work
        Have you thought about?

         Contacting marketing and
       communications teams early to
     keep them in the loop with fndings
       and develop a messaging and
         communications schedule.
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Key risks
It is prudent to establish a risk register at              • What measures are being rolled out locally
this point, to capture the key risks which are               already.
likely to afect your LTA. This should be kept              • What data gaps exist and can they be
up to date throughout the duration of the                    addressed quickly and easily.
TDM Plan.
                                                           • Your key objectives to underpin the plan.
Where Step 1 should lead you:
                                                           • Completion of the frst part of your TDM
• Understanding what parts of the transport                  Plan which will set out the size of the travel
  network will be over capacity – where                      behaviour change required in your LTA,
  there will be congestion hotspots at certain               where, by whom, by what modes and what
  times, what public transport capacity issues               times.
  will arise.
                                                           Step 1 will lead to the development of the
• Understanding which locations will be                    initial core narrative which forms the central
  afected - for example are there any                      ‘story book’ for the TDM plan. It builds on
  particular clusters where there are likely               the main objectives, the main facts and
  to be particular concerns, or are there                  fgures that underpin these objectives
  particular public transport or road corridors            and the framework for reaching the right
  that are heavily congested.                              solution. By having a core narrative, you
• Understanding the background demand                      ensure that all stakeholders are aligned,
  and how other users could adapt their                    using the same messages. The data
  travel behaviours (e.g. commuters work                   collection step is the frst building block of
  from home or use alternatives).                          the core narrative.
• Understanding who the key transport users
  are.

Figure 6 - Five steps of the core narrative for a TDM Plan. First step is data collection.
Mott MacDonald | 21

Image showing vehicle trafc
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Image showing a rural bus stop
Mott MacDonald | 23

Step 2: Identify Possible
                Solutions
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Step 2: Identify Possible
Solutions

Figure 7 - The fve steps required for an efective TDM Action Plan with step 2: Identify possible
solutions.

In step 1 you have identifed the transport               The Three Pillars of Travel Demand
and travel issues that are likely to arise,              Management
the transport users that need to adapt their             Figure 8 shows the three pillars for a
travel behaviour, and what you need these                successful TDM Plan (Capacity Creation,
users to do diferently. This should be a                 Network Management and Behaviour
quantifable level of mode shift or specifc               Change). An efective TDM Plan should
groups in specifc locations.                             include a range of solutions from each of
Step 2 is about identifying the range of                 the three pillars. Without one or more of
solutions that are available to achieve this             these components TDM plans will be less
mode shift, and to prioritise them.                      efective.
The outcome of Step 1 is likely to show there
will be some demands on the transport
network that cannot be met, and a strain
on operations to ensure compliance with
COVID-19 restrictions.
Solutions should be defned and
implemented as soon as possible to test
the efectiveness in alleviating problems
in the build-up to the increased stress on
the network. Solutions that infuence a
number of target audiences’ travel can be
implemented earlier to lock-in necessary
behaviour change and release valuable
capacity.
You will need to plan ahead and develop a
framework of transport solutions for a range
of trip purposes, including:
• Education (student, parents and staf)
  related travel
• Workplace and employment related travel
• Retail related travel
                                                         Figure 8 - The Three Pillars of Travel Demand
• Other major trip attractor / leisure related           Management: Capacity Creation, Network
  travel                                                 Management and Behaviour Change
• Travel related to freight, deliveries and
  servicing
Mott MacDonald | 25

