A Review of Air Pollution and Solutions Way Management Related to Ribbed Smoked Sheets (RSS) Production of Community-Level Rubber Cooperatives in ...

A Review of Air Pollution and Solutions Way Management Related to Ribbed Smoked Sheets (RSS) Production of Community-Level Rubber Cooperatives in ...
Pollution, 6(2): 267-284, Spring 2020
DOI: 10.22059/poll.2019.290078.690
Print ISSN: 2383-451X       Online ISSN: 2383-4501
Web Page: https://jpoll.ut.ac.ir, Email: jpoll@ut.ac.ir

         A Review of Air Pollution and Solutions Way Management
           Related to Ribbed Smoked Sheets (RSS) Production of
       Community-Level Rubber Cooperatives in Thailand: Smoke, Soot
                            and PAHs particles
                                 Kalasee, W. * and Teekapakvisit, C.

           King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Prince of Chumphon
                Campus, 17/1 M.6 Pathiu District, Chumphon 86160, Thailand

          Received: 03.10.2019                                               Accepted: 18.02.2020

       ABSTRACT: In Thailand, RSS chamber of community-level rubber cooperatives can be
       classified into two models: old and new model, named after the years of their
       establishment. Hot gas as a heat supply from Para-rubber (PR) wood (Hevea brasiliensis)
       combustion is used for removing moisture from the natural rubber (NR) sheets. Smoke
       and soot particles from PR wood burning has effected to the quality of the NR sheet and
       the pollution in the workplace area and lead to health problems of the worker. Cascade
       impactors are equipment for measuring the smoke and soot particles size distribution
       from PR wood combustion. PAHs compounds from PR wood combustion were found 15
       different PAHs components (Tekasakul et al., 2005; Furuuchi et al., 2006). Important
       methods in decreasing smoke and soot particles from combustion of PR wood for rubber
       smoking chamber are separation equipment and ventilation designed by computational
       fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. In this article, the separation method is focused on
       smoke and soot particle collection to maintain the quality of the NR sheet. This
       equipment is reviewed both indoor and outdoor, for example, an impaction wall,
       electrostatic precipitator, stainless-wire, etc. This review indicates that the ESP installing
       between the furnace and the smoking chamber is suitable to eliminate aerosol particles at
       the rubber smoking industry. In addition, CFD technique reports is aimed at collecting
       aerosol particles for decreasing smoke and soot particles emission from rubber smoking
       chamber is presented.
       Keywords: Para-Rubber; wood combustion; Filtration; ESP; CFD.

INTRODUCTION                                               Thailand, PR wood has been immensely
Smoke, soot and polycyclic aromatic                         used in multitudinous industries (Promtong
hydrocarbons (PAHs) are produced by                         & Tekasakul, 2007; Kalasee, 2009;
biomass burning of dried and cured the                      Chaivatamaset,        2015).       Incomplete
agriculture product (Ravindra et al., 2006;                 combustion of PR wood results in the great
Wang et al., 2010), for example, ribbed                     emission of particles; smoke and soot;
smoked sheet (RSS). They were resulted                      (Furuuchi et al., 2006; Phairuang et al., 2019)
from the carbonaceous materials combustion                  and chemical compositions such as PAHs
(Kalasee et al., 2003; Deng et al., 2006).                  (Chomanee et al., 2009; Keyte et al., 2013;
   In Southeast Asian countries, especially                 Hata et al., 2014; Chaivatamaset, 2015).
                                                               Thailand is the biggest natural rubber
* Corresponding Author, Email: arwkalasee@gmail.com

Kalasee, W. and Teekapakvisit, C.

