Travel Demand Management Toolkit - Managing Network Demand March 2021 - Gov.uk
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Mott MacDonald | 3 Contents Toolkit Overview 5 Step 1: Collect and analyse data 13 Step 2: Identify Possible Solutions 24 Step 3: Implementing Solutions 35 Step 4: Marketing, Communications and Engagement 39 Step 5: Monitor, Evaluate and Adapt 47 Appendix A - TDM Action Plan Template 53 Appendix B - Scenarios 56 Revision Date Originator Checker Approver Description 1.0 05/03/2021 AG/FI CH RM Final
4 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Image showing pedestrian and cycle route through a park
6 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Toolkit Overview This report was produced by Mott MacDonald for the Department for Transport in December 2020. Since the report was written, there have been a number of further changes to COVID-19 restrictions and guidance. However, this does not affect the function and role of the toolkit. Context learned from existing plans should be used This Travel Demand Management (TDM) as these will be a good starting point to Toolkit sets out a framework for Combined consider the effects of other disruptions and Local Transport Authorities (LTAs) in that will happen as we move through our England to develop and implement effective response to the pandemic. TDM plans. This toolkit should be read in conjunction This is a standalone document which should with the latest Government’s COVID-19 be used to help you navigate the effects of national guidance for transport and travel. the COVID-19 pandemic on the travelling public and your transport networks. As we go through the winter months, and as Crucially, it is a tool to help you manage the weather conditions and light deteriorate, a range of scenarios that may happen as we face the normal reduction in active travel. a result of the pandemic, including where At this point in a typical year, public transport pressures on the transport network mean operators would experience a spike in there is a need to manage a mismatch demand, but from our engagement with all between supply and demand. LTAs across England we know this not to be the case, and that public transport usage The need for English LTAs to develop continues to be low. The expectation is that strategic TDM plans was first acknowledged this will change when employees begin a in response to the Secretary of State for return to their place of work, however there Education’s announcement that all education is a very real possibility that private vehicle facilities in England would reopen to all year usage will increase and public transport groups at the start of the new academic year use will stay low leading to prolonged and in September 2020. This followed a period additional network congestion. This presents of lockdown due to COVID-19. Since the a challenge of needing to actively promote issuing of the first iteration of this toolkit and capitalise on the emergency and more in July 2020, a tiered system has been recent active travel funded schemes as well adopted across England to control the virus, as promote public transport as a safe and which means that demand and pressures reliable means of travel. for travel both within and between different local authorities has varied. The application of social distancing measures on public transport continues to Whilst this TDM toolkit has drawn upon cause a significant reduction in effective lessons learnt from TDM plans rolled out capacity, and habitual shift towards to support the return of trips for education private vehicles provides a challenge in during the COVID-19 pandemic, this daily transportation of the population new guidance has been prepared as a to education, employment, leisure and standalone document. It has been designed healthcare. to provide LTAs with a suggested framework for managing transport demand during times As such this second iteration of the TDM of uncertainty and change. Therefore, it can Toolkit has been developed to assist LTA’s be applied more widely than the previous in managing the demands posed on the version to cover all trips for all journey transport network caused by these new purposes and to help address specific outcomes of the pandemic and the further transport challenges. This will help to create uncertainties that are faced when travel and a legacy of TDM activity that can be applied movement picks up again as more commuter when different disruptions or pressures and leisure trips are made. occur on the transport network. The lessons
Mott MacDonald | 7 Some examples of the uncertainties currently faced by LTAs include: • Continuation of social distancing measures • Continuation of the requirement to travel for the foreseeable future, including on for education and university. public transport. • Uncertainty over the future of capacity • Changing Government COVID-19response creation funding. Tiers that the LTA falls into, and impacts of • Continued implementation of COVID-19 if / when these change. related schemes such as emergency active • Poor weather and darker evenings driving travel fund (EATF) which may cause up demand for both public transport and network disruption through road car use and the reduction of walking and reallocation cycling. • The return of sporting events • A phased return to work for employees • Implementation of low traffic that are currently continuing working from neighbourhoods home. • Potential increase in staff absenteeism and the ability to maintain service levels. Figure 1 - Illustration of Capacity Gap Image illustrating how available capacity on the transport network is much lower with social distancing measures. Capacity Creation, Network Management and Behaviour Change are therefore required
8 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit The issues will vary not just across the Developing and implementing a TDM plan country but also within LTA areas. TDM plans will clearly require resource to undertake. should be developed and implemented When considering the scale of travel to reflect your local area, ensuring that behaviour change required, especially education, work and leisure trips can all in short timescales, it is important that be accommodated on the network as resources are allocated efficiently to achieve trips continue to increase when elements maximum impact. When delivered well, of society reopen and return to ‘the new TDM plans are proven to be very effective normal’. in managing travel demand during periods of additional stress on the network. For It is therefore essential that measures to example, 14% of drivers changed their reduce the impacts of lower public transport behaviour as a result of a TDM project capacity, changes in travel behaviour and supporting the major reconstruction of the changes to your transport systems are A406 in north London. The City of Sydney planned, implemented and communicated achieved an absolute 11% mode shift of to support the smooth operation of your private vehicle movements as a result of a transport networks. TDM project that was introduced to mitigate We anticipate the need for you to work the impacts of long-term redevelopment of closely with transport, education, business the city centre. and leisure stakeholders developing your Aim of this Toolkit plans, in or-der to consider the impact of any future in-crease in transport demand. The aim of this TDM Toolkit is to provide We acknowledge that you may already have you with a framework to deliver an effective significant experience of TDM work and TDM plan to support network resilience in so may well be familiar with the concepts times of heightened demand, stress and covered, but this toolkit could still serve as a uncertainty. The plan will help you influence useful checklist for what you need to cover. the travel behaviours of all transport users in order to address gaps not only in capacity due to social distancing and related COVID-19 measures, but also beyond that once restrictions become fully lifted. This What is TDM? Toolkit contains: • Step by step guidance on what tasks should be undertaken to develop and Travel Demand Management ‘TDM’ is implement a TDM plan, including the an umbrella term for the application of development of the ‘core narrative’ which strategies and policies to reduce travel is the data driven central messaging of the demand, or to redistribute this demand TDM strategy. in space, mode or in time. • A template for a TDM Plan (see Appendix An effective TDM plan is based A), which you can use as the basis for around three key pillars: the creation designing a tailored Action Plan for your of capacity, network management and LTA. travel behaviour change solutions (see Step 2 for more details). • Some practical walked through examples on how to develop a TDM plan are located in Appendix B, reflecting likely scenarios that LTA will face over the coming months.