A number of possible solutions under each          public transport services over capacity,
pillar have been identifed below. These            then procuring DRT services may be
solutions may well overlap and this is by          appropriate to provide additional capacity.
no means an exhaustive list – as you know
your LTA and the likely issues, there could       • Emergency Active Travel Measures – You
be location specifc solutions which are most        may have recently implemented a range
suitable.                                           of active travel emergency measures to
                                                    facilitate the increase in active travel during
                                                    lock-down and to enable social distancing
1.Capacity Creation                                 in the street environment. Re-moding
                                                    50% of all trips under two miles from
• Additional roadspace for Buses –                  public transport to cycling and walking
  Consider converting roadspace for                 may create needed capacity on the public
  dedicated bus lanes or extending the              transport network. As such, additional
  hours of existing bus lanes (where capacity       walking and cycling infrastructure that will
  allows).                                          encourage people to walk and cycle more
• Reserving capacity on public transport            could be implemented.
  for students and staf – Work with public
  transport operators to reserve public
  transport capacity (for example, a particular             Have you thought about?
  train carriage / bus service) at particular
  times of days when public transport               Have you thought about partnering
  services are shown to be over capacity.           with diferent departments, such as
                                                    Public Health so TDM and travel can be
• Work with public transport operators to           incorporated into their initiatives and
  review routes and capacity – Work with            outreach, especially, in this example,
  public transport operators to review routes             with regards to active travel
  and determine whether additional services
  / routes could be put on or if existing
  routes can provide a more efective
  service. Consider if timetables can be
  amended to suit any shift patterns, school
  start or fnishing times or high demand on
  the network. Consider if additional services
  can be procured in the time frame and
  whether vehicle types are appropriate
  (for examples if single decker buses can
  become double decker buses).
• Contracting additional coaches – If your
  data analysis is showing that there will
  be particular public transport services
  over capacity, then procuring additional
  coach capacity or repurposing vehicles
  on routes with lower demand may be
  appropriate.
• Contract Demand Responsive Transport
  (DRT) services – If your data analysis
  is showing that there will be particular
26 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit

2. Network Management                                     junction operation.
• Temporary ticket and timetable changes                 • Public transport facilities management
  – After analysing your data, you may                     – Consider the management of facilities
  also fnd that you will need to work with                 at public transport stops and stations,
  local transport providers to revise their                in particular. Additional space may be
  service plans and ticketing options, taking              required for queuing at bus stops.
  into account the needs of passengers
  using public transport. For example                    • Temporary zebra crossing / crossing
  carnet ticketing options may need to be                  patrols –Consider the introduction of
  considered instead of season tickets, or                 additional crossing points or patrols to
  ‘part time’ direct debit discounts. Some of              facilitate safe crossing in close proximity
  the questions to consider include whether                to large trip generators, especially those
  you need to re-time existing services. Do                where young people could travel.
  you need to re-route existing services? Do             • Use of temporary trafc management
  you need additional services running in                  measures – This could include access
  certain areas or times?                                  restrictions in certain areas for cars, HGVs
• Low Trafc Neighbourhoods - An                            etc. to support public transport, active
  increase in car use is expected to be                    travel and low travel neighbourhoods.
  a consequence of social distancing,                      It could also include temporary signage
  particularly for longer journeys that cannot             encouraging drivers to reroute or retime
  be accommodated on public transport                      journeys.
  or be made by walking and cycling. This
  may result in some pressure points around
  local neighbourhood facilities such as
  education sites and high streets. It may be
  appropriate to set up a vehicle exclusion
  zone around schools and implement ‘low
  trafc neighbourhood’ initiatives to restrict
  congestion and deter private car use.
  Could a Trafc Regulation Order (TRO) be
  put in place in time? If appropriate, ‘Park
  and Stride’ sites could be established to
  school. Could this also be set up near
  workplaces to avoid congested areas?
• Trafc signals management – Review
  signal timing to consider increasing green
  time for public transport and active travel
  modes. Review signal management and
  Urban Trafc Control (UTC systems) for
  optimal network and junction operation.
  Signals management – Review signal
  timing to consider increasing green time
  for public transport and active travel
  modes. Review signal management and
  UTC system for optimal network and
Mott MacDonald | 27

3. Behaviour Change
As part of your TDM plan, you should                           Have you thought about?
consider developing the solutions in the
context of the ‘Four R’s’ of travel behaviour             Other complementary measures
change (Reduce, Re-time, Re-Route and                    which would boost the confdence
Re-mode), which was pioneered during                    in public transport use – such as the
the London 2012 Olympics and is now a                   enhanced cleaning regimes in place
standard principle of any TDM plan. Tailoring          and enforcement of the wearing of face
the type of behaviour change required                                 coverings?
around the Four Rs will help to refect on any
locally specifc objectives you may need to
achieve as well as being easy terminology
for audiences to understand.
A list of high-level solutions using the
Four R’s approach is outlined in Tables
8-11. Depending on the issues you have
identifed in Step 1, some of these solutions
will be more appropriate than others. It is
based on a core menu of options that TDM
practitioners will be familiar with, alongside
some specifc measures that refect travel in
a post-COVID world. It is by no means
exhaustive but helps to illustrate the range
that could be applied where appropriate.
It contains solutions that are benefcial to
consider in depth for all settings, whilst
others are more efective for specifc trip
purposes.