(NR) production and exportation country in                precipitator) are appropriate to use in the
Southeast Asian and the world. In year                    rubber smoking chambers (Tantichaowanan,
2016, Thailand produced natural rubber                    2005; Tekasakul et al., 2005; Tekasakul et
about 37.5% of the total world production                 al., 2006; Kalasee, 2009; Ruttanachot, et al.,
or about 4.5 million tons (Thailand Rubber                2011).
Research Institute, 2017). More than 85%                      Recently, CFD technique is used to
of NR products of Thailand are exported to                decrease smoke and soot particles emissions
China, Japan, USA and India. Generally,                   from the rubber smoking chamber to
NR products include vehicle tires, toys,                  environment. The modified ventilation
condoms, medical gloves (Kalasee, 2009;                   system which uses CFD technique
Matiyanon et al., 2013; Rattanamechaiskul                 simulation and experiment is in good
et al., 2016).                                            agreement. Smoke and soot particles
    Currently in Thailand, More than 90% of               ventilation would be pleasurably improved
NR products are RSS, rubber concentrated                  by appropriate roof ridge exit (Purba, 2009;
latex (RCL), and block rubber (Thailand                   Purba & Tekasakul, 2012). Thus, this review
Rubber Research Institute, 2018). Now, RSS                article focuses on the discussion of air
and RCL consumption are increased in                      pollutants (smoke, soot and PAHs) from PR
Thailand, Asia, and World. They are                       wood combustion in a NR sheet smoking
followed by increasing numbers of the                     process and the different techniques to
automotive industry. In RSS process, the                  decrease this effect.
rubber sheets are washed and hung on
bamboo bars to dry in the smoking                         Ribbed Smoked Sheets Chamber
chambers. Hot gas production from Para                    Ribbed smoked sheets (RSS) chamber of
rubber wood combustion is flowing to the                  community-level rubber cooperatives in
rubber in smoking chamber via the tunnel                  Thailand can be classified into two models
which is constructed under the floor of the               (old and new model), named after the years
chamber. When the wood is burned, the ash,                of their establishment. The old model so-
carbon, water vapor, smoke and soot                       called model 1994 contains seven rubber
particles are produced. Smoke and soot                    smoking chambers and each chamber has
particles from wood combustion affect to the              capacity 1.2-2.0 ton on a dried basis
workplace environment and can cause the                   (Kalasee et al., 2003; Promtong, 2006;
worker’s health problem. Study on the                     Choosong et al., 2010). The new model
characteristics of smoke and soot particles is            established in 1995. This model contains
necessary. The important characteristics of               four rubber smoking chambers and the
the study are the physical and chemical                   capacity of each chamber is double of the
properties. The physical properties of smoke              old chamber model capacity. The old
and soot particles from Para rubber wood                  chamber model has dimensions of 2.6 m
combustion can be divided into two                        width, 6.2 m length, and 3.7 m height. It is
characteristics; particles size distribution and          constructed of brick, mortar and cement. A
particles mass concentration. The chemical                steel gate is built in the front wall for
characteristics of smoke and soot particles               loading and unloading rubber. At the
from Para rubber wood combustion related                  ceiling of chamber, it has two ventilating
mainly to chemical constituents of particles              windows. Furnace is located at 0.5 m
such as PAHs and organic compounds. For                   below the floor and it is constructed in the
the smoke and soot particles collection                   rear of the chamber. Heat distributing
apparatuses, three techniques (filtration by              tunnels have 4 inch diameter and are built
stainless-wire mesh, inertial impaction                   in twelve positions at the floor level of the
(impaction       wall)     and      electrostatic         room. The bamboo bars are used to hang