Mott MacDonald | 9 Five Steps for an efective TDM Action Plan Figure 2 - The fve steps required for an efective TDM action Plan. This document is structured around these fve steps Timetable information. It will also be useful to Winter 2020/21 understand what the key uncertainties • LTAs record any lessons learned from are to help with planning. This step also TDM plans used to support the return of sets out guidance on identifying the trips for education transport user groups in your area who will need to adapt their travel behaviours. • LTAs use lessons learned to develop It is an essential building block of the core TDM plans to manage all network users narrative for the TDM Plan which will be through periods of uncertainty developed and addressed throughout the • LTAs implement, monitor and evaluate following steps. The core narrative forms progress on TDM plans. the central ‘story book’ for the TDM plan. It uses the main objectives, the main facts • LTAs maintain the momentum of and fgures that underpin these objectives communication campaigns. and sets the framework for reaching the • LTAs adapt their approach if problems right solution. The core narrative - that arise. This will require ongoing consistent set of messages – is built upon engagement with delivery partners and informed by the available data. to ensure that the transport networks • Step 2: Identify Possible Solutions: This are sufciently resilient, that the step sets out a long list of solutions that communication channels you have could be considered for your LTA. For chosen are the right ones and that supply ease, these are framed around the three is matched with demand across your pillars of TDM – capacity creation (such networks. as the provision of additional vehicles; Legacy into 2021 and beyond network management (such as creating exclusion zones around education facilities LTAs continue implementation of TDM plans to restricting private car use drop of) and to manage supply and demand and adapt as behaviour change (such as campaigns circumstances change. around agile working and re-timing How to use this Toolkit journeys to work). Measures should be considered for all network users. It is The toolkit is split into a number of key steps important to keep in mind that the TDM - with specifc guidance and advice on what plan should have measures that infuence to do at each step. all trips where appropriate. This step sets • Step 1: Collect and Analyse Data: This out how to identify and prioritise solutions step sets out guidance on how to collect which best address the issues identifed information to understand the key in step 1. The appropriate set of solutions transport capacity issues and to address is informed by the data collected in step any gaps in data if there is insufcient 1. You will be encouraging the target
10 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit audience to make use of these solutions the identifed measures and key objectives, through the messaging in the core based on that initial data collection. narrative. • Step 5: Monitor, Evaluate and Adapt: • Step 3: Implementation of Solutions: This step sets out the important role of This step sets out how to identify and how to quickly and successfully monitor work efectively with your delivery and evaluate the efectiveness of your partners to implement the required TDM plan. If the TDM plan is not meeting solutions. Delivery partners will play a the desired objectives then it may need critical role in delivering and monitoring to be adapted. This step sets out how to the solutions required for an efective monitor and evaluate, as well as when and TDM plan, as well as delivering the key how to adapt and change the message messages to transport users. Key to this to be responsive to those uncertainties. step is ensuring that all key stakeholders Monitoring provides the loop back to are bought in to the overall approach to the initial stages and informs if, and tackling the network challenges. At this when, these need to be reviewed and stage you will also be working closely updated. You will need to look at how your with your marketing and communication network is performing and if there are still colleagues to identify the channels that problems occurring, try to address these can be used to communicate with the by either strengthening your core narrative travelling public. You now have the three messages, use more communication key elements to create the core narrative: channels or provide more transport data to inform the required level of capacity. behaviour change; a set of solutions to deliver that change and a framework for implementing interventions with all key stakeholders. • Step 4: Implementation of Marketing and Communications: Once the solutions have been identifed and are ready for delivery, it is essential to communicate the plan to deliver behaviour change in accordance with meeting the desired objectives. This step outlines how to develop a communications plan to ensure your audiences are reached at the right time, with the right message through the right channels so they can make the right decision. This step is the creation and dissemination of the narrative which has been informed by steps 1, 2 and 3. You need to work with all your stakeholders to ensure you can access their communication channels to push your behaviour change messages out. Step 4 is the outward facing articulation of the plan and therefore is tied inherently to