              Figure 9 - The Four R’s, these are; Reduce, Re-mode, Re-time and Re-route.
28 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit

 Action

                                                                       Employment

                                                                                    Other Travel

                                                                                                            Generators
                                                           Education

                                                                                                            Large Trip
                                                           Related

                                                                       Related
                                                           Travel

                                                                       Travel

                                                                                                   Retail
 Enable and encourage businesses to continue to            No          Yes            No            No       No
 allow their staf to work from home
 Enable and encourage businesses to have remote            No          Yes            No            Yes      Yes
 meetings via conference calls, web conferencing,
 video conferencing to avoid the need to travel
 Encourage and facilitate businesses to allow their        No          Yes            No            Yes      Yes
 staf to work from a diferent location
 Encourage businesses to allow staf to work                No          Yes            No            No       No
 compressed weeks (i.e. the same number of hours
 over four longer days)
 Encourage businesses to manage annual leave of            No          Yes            No            No       No
 staf to coincide with the reopening of education
 facilities
 Encourage the rescheduling of non-essentials trips        Yes         Yes            Yes           Yes      Yes
 until restrictions are further lifted
 Identify any deliveries that are not essential which      Yes         Yes            Yes           Yes      Yes
 can be rescheduled after the restrictions are lifted
 Encourage talks with suppliers about fewer but larger     Yes         Yes            Yes           Yes      Yes
 deliveries
 Collaborate with local establishments to combine          Yes         Yes            Yes           Yes      Yes
 deliveries
 Encourage the consolidation of non-perishable goods Yes               Yes            Yes           Yes      Yes
 to reduce the frequency of deliveries.
 Encourage establishments to recycle to minimise           Yes         Yes            Yes           Yes      Yes
 waste and rubbish collections

Table 8 - A list of high-level solutions using “Reduce” one of the Four R’s.

 Action
                                                                       Employment

                                                                                    Other Travel

                                                                                                            Generators
                                                           Education

                                                                                                            Large Trip
                                                           Related

                                                                       Related
                                                           Travel

                                                                       Travel

                                                                                                   Retail

 Identify whether businesses could encourage staf or No                Yes            Yes           No       No
 specifc operations to be temporarily relocated to less
 busy locations e.g. out of town ofces.
 Ofer travel planning advice to encourage                  Yes         Yes            Yes           Yes      Yes
 establishments to avoid busy locations

 Encourage options for ‘Park and Stride’ for those that    Yes         Yes            Yes           Yes      Yes
 have to drive
 Keep the community updated on the latest              Yes             Yes            Yes           Yes      Yes
 information and resources available to help them plan
 alternative routes on their journeys
 Encourage the identifcation of alternative locations      Yes         Yes            Yes           Yes      Yes
 for drop ofs and collections of deliveries
Table 9 - A list of high-level solutions using “Re-route” one of the Four R’s.
Mott MacDonald | 29

 Action

                                                               Related Travel

                                                                                Related Travel
                                                                                Employment

                                                                                                 Other Travel

                                                                                                                               Generators
                                                               Education

                                                                                                                               Large Trip
                                                                                                                Retail
 Encourage walking, scooting and cycling for those who          Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 live within 2 miles of their trip destination
 Enable and encourage those to re-mode based on local           Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 transport constraints

 Encourage the use of public transport options with high        Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 capacity and ask the public to avoid those with low
 capacity
 Share information on the changes to public transport           Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 with COVID-19 restrictions in place
 Make the public aware of the transport challenges that         Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 they may face with COVID-19 restrictions in place
 Encourage transport users to avoid crowded locations,          Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 by getting of at an earlier / later stop or / and walking
 the remainder of their journey
 Prioritise capacity on local transport for school travel at    Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 key times
 Encourage provision of on-site facilities such as showers, Yes                  Yes               No            No             No
 lockers and cycle parking to encourage walking and
 cycling
 Provide cycling or walking maps to encourage walking           Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 and cycling
 Deliver cycle training / maintenance sessions to               Yes              Yes               No            Yes            Yes
 encourage cycling
 Provide temporary loans of pool bikes                          Yes              Yes               No            No             No