Pollution, 6(2): 267-284, Spring 2020

the rubber sheets on a steel crate which has           groups (primary and secondary particles).
dimensions of 2.0 m width, 2.0 m length,               In the combustion zone, the primary form
and 2.0 m height. The old model can                    of combustion particles is occurred at high
contain three crates, but the new model can            temperature and the second form of
contain six crates. PR woods consumption               particles is discovering in the fuel gas,
is about 0.8-1.2 ton per ton of dried                  chamber, chimney and atmosphere.
products both old and new chambers                         The measurement of smoke and soot
(Kalasee, 2009; Choosong et al., 2010).                particles distribution from para-rubber wood
                                                       burning appliances is very challenging.
RSS Production Process and Monthly                     Many reports show that particles emissions
RSS Production Changes                                 from wood combustion on two main factors.
In the RSS production process, the raw                 The first is particles size distribution and the
material or fresh para-rubber latex; white             second is mass concentration.
liquid; is tapped and collected from Para-                 The particles size distribution measures
rubber tree. The membered farmers of                   an aerosol size that can be superseded by
rubber cooperative transport this latex to the         diameter (Friedlander, 2000; Butler &
RSS factory during 7 A.M.-11 A.M                       Mulholland, 2004; Riahi et al., 2013).
(Choosong et al., 2010; Kalasee et al., 2012;          According to Giechaskiel et al. (2014) report,
Matiyanon et al., 2014; Rattanamechaiskul              the particle size is determined based on
et al., 2016). During 8 A.M.-12.00 A.M.,               characteristics, e.g. inertia, optical properties.
this latex is poured to tanks which are                    Cascade impactors are apparatuses for
located near the chamber. Until 2 P.M.                 measuring the particles size distribution in
water and the acid such as formic and acetic           mass that operates based on the
is added to para-rubber latex. Aluminum                categorization of inertial of aerosol particles
spacers are immersed in this latex and used            (Davies, 1966; Hinds, 1999). They are the
as partitions to produce sliced slabs (around          most appropriate equipment to achieve the
3 cm × 50 cm × 50 cm) of solidify the latex            air quality measurements. These reports are
(tofu-like slabs). These slabs are then                described in both the European (Alonso et
washed and squeezed to form thin layer                 al., 2017; Kesavan et al., 2017), Asian
sheets which have a thickness about 3-4 mm             (Cheng et al., 2007) and Australian (Gras &
by a squeezing machine. Theses sheets are              Michael, 1979). The testing method is set in
hung on the bamboo bars which placed at                STP555, STP1002 and STP1287.
steel crate by the worker before they are                  One type apparatus of cascade
transferred to dry in a smoke chamber.                 impactors is Andersen air sampler
During the high season (December to                    (Andersen, 1956; Cheng et al., 2007; Hata
February), the capacity of the factory is              et al., 2014; Alonso et al., 2017; Kesavan
more than 15000 sheets per week and it has             et al., 2017). The Andersen sampler
capacity about 7000-11000 sheets per week              operates on the principle of inertial
during June to September (moderate                     impaction. In each stage, the sampler
season). This production is the lowest                 consists of a plate for collection surface
during the deciduous fall season (March to             and specification of nozzle arrangement.
May) because the most of farmers stopped               The sample air is flowed into the sampler
to tap the para-rubber trees (Choosong et al.,         through stage by stage. The total nozzle
2010).                                                 area and nozzle size decrease with the
                                                       stage from upstream to downstream. After
Particles Distribution and Particles
Sampling Method                                        the particles pass through a nozzle, the
Combustion particles from Para rubber                  particles that have diameter smaller than a
wood burning can be divided into two                   cut-off diameter of stage remain in the air

Kalasee, W. and Teekapakvisit, C.

stream sample and pass onto the next stage.              PR wood samples had moisture content
But the larger particles that have much                  ranging from 34.75 to 107.5% dry basis
sufficient inertia are collected at plate or             and the mass concentration of their
collection surface. In the analysis, the stage           combustion were 47 to 1358 mg/m3.
cut-off diameter or d50 is defined as the                    Investigated by Furuuchi et al. (2006), the
aerodynamic diameter at 50% cumulative                   characteristics of smoke and soot particles
oversize percentage of particles. It is used             from the Para rubber wood combustion had
to find the size distribution of particles               an impact on the workplace environment.
which is known as the mass median                        Their results of the smoke and soot particles
aerodynamics diameter (MMAD). The                        size distribution agreed with of Kalasee et
geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the                al., 2003 report. For inside the workplace,
particles is defined as (Hinds, 1999):                   their result showed that the particles
                                                         concentration was 0.33 mg/m3 and it was
        d84.1% d50%    d                                 higher than the acceptable limit by the
GSD                [ 84.1% ]1/2          (1)
        d50% d15.9%    d15.9%                            Thailand Department of Pollution Control.
                                                             In 2009, the study of Chomanee et al.
where d15.9 , d50 and d84.1 are the                      showed that the smoke and soot particles
diameters where cumulative oversize                      size distribution was similar to the results
percentage of particles are 15.9, 50 and                 from Kalasee et al. (2003). In their
84.1, respectively.                                      experiment, the air sampler was improved
    The normally used technique for appraisal            to prevent its condensation. Their report
particulate mass concentrations relates to               showed that MMAD and GSD are found to
filtration (Davies, 1966; Hinds, 1999; Murry,            be 0.68 micron and 3.04, respectively.
2000; Letts et al., 2003). Under controlled                  The studies of Hata et al. (2014)
relative     humidity      and     temperature           presented that the characteristics of
conditions, filters are weighed before and               particles emitted from the Para rubber
after testing. Particles mass concentrations             wood burning in a laboratory-scale (tubular
are calculated from the volume of gas                    electric furnace). Their results showed that
sampled and the filter mass increase.                    the increase of the heating rate had a
    In this section, the study of smoke and              relative influence to an increase of the total
soot particle characteristics from Para rubber           particles mass concentration emissions
wood combustion is reviewed. Many reports                from the Para rubber wood combustion.
of researchers are discussed as follows.                 For the graph relation between cumulative
    Kalasee et al. (2003) is the first report to         mass fraction and aerodynamic diameter of
study on smoke and soot particles                        the particles distribution from para-rubber
distribution from para-rubber wood                       wood burning in their results indicated that
combustion. The report showed that the                   MMAD and GSD were found to be about
smoke and soot particles size distribution               0.7 micron and 2.6, respectively. Their
was measured by an 8-stage cascade                       result was similar to the results from
(Andersen) sampler. Studied by Kalasee et                Kalasee et al., (2003); Chomanee et al.,
al. (2003), the particles size distribution              (2009).
was a single-model behavior. MMAD and
GSD of smoke and soot particles were                     PAHs Concentration
found to be 0.95 micron and 2.51,                        PAHs are organic compounds that consisted
respectively. The moisture content of the                of     hydrogen   and    carbon      atoms
Para rubber wood had effected on the mass                (Venkataraman et al., 2002; Tang et al.,
concentration of the smoke and soot                      2005; Choosong et al., 2007, Salaudeen et
particles. The result also showed that the               al., 2017). PAHs have toxic effects on the