Mott MacDonald | 11 What are the key success factors for an efective TDM? 10 Critical Success Factors for an Efective TDM Plan • Level of support and endorsement from all agencies in your LAs (leadership). • A clear defnition of the problem (the size of your challenge). • Having a range of alternative travel options available. • A strength of message to enable you to infuence travel. • Saturation and reach of message across all audiences (communication channels). • Having a focused approach (audience and mode segmentation). • Quality of information provided to the audience (trust and credibility). • A consistent message given out by all stakeholders (based on the core narrative). • Time and resources available to implement the programme. • The ability to track and monitor your impact. Continuous improvement The process for developing, implementing and reviewing your TDM plans should accord with quality assurance processes in place in local government. This can be illustrated by the Deming Cycle in the fgure below or the ‘Kaizen principles’. The Deming cycle is a continuous improvement and problem solving model made up of 4-steps: PLAN: Design or revise the process components to improve results DO: Implement the plan and measure its performance on a small scale CHECK: Assess the measurements and identify their meaning ACT: Decide on changes needed to improve the process By way of example, the Check and Act stages of this aligns with TDM Step 5 which is focussed on monitoring, evaluating and updating TDM plans. 1. Denning Cycle: https://iso15189resources.siterubix.com/what-is-the-deming-cycle/ 2. Kaizen Principles: https://www.managementstudyguide.com/what-is-kaizen.htm
12 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Image showing cars driving on the highway
Mott MacDonald | 13 Step 1: Collect and analyse data
14 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Step 1: Collect and analyse data Figure 3 -The fve steps for an efective TDM Action Plan - Collect and analyse data. Introduction continuation of issues caused by education Step 1 is about getting to the crux of the and higher education trips by students. transport issues and understanding the Figure 4 illustrates some examples of shortfall in capacity locally as journey needs potential disruptors to the transport network. and modes change in the winter months and beyond. The guidance for this step sets out The data you collect will help decide the what sources of qualitative and quantitative scale of the solutions that may be required data you may fnd useful to make this and the strength of messaging that needs to analysis. go out to specifc audiences to infuence a change in travel behaviour. Essentially you You will know your local context better than are trying to infuence people to travel in anyone else and may already be planning the way you know will keep your networks for this time. The more you can understand moving and you should establish objectives about who uses what type of transport, that refect your local situation. where your pressures will be and how much transport capacity will be reduced the more It is understood that there may be time and efective your TDM plan will be. As part of resource constraints for developing your this stage it will be useful to consider what TDM plan. If that is the case, then your focus the key disrupters are likely to be over the should be on confrming what quantitative coming months in your area, even if these data and supporting qualitative information are uncertain at this stage – whether this is is already available or easily obtained. an anticipated phased return to employment for people that are currently working from home, capacity grant uncertainties or the Figure 4 - Illustrative timeline of possible disruptors to the transport network
Mott MacDonald | 15 Figure 5 - Capacity Constraints - How TDM can address the shortfall between pre-COVID capacity and post- COVID capacity Analysis is required to determine what • Where are the clusters of education solutions will address the shortfall in facilities, employment centres and other capacity, that may be realised from people trip attractors? shifting towards greater car use and reduced capacity on public transport. • What are the key travel patterns and what travel options and provision are available This is shown illustratively in Figure 5. for your LTA? References to post COVID-19 relate to the impacts of COVID-19 reducing capacity on • What additional measures to support the public transport network. capacity and behaviour change are already being put in place (such as (emergency) The outcome of this step should show you active travel measures, capacity creation what you need people to do to address the grants, and road reallocation). capacity shortfall or demand surge. This direction will then enable you to develop Whilst a lot of this will be already core core travel advice through your narrative knowledge to you, setting it out like this which is then added to throughout the helps to establish the basis for the core following steps. The core narrative provides narrative and to identify the level of required the single source of truth for all stakeholders behaviour change. It will help pinpoint so that all actions and outward messages and articulate the challenges and possible are based on the same common advice. approaches. Having this at the heart of the TDM plan The next step should be to locate means that you balance your network, sources of qualitative and quantitative maintain consistency and create trust in your information where possible to build up this associated plan. understanding. This can then be used to Understanding the constraints in your LTA confrm or amend the stakeholder insights and to add detail. It can also help prioritise Get the relevant stakeholders together and focus. Attitudinal surveys may also from your LTA and externally and pool help (if time permits). They can show you their knowledge to map and sketch out the where you may have future problems if your challenges that are specifc to you. Some population are saying they will drive more basic key questions you will want to ask are: • Where are the typical congestion and overcrowding hotspots, by mode and time? Have you thought about? • What issues/areas may be particularly Partnering with neighbouring authorities exacerbated by social distancing for to develop a joint approach example how will the capacity of the network be afected, how will demand have changed?