 Encourage the use of local suppliers and support those         Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 that use alternative travel modes such as cargo bikes.
 Encourage the use of delivery companies such as                Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 bicycle couriers, which may fnd the restrictions easier to
 navigate
 Enable and encourage car sharing for those within the          Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes            Yes
 same ‘social bubble’ if practical

Table 10 - A list of high-level solutions using “Re-mode” one of the Four R’s.
30 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit

 Action

                                                           Related Travel

                                                                            Related Travel
                                                                            Employment

                                                                                             Other Travel

                                                                                                                     Generators
                                                           Education

                                                                                                                     Large Trip
                                                                                                            Retail
 Staggering start and fnish times for education             Yes              Yes               Yes           No       No
 facilities – Education facilities may be already
 considering changing start and fnish times, but
 this could be an efective measure to alleviate any
 capacity constraints on the transport network to
 support reopening
 Encourage the alteration of core hours of operation to Yes                  Yes               Yes           Yes      Yes
 times when the transport network is less constrained
 whilst ensuring needs are met
 Encourage those undertaking journeys during the            Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes      Yes
 peak hours to stagger their trip start and fnish times
 Encourage trips to be scheduled at less busy               Yes              Yes               No            Yes      Yes
 locations and times of day
 Encourage deliveries at quieter times                      Yes              Yes               Yes           Yes      Yes

Table 11- A list of high-level solutions using “Re-time” one of the Four R’s.
Mott MacDonald | 31

Try to follow the ‘EAST’ behavioural change            Prioritisation
framework (Easy, Attractive, Social and
Timely) in identifying measures:                       The long-list of potential solutions could be
                                                       extensive, and a straightforward exercise
• Easy – keep measures simple and reduce               would be to prioritise these on the basis of
  the hassle factor of choosing an option.             locally specifc criteria, for example:
• Attractive – attract attention through the           • Level of behaviour change needed –
  use of images, colours and personalisation             Consider which of the solutions will
  of communications, and create incentives               address the level of behaviour change you
  where possible.                                        need to achieve in your local area by mode
                                                         and time.
• Social – use social networks to engage
  and show that most people undertake the              • Deliverability – Consider which of the
  desired behaviour.                                     solutions can be delivered within the
                                                         timeframe required.
• Timely – Behaviour is generally easier to
  change when habits are already disrupted,            • Reach – Consider how many individuals
  as is the case with social-distancing. You             could be targeted.
  could also outline the immediate benefts
  that a change in behaviour can bring and             • Infuence – Consider how many individuals
  help people plan their response to plans.              could change their usual travel behaviour
                                                         with the solution.
Efective Travel Demand Management
Plans                                                  • Cost – Consider whether the solutions are
                                                         afordable and represent a good return on
Figure 10 shows example solutions framed                 investment.
around the three pillars and how they can
overlap.

  Figure 10 - Three pillars of TDM and related example solutions.
32 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit

                                                         Where Step 2 should lead you
We recommend that you determine and           • Understanding the range of solutions
prioritise which of the solutions can be        available to your LTA
delivered in advance the predicted stress
on the network (e.g. those that will infuence • Understanding the prioritised shortlist of
behaviour change around commuting               solutions or package of solutions that are
journeys and education journeys) rather than    most appropriate for your area to address
all of the measures going live on the date of   the shortfall in capacity and when they can
the return. Given the short time frames this    be delivered.
could be defned as:                           • A package of measures that are ready to
• What needs to be delivered in advance of      be communicated
  the disruption causing network stress (1    Completion of the next part of your TDM
  month prior)                                Plan, which includes confrmation of the
• What needs to be delivered once the         core measures that will deliver the level of
  disruption is underway                      behaviour change identifed in step 1 and
                                              continue to build towards the development
                                              of the core narrative.

Figure 11 - Prioritisation of solutions.

   To help you develop Step 2, please refer
   to Appendix B for some illustrations of
   particular transport network disrupters
   that might be relevant to you and how
                to plan for them.

       – such as the relaxation of -
      COVID restrictions over the festive
                   period.
Mott MacDonald | 33

Figure 12 - Five steps of the core narrative for a TDM Plan. Second step is development of the core narrative.
34 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit

Image showing a commuter cycling
Mott MacDonald | 35

Step 3: Implementing
            Solutions
36 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit

Step 3: Implementing Solutions

Figure 13 - The fve steps for an efective TDM Action Plan - Implementation of Solutions.