Pollution, 6(2): 267-284, Spring 2020

function of cellular membranes (Fang et al.,           burning had a single modal size
2004; Adeola et al., 2007; Amuda &                     distribution. The decomposition of PAHs
Imeokparia, 2007) and can cause human’s                particles     from      the   rubber-woods
health problems, e.g. cancer. PAHs are                 combustion happening using Soft X-rays
emitted to an ambient air primarily from the           with a wave length of 1.3 × 10-4 to 4.1 ×
incomplete of fuel combustion, for example,            10-4 micron. The increased total energy of
petroleum      (Bharti     et     al.,   2019;         soft X-rays had a relative influence to
Motamedimehr et al., 2019) and wood                    increase the effective decomposition of
(Tekasakul et al., 2008; Chomanee et al.,              PAHs particles.
2009; Choosong et al., 2010; Hata et al.,                  Tekasakul et al. (2008) presented that
2014). Many reports are shown that the                 the size distribution of PAHs particles from
PAHs are precursors of smoke and soot                  Para rubber wood combustion in ambient
particle nuclei. Homann & Wagner (1966)                air around the rubber smoking factory had
and many researchers (Martinis et al., 2002;           a single-model behavior. During the dry
Venkataraman et al., 2002; Saez et al., 2003;          season, PAHs concentration in ambient air
Chao et al., 2008; Croft et al., 2016) studied         was higher than their concentration during
on PAHs components from an acetylene-                  the rainy season.
oxygen diffusion flame and their results                   Chomanee et al. (2009) presented that
showed that PAHs had two types of poly-                sixteen PAHs compounds from Para rubber
aromatic (PA) molecules. The first type of             wood combustion were able to be classified
PA molecular is compounds without side                 in two types: 2-3 rings and 4-6 rings.
chain      (acenaphthalene,       naphthalene,         Naphthalene,                Acenaphthylene,
phenanthrene and coronene) and the second              Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene and
one is PA compounds which have molecular               Anthracene are 2-3 rings of PAHs
weight of 150-500 or with side chain (Shin et          compounds, while the 4-6 rings PAHs are
al., 1988; Simonelt et al., 1991; Fenklach &           Fluoranthene, Pyrene, Benz[a]anthracene,
Wang 1991; Salaudeen et al., 2017;                     Chrysene,              Benzo[b]fluoranthene,
Mahmudi et al., 2019; Bharti et al., 2019).            Benzo[k]fluoranthene,        Benzo[a]pyrene,
    In this section, the reviewer studied              Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene,          Dibenz[a,h]
PAHs concentration from Para rubber                    anthracene, and Benzo[g,h,i]perylene. The
wood combustion. Many reports are                      increasing of time period of combustion has
discussed as follows.                                  a relative influence to decrease PAHs
    Tekasakul et al. (2005) and Furuuchi et            concentration.
al. (2006) showed that 15 different PAHs                   Investigated by Choosong et al. (2010),
components from the Para rubber wood                   the authors illustrated that wind direction,
combustion are found in the aerosol                    seasonal changes, the geometry of the oven
particles and ambient air at the workplace             and rubber smoking chamber building and
of RSS factory.                                        ventilation type has a relative influence to
    The report of Furuuchi et al. (2006)               change the particulate and PAHs
showed that the total PAHs particles                   concentrations from Para rubber wood
concentration from Para-rubber wood                    combustion. This report also depicted that
combustion was very high. For the soot                 PAHs concentrations in the ventilation
particle size larger than 3.3 micron, the              zone was higher than their concentrations
PAHs concentrations were smaller than 103              in the workplace.
ng/m3 while the concentration for smaller                  The report of Hata et al. (2014) had
particles was about 105 ng/m3.                         shown that the heating rate and the
    The report of Bai et al. (2007) showed             combustion temperature had a significant
that soot particles from Para rubber wood              effect on PAH emissions. The soot