16 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit when they return to work or if they have low For example, you may require confdence in public transport. supplementary information from education, business facilities or transport operators A data checklist is set out in Table 1-6, which in your area to understand if there are any could be useful starting point. This has been localised issues. produced to help visualise simply the impact that returning trips will have on your network and what level of efort will be needed to balance transport supply with demand. It may also be appropriate to engage with wider stakeholders to obtain additional data. It is never too late to gather data which can then help you refne your plans. General Population (e.g. Census 2011) Public Transport Mode Share (e.g. Census 2011) What are the key trip attractors that may cause pressure on the network – e.g. employment, education, retail and leisure sites. What are the key data sets such that will help understand where capacity will be constrained – e.g. trafc counts, mode share data for diferent groups, public transport usage data. What measures are already being implemented in your LTA in light of social distancing – such as active travel emergency measures and road space reallocation. Table 1 - General data checklist Number of How many businesses? Businesses Number of How many employees? Employees Are there part time employees? Business Is there a travel plan in place? Related Travel Are there shift patterns? What are the peak travel periods? Is there fexible / agile working? Travel for work needs Table 2 - Business data (business parks, industrial estates, ofce clusters etc) checklist
Mott MacDonald | 17 Education How many nurseries are there in your LA? Institutions How many primary schools are there in your LA? How many secondary schools are there in your LA? How many further education colleges are there in your LA? How many universities are there in your LA? Number of Nursery school pupils Children in Primary school pupils Education Secondary school pupils Further education pupils Higher education students Education What are the term dates as well as start and fnish times for education facilities Related Travel in your area? Do you collect or have access to the main mode of travel to education data? You may have a school / education travel planning team or Modeshift STARS scheme which may hold this information Which education facilities in your area provide a dedicated bus service? Table 3 - Education data checklist Number of How many diferent stores? individual Type of retail (furniture, appliances, clothes, food)? retailers Numbers of How many employees? employees Are there part time employees? Peak time of day? Number of Weekday average number? visitors Weekend average number? Which education facilities in your area provide a dedicated bus service? Employees Is there a travel plan in place? travel needs Are there shift patterns? What are the peak travel periods? Is there fexible / agile working? Travel for work needs Visitor travel What is the modal split? needs Are there facilities in place to allow for all modes of travel (cycle parking, taxi drop of etc) Are there allowances for home delivery? Freight and Can freight and logistics movements be quantifed? Deliveries Have these movements increased? Table 4 - Retail (high streets, retail parks, shopping centres, supermarkets, markets etc) checklist
18 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Type of trip What is the purpose of the trip generator? generator Number of How many employees? Employees Are there part time employees? Number of Weekday average number? visitors Weekend average number? Peak time of day? Employees Is there a travel plan in place? travel needs Are there shift patterns? What are the peak travel periods? Is there fexible / agile working? Travel for work needs Visitor travel What is the modal split? needs Are there facilities in place to allow for all modes of travel (cycle parking, taxi drop of etc) Are there allowances for home delivery? Freight and Can freight and logistics movements be quantifed? Deliveries Have these movements increased? Table 5 - Large trip generator data checklist Public Transport Do you know the capacity of the public transport network in your area pre COVID-19? Such as the number of buses/trains/trams per hour serving each school Do you/ your local transport operators know the capacity of the public transport network in your area with the need to observe social distancing requirements? How likely are you to have a shortfall in capacity on public transport in your area when there will be peaks in demand? Do you understand the likely new level of demand on public transport, taking into account wider background changes in travel patterns such as home working? Highways Do you already know where road congestion normally occurs on your Network network? Do you have access to trafc counts, a highway trafc model that can tell you this information? Table 6 - Travel demand data checklist Communication Do you have dedicated Travel Demand Management and/or communications teams that already communicate travel messages? Are you engaging with education facilities across your local transport area to communicate about travel? Are you engaging with businesses and large trip generators and travel in your local transport area? Do you run any annual national / global events such as ‘European Mobility Week’? Are there any campaigns being led through partners such as public health? Table 7 - Travel campaigns data checklist
Mott MacDonald | 19 Understanding the transport users Set local objectives This step is also about understanding which It is advised that LTAs establish objectives, transport user groups (i.e. the audience) based on what the key local challenges are. need to adapt their travel behaviours to A key way to frame any local objectives will accommodate the increase in trips on the be to articulate what level of travel behaviour network. For example, is there a particular change is required, by whom, by what target in one area which can be associated mode, and when. For example reducing with congestion, are students the only background demand on the rail network by group that need to afect a change in the 30% to facilitate sport supporters attending traditional network peak, or do other groups a game before a match or reducing need to change behaviour as the economy background demand on the road network reopens, such as businesses? It may be by 30% during planned roadworks allowing that commuting trips on certain modes may for public transport to continue running to need to be reduced or retimed to increase schedule during the changes. This will help the capacity at school opening times to with developing the core narrative which allow students to get to education facilities will need to be communicated to diferent on time. Therefore, you should consider transport users (detailed in step 4) as well as what range of transport users may need to the monitoring and evaluation of your TDM change travel behaviours including: Plan (detailed in step 5). • Students, parents and staf; • Commuters; • Users requiring travel for other reasons To help you develop Step 1, please such as retail, leisure and health; and refer to Appendix B for some • Freight, deliveries and servicing illustrations of particular transport This will then enable you to start considering network disrupters that might be what messages may be appropriate for relevant to you and how to plan for these diferent users in step 4. them. – such as the phased return to work Have you thought about? Contacting marketing and communications teams early to keep them in the loop with fndings and develop a messaging and communications schedule.