In the previous steps you will have                      • Business Intermediaries / Networks
identifed and quantifed the specifc                        (business districts; business parks; local
transport problems in your LTA that you                    enterprise partnerships);
need to mitigate (step 1). You will have also
identifed the types of solutions that will               • Large employers; and
be appropriate (step 2) to create additional             • Adjacent Local Transport Authorities.
capacity, improve the management of the
transport network and other behaviour                    The duration of their involvement may be
change solutions to infuence travel demand.              dependent on the duration of the capacity
Step 3 is focused on developing the                      issues on the transport network.
implementation framework for the identifed               Ongoing engagement with delivery
solutions.                                               partners
Identifying the key stakeholders                         Setting up efective lines of communication
The involvement of key delivery partners                 with these delivery partners is essential
from an early stage is critical. They                    for the delivery of the required solutions,
are pivotal to the implementation and                    and it is recommended that a stakeholder
communication of any increased capacity,                 engagement plan is prepared to capture this.
network management or behaviour change.                  It may also be appropriate to set up working
This may include:                                        groups for areas of specifc concerns
                                                         comprised of these delivery partners.
• Communication teams;
                                                         The delivery partners will be crucial for
• Education Facilities;                                  disseminating the key messages developed
• Local Authority departments – e.g. school              in step 4 to the diferent transport users,
  / education transport, network compliance,             your core narrative will ensure that these are
  health and safety, emergency planning,                 clear and consistent messages.
  active travel emergency measures                       The stakeholders will also be crucial for
  teams, TDM staf, Modeshift STARS                       understanding whether the solutions are
  team; business engagement; highways;                   having the desired efect on adapting travel
  development planning;                                  behaviours (step 5).
• Local bus operators;
                                                                 Have you thought about?
• Education bus operators;
                                                          Involving data analytics teams to the
• Dedicated coach operators brought in to                 stakeholder sessions. Their insight
  deliver additional capacity;                            on the network will ensure that the
• Rail operators;                                         stakeholders are aware and can react
                                                                quickly to network changes.
• Walking and cycling organisations;
Mott MacDonald | 37

Deliver the Solutions                                     Where Step 3 should lead you:
Once you have identifed and engaged                       • Understanding who your delivery partners
your delivery partners, you need to start                   are.
implementing the solutions.
                                                          • Establishing an efective engagement plan
Contingency Planning                                        with the delivery partners.
It is advisable to establish a contingency                • Ongoing engagement with the delivery
plan with your delivery partners to plan                    partners throughout the duration of the
out key actions that may need to be put                     TDM plan.
in place to allow for additional resilience
if issues arise. You should ensure there is               • Establish a contingency plan with delivery
not just enough capacity in the system but                  partners.
also some additional resilience built in. For             • Final key building block of the core
example, bus operators could introduce                      narrative – agreement on the delivery
duplicate buses (“hot spares”) on the system                framework for your solutions that will help
which can address any live crowding issues                  deliver the behaviour change needed. This
if required. Working with neighbouring LTAs                 will include any new capacity or services
may be particularly useful if there is any                  that have been made available.
sharing of available capacity in the system.
                                                          • At this stage you will also be working
                                                            closely with your marketing and
  To help you develop Step 3, please refer                  communication colleagues to identify the
  to Appendix B for some illustrations of                   channels that can be used to communicate
  particular transport network disrupters                   to the travelling public.
  that might be relevant to you and how to
                plan for them.
  – such as the return of sporting events

Figure 14 - Five steps of the core narrative for a TDM Plan. Third step is stakeholder buy in.
Image showing passengers on a bus
Mott MacDonald | 39

  Step 4: Marketing,
Communications and
       Engagement
40 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit

Step 4: Marketing,
Communications and
Engagement

Figure 15 -The steps required for an efective TDM Action Plan - Marketing, Communications
and Engagement.