Kalasee, W. and Teekapakvisit, C.

particles from Para rubber wood                           The collection efficiency of a filter
combustion that was smaller than 0.43                  decreases when the Pec increases and the
micron made a large contribution to PAHs.              Stk decreases. Thus, Stokes number (Stk)
                                                       can be defined as (Hinds, 1999)
Particles Collection Method
Now, there have been many techniques to                         Dp2u f C
                                                       Stk                                          (3)
catch the little particles, for example,                        9 d ws

                                                       where  is particle density, Dp is particle
filtration, cyclones separation, gravitational
settling, etc. However, the major techniques
are requiring a large space for installation.          diameter, C is Cunningham slip correction
The rubber smoking chamber is the wet                  factor, and  is viscosity (Davies, 1966;
areas. So, the installing various particles            Hinds, 1999).
collection apparatuses is constrained. The                During working period, the pressure
major reports show that there are only three           drop increasing has a relative influence to
techniques; filtration by stainless-wire mesh          decrease the filter (mesh) collection
(ASTM E11 & ISO 3310-1: 2016), inertial                efficiency (Letts et al., 2003). Thus, the
impaction (impaction wall) and electrostatic           pressure drop across filters (P) can be
precipitator (JB/T 12591-2016); which                  defined as (Davies, 1952):
appropriates for using at the rubber smoking
                                                                g uvg Ft
chambers (Kalasee et al., 2003; Docherty et            P 
                                                                 d   2                       
                                                                            64 Fs1.5 1  56 Fs3 
                                                                                                    (4)
al., 2005; Tantichaowanan, 2005; Kalasee,                            ws

2009; Ruttanachot, et al., 2011).                         In this equation, µg is the gas viscosity,
                                                       uvg is the face gas velocity, Ft is the
Filtration by Stainless-Wire Mesh
Because filtration by filters is simple to use         thickness of filter, and Fs is the filter
and effective, it is the most interest                 packing density.
particles collection technology in the                    Studied by Kalasee (2003), the author
present. Therefore many researchers have               showed that the plate of mesh #200 wires-
studied appropriate filter materials for               stainless is installed on the frame above the
removing smoke and soot particles from                 floor of the rubber smoking chamber. This
wood combustion for filtration method.                 report showed that the particles collection
Large particles from the Para rubber wood              efficiency of this apparatus is about 50%
burning are collected by a stainless-wire              and the pressure drop is higher than 200 Pa
mesh by inertial impaction method at a                 at an initial velocity value of 28 cm/s. The
high velocity while the small particles are            results of this report were similar to the
removed from hot gas by Brownian                       results       from       Sirisantipong     &
diffusion method (Sippola, 2002; Kalasee,              Tantichaowanan (2002).
2009; Sippola & Nazaroff, 2010). The                   Inertial Impaction
parameters      involved     in     Brownian           Inertial impaction or impaction wall is an
diffusion and inertial impaction are                   uncomplicated        particle     collection
Peclet number (Pec) and Stokes number                  technique. For the rubber smoking factory,
(Stk). Where u f is the filtration velocity,           the flat plate is installed in the tunnel
dws is the stainless-wire mesh diameter, and           between a furnace and the rubber smoking
DB is the particle Brownian diffusivity.               chamber. The principle of this technique is
Thus, Peclet number (Pec) is given by                  the large particles which are unable to pass
                                                       through a nozzle. These particles are
        u f d ws                                       clashed with a flat plate because they have
Pec                                      (2)