20 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Key risks It is prudent to establish a risk register at • What measures are being rolled out locally this point, to capture the key risks which are already. likely to afect your LTA. This should be kept • What data gaps exist and can they be up to date throughout the duration of the addressed quickly and easily. TDM Plan. • Your key objectives to underpin the plan. Where Step 1 should lead you: • Completion of the frst part of your TDM • Understanding what parts of the transport Plan which will set out the size of the travel network will be over capacity – where behaviour change required in your LTA, there will be congestion hotspots at certain where, by whom, by what modes and what times, what public transport capacity issues times. will arise. Step 1 will lead to the development of the • Understanding which locations will be initial core narrative which forms the central afected - for example are there any ‘story book’ for the TDM plan. It builds on particular clusters where there are likely the main objectives, the main facts and to be particular concerns, or are there fgures that underpin these objectives particular public transport or road corridors and the framework for reaching the right that are heavily congested. solution. By having a core narrative, you • Understanding the background demand ensure that all stakeholders are aligned, and how other users could adapt their using the same messages. The data travel behaviours (e.g. commuters work collection step is the frst building block of from home or use alternatives). the core narrative. • Understanding who the key transport users are. Figure 6 - Five steps of the core narrative for a TDM Plan. First step is data collection.
Mott MacDonald | 21 Image showing vehicle trafc
22 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Image showing a rural bus stop
Mott MacDonald | 23 Step 2: Identify Possible Solutions
24 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Step 2: Identify Possible Solutions Figure 7 - The fve steps required for an efective TDM Action Plan with step 2: Identify possible solutions. In step 1 you have identifed the transport The Three Pillars of Travel Demand and travel issues that are likely to arise, Management the transport users that need to adapt their Figure 8 shows the three pillars for a travel behaviour, and what you need these successful TDM Plan (Capacity Creation, users to do diferently. This should be a Network Management and Behaviour quantifable level of mode shift or specifc Change). An efective TDM Plan should groups in specifc locations. include a range of solutions from each of Step 2 is about identifying the range of the three pillars. Without one or more of solutions that are available to achieve this these components TDM plans will be less mode shift, and to prioritise them. efective. The outcome of Step 1 is likely to show there will be some demands on the transport network that cannot be met, and a strain on operations to ensure compliance with COVID-19 restrictions. Solutions should be defned and implemented as soon as possible to test the efectiveness in alleviating problems in the build-up to the increased stress on the network. Solutions that infuence a number of target audiences’ travel can be implemented earlier to lock-in necessary behaviour change and release valuable capacity. You will need to plan ahead and develop a framework of transport solutions for a range of trip purposes, including: • Education (student, parents and staf) related travel • Workplace and employment related travel • Retail related travel Figure 8 - The Three Pillars of Travel Demand • Other major trip attractor / leisure related Management: Capacity Creation, Network travel Management and Behaviour Change • Travel related to freight, deliveries and servicing
Mott MacDonald | 25 A number of possible solutions under each public transport services over capacity, pillar have been identifed below. These then procuring DRT services may be solutions may well overlap and this is by appropriate to provide additional capacity. no means an exhaustive list – as you know your LTA and the likely issues, there could • Emergency Active Travel Measures – You be location specifc solutions which are most may have recently implemented a range suitable. of active travel emergency measures to facilitate the increase in active travel during lock-down and to enable social distancing 1.Capacity Creation in the street environment. Re-moding 50% of all trips under two miles from • Additional roadspace for Buses – public transport to cycling and walking Consider converting roadspace for may create needed capacity on the public dedicated bus lanes or extending the transport network. As such, additional hours of existing bus lanes (where capacity walking and cycling infrastructure that will allows). encourage people to walk and cycle more • Reserving capacity on public transport could be implemented. for students and staf – Work with public transport operators to reserve public transport capacity (for example, a particular Have you thought about? train carriage / bus service) at particular times of days when public transport Have you thought about partnering services are shown to be over capacity. with diferent departments, such as Public Health so TDM and travel can be • Work with public transport operators to incorporated into their initiatives and review routes and capacity – Work with outreach, especially, in this example, public transport operators to review routes with regards to active travel and determine whether additional services / routes could be put on or if existing routes can provide a more efective service. Consider if timetables can be amended to suit any shift patterns, school start or fnishing times or high demand on the network. Consider if additional services can be procured in the time frame and whether vehicle types are appropriate (for examples if single decker buses can become double decker buses). • Contracting additional coaches – If your data analysis is showing that there will be particular public transport services over capacity, then procuring additional coach capacity or repurposing vehicles on routes with lower demand may be appropriate. • Contract Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) services – If your data analysis is showing that there will be particular
26 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit 2. Network Management junction operation. • Temporary ticket and timetable changes • Public transport facilities management – After analysing your data, you may – Consider the management of facilities also fnd that you will need to work with at public transport stops and stations, local transport providers to revise their in particular. Additional space may be service plans and ticketing options, taking required for queuing at bus stops. into account the needs of passengers using public transport. For example • Temporary zebra crossing / crossing carnet ticketing options may need to be patrols –Consider the introduction of considered instead of season tickets, or additional crossing points or patrols to ‘part time’ direct debit discounts. Some of facilitate safe crossing in close proximity the questions to consider include whether to large trip generators, especially those you need to re-time existing services. Do where young people could travel. you need to re-route existing services? Do • Use of temporary trafc management you need additional services running in