Alongside identifcation of the issues,                   Your Message
solutions and delivery partners, as well
as the development of your strategy and                  Your message needs to be clear and
implementation of measures, you need to                  compelling and easy for the audience to
communicate to the people in your area.                  understand and follow. There needs to be no
To enable efective communication, the                    ambiguity with messages, and they should
following needs to be identifed:                         ensure a single source of truth. Diferent
                                                         messages will need to be developed for
• Your Messages (Your Core Narrative);                   diferent audience groups based on the
                                                         behaviour you want them to adopt, their
• Your Audiences;                                        travel habits and their inclination to respond
• Your Communication Channels (Best way                  to certain message types. Messages need
  to communicate with the audience(s) you                to be relevant and appropriate to the group,
  wish to reach);                                        but it is important that there is continuity
                                                         across the messages.
• Your Communications Champions; and
                                                         Diferent messages will need to be
• Timing of Messages                                     developed for diferent communication
Once identifed, a Communications Plan                    channels based on the type and format of
needs to be developed to ensure the right                the message which the channel can support.
audiences are reached at the right time,                 In developing your key messages for your
with the right message using the correct                 TDM Plan, you should consider overarching
channels so they can make the most                       Government guidance and messaging,
appropriate decisions. This is where you                 including messages from the Safer Transport
develop and disseminate the narrative to                 campaign (https://extranet.dft.gov.uk/
encourage people to change their typical or              safertransport-campaign/). These will be
intended behaviour.                                      regularly updated so will be responsive to
You will need to engage with your marketing              any changes in Guidance.
and communications team who will be able                 Key messages should also be focussed
to support, guide and lead this step.                    on maintaining confdence in using public
                                                         transport, supported by enforcement of the
                                                         wearing of face coverings and enhanced
            Have you thought about?                      operator cleaning regimes.
   Engaging with other similar LTAs on                   Your Audience
   what TDM marketing campaigns they                     Diferent audience groups need to be
           have introduced?                              identifed, and you will have started to
                                                         identify these in step 1. These are the people
Mott MacDonald | 41

you are trying to reach with your message.       decide to use will vary depending on your
Identifying them and understanding them          audience, your message and availability of
will help to prioritise communications and       channels.
help with creating messages that target and
connect with specifc audiences, utilising        Above the line: Broad Reach / Untargeted
channels where they are most active.             • Email Communications.
Audience groups (and sub-groups) are likely
to link to trip types and locations and may      • Online (Website) Communications – Having
include:                                           a campaign site with a single source of
                                                   truth to direct everyone to for further
• Education related travel;                        information is critical.
• Employment related travel;                     • Print Media / Traditional Advertising
• Retail / Leisure related travel;                 – This can be printed messaging with
                                                   publications such as local newspapers
• Location specifc travel;                         or billboard advertising / posters (such
                                                   as at public transport stops / stations).
• Mode specifc travel;                             In addition, this could include printed
• For mode specifc messages, they need to          messages within existing publications
  reach those you are trying to infuence to        / communications such as Council Tax
  use a new mode, as well as existing users;       letters. These communications channels
                                                   often require a lead in time and therefore
• Deliveries and servicing related travel; and     may be less appropriate in this context.
• Everyone - some messages may be for all        • Podcast / Radio advertising.
  audiences and therefore there should be a
  group encompassing everyone.                   Through the line: Social and Semi-targeted
Bear in mind the that people are likely to be    • Social Media – your LTA, LA and partners
in more than one group.                            will have numerous – so feed them all.
Your Communications Channels                     • Local Networks Communications –
                                                   Trusted local networks such as business
Diferent communication channels will               intermediaries or neighbourhood networks
need to be utilised to communicate your            could be utilised. Using these networks
message with diferent audience groups, in          can be a good way of going to a few to
order to reach as many people as possible.         reach many.
There are probably several appropriate
communications channels for each audience        • Stakeholder Communications – Utilise
group. Many of the channels used will be           stakeholders identifed in step 3 and their
ones you already utilise and your marketing        communication channels.
and communications team are likely to be         • Road Signage / Variable Messaging Sign
able to advise on relevant communication           (VMS).
channels.
                                                 Below the line: Targeted
Potential communication channels are
identifed below; however, this is by no          Target communications through
means an exhaustive list. Channels have          stakeholders own specifc channels can be
been split into:                                 very important:
• Above the line: Broad reach and largely        Education facilities typically include website,
  untargeted;                                    social media, newsletters, noticeboards,
                                                 parent text alert system, staf (virtual)
• Through the line: Social and semi-targeted;    meetings and parents’ (virtual) meetings.
  and                                            Induction days (if appropriate) and new
• Below the line: Targeted.                      starter packs can be a good time to try
                                                 to encourage specifc travel behaviours
A combination of all three types should          at the outset and take advantage of the
be used. There are pros and cons to all          fact that people are more likely to change
communication channels and the ones you
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