Pollution, 6(2): 267-284, Spring 2020

too many the inertial forces (Hinds, 1999;                                a stove and the rubber smoking room. This
Kalasee, 2009).                                                           report showed that the soot particles from
   According to the method, the                                           para-rubber wood combustion size in 3.3 to
dimensionless number which is described                                   4.7 micron size range were caught by a flat
to the behavior of particles suspended in                                 zinc plate. The impaction system was
airflow is Stokes number (Stk) and it can                                 shown in Fig. 1. In this system, the
be defined as (Hinds, 1999)                                               impaction wall has the length (liw) of 150
                                                                          cm and height (hiw)of 60 cm. A hot gas
         Dp2UC
Stk                                                          (5)         flow in the throat tunnel (stopping
         9W                                                              distance) was like as a rectangular
   In this equation, U is an air velocity in                              acceleration nozzle. The length (lth) and
throat, and W is a width of throat. The slip                              width (Wth) of this throat were 30 cm and
correction factor can be calculated from                                  60 cm, respectively. The stopping distance
(Hinds, 1999)                                                             (Sd) was 30 cm. The ratio of Sd / wth was
                                   0.390 
                                                                          0.5. Hence, the value of Stokes number in
         Dp                   (           )
C  1        (2.34  1.05e
                                               )              (6)         theory for the stopping distance was 0.5
                                                                         (Hinds, 1999). The range of velocity values
   This equation should be placed when C                                  of hot gas flowing in this throat tunnel was
                                                                          200-500 cm/s. The result of this report
appears first time and  is a mean free
                                                                          showed that the dust-loading had no
path in air molecule.
                                                                          influence to the collection efficiency and it
   Studied by Kalasee (2009), the
                                                                          was similar to the results from Phonchat &
apparatus (inertial impaction or impaction
                                                                          Choowijit (2011).
wall) in his research was a flat zinc plate.
A plate was installed in the tunnel between

                                       Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the impaction system

Kalasee, W. and Teekapakvisit, C.

Electrostatic Precipitator                              qe is the particle charges, and it can be
Many researchers have proposed many                     calculated from (Hinds, 1999)
methods to improve the collection
efficiency of electrostatic precipitator                qe  ne                                                   (9)
(ESP) and electrode cleaning mechanisms
                                                        where e is the electrical charges, and n is
for removal of soot particles from wood
                                                        the number of charge, and it can be
combustion (Kalasee et al., 2003; Intra et
                                                        calculated from (Hinds, 1999)
al., 2005; Kocik et al., 2005;
Tantichaowanan, 2005; Tekasakul et al.,                 n  n fc  ndc                                           (10)
2005; Tekasakul et al., 2006; Intra et al.,
2007; Kalasee 2009; Intra et al., 2010; Lin                In this equation, nfc is the number of
et al., 2011; Ruttanachot et al., 2011; Ma et           field charging, and ndc is the number of
al., 2016; Lin et al., 2018). Firstly, ESP is           diffusion charging. White (1951) has been
installed in the 4 inch diameter tube which             developing the equation of Fuchs (1947).
is built in twelve positions at the floor level         In order to calculate the charging rate
of the room. ESP installation in the rubber             expression can be described by a
smoking room is very dangerous because                  differential equation of White (1951) as
ESP works under an electric system, rubber              given by
smoking chamber has wetting area from
                                                        dndc                        n e2
rubber sheet dehydration and the                               r 2Ci Ni .exp( Kcc dc )                        (11)
knowledge of worker is rather low. Thus,                 dt                          rkT
ESP is installed in the tunnel between a                    In this equation, t is the charging time, r
furnace and the rubber smoking chamber in               is the particle radius, Ci is the average ion
the present rather than installed ESP in the            thermal velocity, Ni is the ion
rubber smoking room.                                    concentration, Kcc is Coulomb constant, k
    ESP has high collecting efficiency for a            is Boltzmann constant, and T is the
small particles and its pressure drop is low            temperature. The integrated of the above
(Kim & Lee, 1999; Tanaka, 2003; Tanaka,                 equation can be given by
2006; Long & Yao, 2010; Zhao et al.,                    ndc                             t
                                                                                        r 2Ci Ni dt
2017). Collecting efficiency of ESP (µ) can
be defined by using the Deutsch-Anderson                                   ndc e2                                (12)
                                                              exp( K cc          )     0
equation (White, 1963; Kihm, 1987; Hinds,                                  rkT
                                                           Thus, the number of diffusion charging
                AcsVpm                                 (ndc) caused by the diffusion charging time
  1  exp[              ]                (7)          by the particle diameter (Dp) can be
                                                        calculated from
   In this equation, Qg is the air flow rate,                    Dp kT         Ni tKcc Dp Ci e2 
Acs is the collection surface area, Vpm is the          ndc              ln 1                                (13)
                                                                 2 K cc e2         2kT          
particle migration velocity, and it can be
calculated from                                           For the number of field charging (nfc),
       qe E f Cs                                        and it can be given by
Ve                                        (8)
       3a Dp                                                  3   Dp E f    Ni tKcc Zi e 