measures – This could include access certain areas or times? restrictions in certain areas for cars, HGVs • Low Trafc Neighbourhoods - An etc. to support public transport, active increase in car use is expected to be travel and low travel neighbourhoods. a consequence of social distancing, It could also include temporary signage particularly for longer journeys that cannot encouraging drivers to reroute or retime be accommodated on public transport journeys. or be made by walking and cycling. This may result in some pressure points around local neighbourhood facilities such as education sites and high streets. It may be appropriate to set up a vehicle exclusion zone around schools and implement ‘low trafc neighbourhood’ initiatives to restrict congestion and deter private car use. Could a Trafc Regulation Order (TRO) be put in place in time? If appropriate, ‘Park and Stride’ sites could be established to school. Could this also be set up near workplaces to avoid congested areas? • Trafc signals management – Review signal timing to consider increasing green time for public transport and active travel modes. Review signal management and Urban Trafc Control (UTC systems) for optimal network and junction operation. Signals management – Review signal timing to consider increasing green time for public transport and active travel modes. Review signal management and UTC system for optimal network and
Mott MacDonald | 27 3. Behaviour Change As part of your TDM plan, you should Have you thought about? consider developing the solutions in the context of the ‘Four R’s’ of travel behaviour Other complementary measures change (Reduce, Re-time, Re-Route and which would boost the confdence Re-mode), which was pioneered during in public transport use – such as the the London 2012 Olympics and is now a enhanced cleaning regimes in place standard principle of any TDM plan. Tailoring and enforcement of the wearing of face the type of behaviour change required coverings? around the Four Rs will help to refect on any locally specifc objectives you may need to achieve as well as being easy terminology for audiences to understand. A list of high-level solutions using the Four R’s approach is outlined in Tables 8-11. Depending on the issues you have identifed in Step 1, some of these solutions will be more appropriate than others. It is based on a core menu of options that TDM practitioners will be familiar with, alongside some specifc measures that refect travel in a post-COVID world. It is by no means exhaustive but helps to illustrate the range that could be applied where appropriate. It contains solutions that are benefcial to consider in depth for all settings, whilst others are more efective for specifc trip purposes. Figure 9 - The Four R’s, these are; Reduce, Re-mode, Re-time and Re-route.
28 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Action Employment Other Travel Generators Education Large Trip Related Related Travel Travel Retail Enable and encourage businesses to continue to No Yes No No No allow their staf to work from home Enable and encourage businesses to have remote No Yes No Yes Yes meetings via conference calls, web conferencing, video conferencing to avoid the need to travel Encourage and facilitate businesses to allow their No Yes No Yes Yes staf to work from a diferent location Encourage businesses to allow staf to work No Yes No No No compressed weeks (i.e. the same number of hours over four longer days) Encourage businesses to manage annual leave of No Yes No No No staf to coincide with the reopening of education facilities Encourage the rescheduling of non-essentials trips Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes until restrictions are further lifted Identify any deliveries that are not essential which Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes can be rescheduled after the restrictions are lifted Encourage talks with suppliers about fewer but larger Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes deliveries Collaborate with local establishments to combine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes deliveries Encourage the consolidation of non-perishable goods Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes to reduce the frequency of deliveries. Encourage establishments to recycle to minimise Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes waste and rubbish collections Table 8 - A list of high-level solutions using “Reduce” one of the Four R’s. Action Employment Other Travel Generators Education Large Trip Related Related Travel Travel Retail Identify whether businesses could encourage staf or No Yes Yes No No specifc operations to be temporarily relocated to less busy locations e.g. out of town ofces. Ofer travel planning advice to encourage Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes establishments to avoid busy locations Encourage options for ‘Park and Stride’ for those that Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes have to drive Keep the community updated on the latest Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes information and resources available to help them plan alternative routes on their journeys Encourage the identifcation of alternative locations Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for drop ofs and collections of deliveries Table 9 - A list of high-level solutions using “Re-route” one of the Four R’s.
Mott MacDonald | 29 Action Related Travel Related Travel Employment Other Travel Generators Education Large Trip Retail Encourage walking, scooting and cycling for those who Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes live within 2 miles of their trip destination Enable and encourage those to re-mode based on local Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes transport constraints Encourage the use of public transport options with high Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes capacity and ask the public to avoid those with low capacity Share information on the changes to public transport Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes with COVID-19 restrictions in place Make the public aware of the transport challenges that Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes they may face with COVID-19 restrictions in place Encourage transport users to avoid crowded locations, Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes by getting of at an earlier / later stop or / and walking the remainder of their journey Prioritise capacity on local transport for school travel at Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes key times Encourage provision of on-site facilities such as showers, Yes Yes No No No lockers and cycle parking to encourage walking and cycling Provide cycling or walking maps to encourage walking Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes and cycling Deliver cycle training / maintenance sessions to Yes Yes No Yes Yes encourage cycling Provide temporary loans of pool bikes Yes Yes No No No Encourage the use of local suppliers and support those Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes that use alternative travel modes such as cargo bikes. Encourage the use of delivery companies such as Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes bicycle couriers, which may fnd the restrictions easier to navigate Enable and encourage car sharing for those within the Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes same ‘social bubble’ if practical Table 10 - A list of high-level solutions using “Re-mode” one of the Four R’s.