                                                        n fc                                              (14)
                                                                  2   4 K cc e   1   Ni tKcc Zi e 
where Ef is the electric field strength, Cs is
the slip correction factor, µa is the air                  In this equation, α is the particle
viscosity, Dp is the particle diameter, and             dielectric constant, and Zi is the ion
                                                        electrical mobility.

Pollution, 6(2): 267-284, Spring 2020

   For the number of ion concentration                          reports of researchers are discussed as
(Ni), it can be given by (Intra &                               follows.
Tippayawong, 2011)                                                 Investigated by Tantichaowanan (2005)
           I ac dec                                             and Tekasakul et al. (2006), the authors had
Ni                                                (15)         shown that the ESPs could be employed to
         ZiVe  hte
                                                                remove smoke and soot particles from Para
    In this equation, dec is the equivalent                     rubber wood combustion. In the laboratory,
cylindrical radius, Ve is the voltage of                        the ESPs were suitable for use at the high
discharge electrode, µ is the gas velocity, h                   available voltage supply, which was constant
is the height of the collection electrode, Iac                  at 15 kV. In a field experiment, the twelve
is the average corona current, and it can be                    ESPs units of their design were installed in
given by                                                        the rubber smoking chamber and each of
                                                                them was operated at 30 minute periods
           LhZi 0
I ac 
                d 
                         V V  V  
                           e    e    c
                                                                when the fresh PR wood was burned. The
         s c ln  ec                                           total time of the ESPs was operated about 10
                 r0                                           hours and the collecting efficiency of the
                                                                ESPs was higher than 40%.
   In this equation, L is the length of the
                                                                   In 2009, Kalasee proposed new ESPs to
collection electrode, α0 is the free-space
                                                                improve the design by Tantichaowanan
permittivity, Vc is the corona onset voltage,
                                                                (2005) and Tekasakul et al. (2006). In
S is a half of the gap between collection
                                                                order to decrease the danger of the
electrodes, C is a half of the distance
                                                                installation and usability, the ESPs are
between wire electrodes, and r0 is the
                                                                installed in the tunnel between a stove and
radius of the discharge electrode.
                                                                the rubber smoking room. This report
   For the equivalent cylindrical radius
                                                                showed that ESPs were operated longer
(dec), it can be given by (Parker, 1997)
                                                                than 120 hours and the collecting
                             s                              efficiency of the ESPs was higher than
d ac   2c   0.18exp  2.96   For
                            2c                              50%. The result was similar to the results
                                                   (17)         from Kuarsakul et al. (2011).
0.3      1.0                                                      The report of Kim et al. (2010)
                                                                presented that CFD technique was
   For the corona onset voltage (Vc), it can                    appropriate to study and simulate the
be given by                                                     aerosol distribution in the ESP system. The
               d                                              recommendation of this report was shown
Vc  r0 Eoc ln  ac                               (18)         that simulation of the galvanic field and
                r0                                            space charge distributions of ESP system
where Eoc is the corona onset electric field,                   was designed by the change of plasma
and it can be given by                                          region.
                                                                   An investigation by Ruttanachot et al.
                0.864 x105                                    (2011) is improved ESPs technique of the
Eoc    32.2                                   (19)
                    r                                        earlier design by Kalasee (2009). Their
                     0                                        ESPs contain fifteen collection plate
where β is the density of gas.                                  electrodes. The cleaning system has water
   In this section, the review of the study                     spray from a half of inch PVC pipes. The
of the collecting efficiency of smoke and                       collecting efficiency of ESPs is higher than
soot particle from Para rubber wood                             60%. After ESPs was operated 120
combustion by ESP is presented. The                             minutes, the cleaning system is used to

Kalasee, W. and Teekapakvisit, C.