30 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Action Related Travel Related Travel Employment Other Travel Generators Education Large Trip Retail Staggering start and fnish times for education Yes Yes Yes No No facilities – Education facilities may be already considering changing start and fnish times, but this could be an efective measure to alleviate any capacity constraints on the transport network to support reopening Encourage the alteration of core hours of operation to Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes times when the transport network is less constrained whilst ensuring needs are met Encourage those undertaking journeys during the Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes peak hours to stagger their trip start and fnish times Encourage trips to be scheduled at less busy Yes Yes No Yes Yes locations and times of day Encourage deliveries at quieter times Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Table 11- A list of high-level solutions using “Re-time” one of the Four R’s.
Mott MacDonald | 31 Try to follow the ‘EAST’ behavioural change Prioritisation framework (Easy, Attractive, Social and Timely) in identifying measures: The long-list of potential solutions could be extensive, and a straightforward exercise • Easy – keep measures simple and reduce would be to prioritise these on the basis of the hassle factor of choosing an option. locally specifc criteria, for example: • Attractive – attract attention through the • Level of behaviour change needed – use of images, colours and personalisation Consider which of the solutions will of communications, and create incentives address the level of behaviour change you where possible. need to achieve in your local area by mode and time. • Social – use social networks to engage and show that most people undertake the • Deliverability – Consider which of the desired behaviour. solutions can be delivered within the timeframe required. • Timely – Behaviour is generally easier to change when habits are already disrupted, • Reach – Consider how many individuals as is the case with social-distancing. You could be targeted. could also outline the immediate benefts that a change in behaviour can bring and • Infuence – Consider how many individuals help people plan their response to plans. could change their usual travel behaviour with the solution. Efective Travel Demand Management Plans • Cost – Consider whether the solutions are afordable and represent a good return on Figure 10 shows example solutions framed investment. around the three pillars and how they can overlap. Figure 10 - Three pillars of TDM and related example solutions.
32 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Where Step 2 should lead you We recommend that you determine and • Understanding the range of solutions prioritise which of the solutions can be available to your LTA delivered in advance the predicted stress on the network (e.g. those that will infuence • Understanding the prioritised shortlist of behaviour change around commuting solutions or package of solutions that are journeys and education journeys) rather than most appropriate for your area to address all of the measures going live on the date of the shortfall in capacity and when they can the return. Given the short time frames this be delivered. could be defned as: • A package of measures that are ready to • What needs to be delivered in advance of be communicated the disruption causing network stress (1 Completion of the next part of your TDM month prior) Plan, which includes confrmation of the • What needs to be delivered once the core measures that will deliver the level of disruption is underway behaviour change identifed in step 1 and continue to build towards the development of the core narrative. Figure 11 - Prioritisation of solutions. To help you develop Step 2, please refer to Appendix B for some illustrations of particular transport network disrupters that might be relevant to you and how to plan for them. – such as the relaxation of - COVID restrictions over the festive period.
Mott MacDonald | 33 Figure 12 - Five steps of the core narrative for a TDM Plan. Second step is development of the core narrative.
34 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Image showing a commuter cycling
Mott MacDonald | 35 Step 3: Implementing Solutions
36 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Step 3: Implementing Solutions Figure 13 - The fve steps for an efective TDM Action Plan - Implementation of Solutions. In the previous steps you will have • Business Intermediaries / Networks identifed and quantifed the specifc (business districts; business parks; local transport problems in your LTA that you enterprise partnerships); need to mitigate (step 1). You will have also identifed the types of solutions that will • Large employers; and be appropriate (step 2) to create additional • Adjacent Local Transport Authorities. capacity, improve the management of the transport network and other behaviour The duration of their involvement may be change solutions to infuence travel demand. dependent on the duration of the capacity Step 3 is focused on developing the issues on the transport network. implementation framework for the identifed Ongoing engagement with delivery solutions. partners Identifying the key stakeholders Setting up efective lines of communication The involvement of key delivery partners with these delivery partners is essential from an early stage is critical. They for the delivery of the required solutions, are pivotal to the implementation and and it is recommended that a stakeholder communication of any increased capacity, engagement plan is prepared to capture this. network management or behaviour change. It may also be appropriate to set up working This may include: groups for areas of specifc concerns comprised of these delivery partners. • Communication teams; The delivery partners will be crucial for • Education Facilities; disseminating the key messages developed • Local Authority departments – e.g. school in step 4 to the diferent transport users, / education transport, network compliance, your core narrative will ensure that these are health and safety, emergency planning, clear and consistent messages. active travel emergency measures The stakeholders will also be crucial for teams, TDM staf, Modeshift STARS understanding whether the solutions are team; business engagement; highways; having the desired efect on adapting travel development planning; behaviours (step 5). • Local bus operators; Have you thought about? • Education bus operators; Involving data analytics teams to the • Dedicated coach operators brought in to stakeholder sessions. Their insight deliver additional capacity; on the network will ensure that the • Rail operators; stakeholders are aware and can react quickly to network changes. • Walking and cycling organisations;
Mott MacDonald | 37 Deliver the Solutions Where Step 3 should lead you: Once you have identifed and engaged • Understanding who your delivery partners your delivery partners, you need to start are. implementing the solutions. • Establishing an efective engagement plan Contingency Planning with the delivery partners. It is advisable to establish a contingency • Ongoing engagement with the delivery plan with your delivery partners to plan partners throughout the duration of the out key actions that may need to be put TDM plan. in place to allow for additional resilience if issues arise. You should ensure there is • Establish a contingency plan with delivery not just enough capacity in the system but partners. also some additional resilience built in. For • Final key building block of the core example, bus operators could introduce narrative – agreement on the delivery duplicate buses (“hot spares”) on the system framework for your solutions that will help which can address any live crowding issues deliver the behaviour change needed. This if required. Working with neighbouring LTAs will include any new capacity or services may be particularly useful if there is any that have been made available. sharing of available capacity in the system. • At this stage you will also be working closely with your marketing and To help you develop Step 3, please refer communication colleagues to identify the to Appendix B for some illustrations of channels that can be used to communicate particular transport network disrupters to the travelling public. that might be relevant to you and how to plan for them. – such as the return of sporting events Figure 14 - Five steps of the core narrative for a TDM Plan. Third step is stakeholder buy in.
Image showing passengers on a bus
Mott MacDonald | 39 Step 4: Marketing, Communications and Engagement
40 | Mott MacDonald | Travel Demand Management Toolkit Step 4: Marketing, Communications and Engagement Figure 15 -The steps required for an efective TDM Action Plan - Marketing, Communications and Engagement. Alongside identifcation of the issues, Your Message solutions and delivery partners, as well as the development of your strategy and Your message needs to be clear and implementation of measures, you need to compelling and easy for the audience to communicate to the people in your area. understand and follow. There needs to be no To enable efective communication, the ambiguity with messages, and they should following needs to be identifed: ensure a single source of truth. Diferent messages will need to be developed for • Your Messages (Your Core Narrative); diferent audience groups based on the behaviour you want them to adopt, their • Your Audiences; travel habits and their inclination to respond • Your Communication Channels (Best way to certain message types. Messages need to communicate with the audience(s) you to be relevant and appropriate to the group, wish to reach); but it is important that there is continuity across the messages. • Your Communications Champions; and Diferent messages will need to be • Timing of Messages developed for diferent communication Once identifed, a Communications Plan channels based on the type and format of needs to be developed to ensure the right the message which the channel can support. audiences are reached at the right time, In developing your key messages for your with the right message using the correct TDM Plan, you should consider overarching channels so they can make the most Government guidance and messaging, appropriate decisions. This is where you including messages from the Safer Transport develop and disseminate the narrative to campaign (https://extranet.dft.gov.uk/ encourage people to change their typical or safertransport-campaign/). These will be intended behaviour. regularly updated so will be responsive to You will need to engage with your marketing any changes in Guidance. and communications team who will be able Key messages should also be focussed to support, guide and lead this step. on maintaining confdence in using public transport, supported by enforcement of the wearing of face coverings and enhanced Have you thought about? operator cleaning regimes. Engaging with other similar LTAs on Your Audience what TDM marketing campaigns they Diferent audience groups need to be have introduced? identifed, and you will have started to identify these in step 1. These are the people
Mott MacDonald | 41 you are trying to reach with your message. decide to use will vary depending on your Identifying them and understanding them audience, your message and availability of will help to prioritise communications and channels. help with creating messages that target and connect with specifc audiences, utilising Above the line: Broad Reach / Untargeted channels where they are most active. • Email Communications. Audience groups (and sub-groups) are likely to link to trip types and locations and may • Online (Website) Communications – Having include: a campaign site with a single source of truth to direct everyone to for further • Education related travel; information is critical. • Employment related travel; • Print Media / Traditional Advertising • Retail / Leisure related travel; – This can be printed messaging with publications such as local newspapers • Location specifc travel; or billboard advertising / posters (such as at public transport stops / stations). • Mode specifc travel; In addition, this could include printed • For mode specifc messages, they need to messages within existing publications reach those you are trying to infuence to / communications such as Council Tax use a new mode, as well as existing users; letters. These communications channels often require a lead in time and therefore • Deliveries and servicing related travel; and may be less appropriate in this context. • Everyone - some messages may be for all • Podcast / Radio advertising. audiences and therefore there should be a group encompassing everyone. Through the line: Social and Semi-targeted Bear in mind the that people are likely to be • Social Media – your LTA, LA and partners in more than one group. will have numerous – so feed them all. Your Communications Channels • Local Networks Communications – Trusted local networks such as business Diferent communication channels will intermediaries or neighbourhood networks need to be utilised to communicate your could be utilised. Using these networks message with diferent audience groups, in can be a good way of going to a few to order to reach as many people as possible. reach many. There are probably several appropriate communications channels for each audience • Stakeholder Communications – Utilise group. Many of the channels used will be stakeholders identifed in step 3 and their ones you already utilise and your marketing communication channels. and communications team are likely to be • Road Signage / Variable Messaging Sign able to advise on relevant communication (VMS). channels. Below the line: Targeted Potential communication channels are identifed below; however, this is by no Target communications through means an exhaustive list. Channels have stakeholders own specifc channels can be been split into: very important: • Above the line: Broad reach and largely Education facilities typically include website, untargeted; social media, newsletters, noticeboards, parent text alert system, staf (virtual) • Through the line: Social and semi-targeted; meetings and parents’ (virtual) meetings. and Induction days (if appropriate) and new • Below the line: Targeted. starter packs can be a good time to try to encourage specifc travel behaviours A combination of all three types should at the outset and take advantage of the be used. There are pros and cons to all fact that people are more likely to change communication channels and the ones you
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