clean the collection plate electrodes for a            conservation for a steady incompressible
life of ESP extending.                                 flow can be given by
    The report of Park et al. (2018)                    
presented that the k–ε model (standard                     (  ui )  0                                    (20)
model of CFD technique) based on Finite
Volume Method and the Lagrangian                       where  is the density, ui' is the velocity
approach with the dynamic of particle
charging were used to study the corona
                                                          The differential equations for the
discharge model of ESP to solve the
                                                       conservation of momentum can be written
turbulent air flow and the motion and
charging of aerosol particles in the ESP.
This result showed that the differences in                                 p 
                                                           (  ui u j )      
size, relative permittivity and density had            xi                  xi x j
the highest effect on the particle charging,                                                               (21)
                                                           u u j
the particle trajectory and the ESP                    [ ( i      )   ui'u 'j ]   gi B(T  T ref )
collecting efficiency.                                     x j xi

Computational           Fluid     Dynamics             where u is the mean velocity components
Technique                                              (u, v, w), µ is the fluid viscosity. Here, xi is
In the present, the CFD technique is utilized          the coordinate axis (x, y, z), gi is the
to investigate aerosol concentration, flow             gravitational acceleration vector, p is the
patterns, and particle motion (Loomans et al.,         pressure, B is the thermal expansion
2002; Kanaoka et al., 2006; Zhang et al.,              coefficient, T is the mean temperature, and
2006; Park et al., 2018; Rigopoulos, 2019).            T ref is the system surrounding temperature
CFD methods can be divided into two major              is used in work (the reference temperature).
groups: accelerated methods and convention                 The energy equation can be given by
methods. The accelerated methods are then
divided into two major groups: Hardware                                  T
                                                           (  uiT )     [         u 'jT ' ]            (22)
techniques and Advanced Numerical                      xi             xi Pn xi
Methods. For convention methods, Finite
Volume Method (FVM), Finite Difference                 where Pn is the Prandtl number, T ' is the
Method (FDM), Finite Element Method                    temperature fluctuation. The terms   ui'u 'j
(FEM), and Spectral Methods are the most
popular methods. This methods are most                 and   u 'jT ' are called the Reynolds stress
highly accurate, widely used and normally              (ij) and the diffusion term for the enthalpy,
tend to use in most of the commercial                  respectively. The determination of these
software packages, such as ANSYS CFX,                  terms requires extra equations, which based
FLUENT, FLOVENT, STAR-CD and                           on the proposed by Boussinesq (1877).
FEMLAB.                                                    The standard k- model is the most
   The Navier-Stokes equations either in               widely used for modelling and simulation a
Lagrangian approach or in Eulerian are                 variety of practical engineering flow. In
used to solve in most of the CFD methods               this model, the kinetic energy of turbulence
(FVM, FDM, FEM and Spectral Methods).                  (k) equation is given by
These equations are described in the
conservation of mass, momentum and                         (  ui ) 
energy. However, some methods solve the                xi
Boltzmann equations instead of Navier-                   k        
Stokes equations.                                         [    (   tb )]  S p  B p  
                                                       xi xi      k
   The continuity equation describing mass
Pollution, 6(2): 267-284, Spring 2020

   In the standard k- model, the                                 In this equation, a is the density of air,
dissipation rate () equation is given by                      Mf is the mass fraction of smoke aerosol
                                                               particles, Va is the velocity of air, Ji is the
                       
    (  ui )     [    (   tb )]                            local flux for i component, and it can be
xi            xi xi                                       calculated from
                                  2
C1       ( S p  C2 B p )  C3                                                   M f
     k                             k                           J i   tb  a Dco                             (29)
                                                                      Sch          xi
where µtb is the turbulent viscosity and it is
calculated from                                                where µtb is the turbulent viscosity, Sch is
                                                               the Schmidt number, and Dco is the
tb   Cu                                        (25)         diffusion coefficient.
                                                                  When smoke aerosol particles flowing
   The model constants, proposed by                            are assumed to be continuous. The
Launder and Spalding (1974), are Cu=                           trajectory of smoke aerosol particle can be
0.09, C1= 1.44, C2= 1.0, C3= 1.92, k= 1.0                     known by representing them in the discrete
and  = 1.217, respectively.                                  phase The trajectory of particles phase is
   In equation (23),  is the destruction                     predicted by integration of the force
rate, Sp is the shear production and it is                     balance on this particle, which is calculated
calculated from                                                by a Lagrangian frame of reference (Tian
                                                               et al., 2007; Rigopoulos, 2010; Donde et
              ui ui ui                                      al., 2013; Raman & Fox, 2016). This force
S p  tb         (        )                     (26)
              x j x j xi                                    balance equates the particle inertia with the
                                                               forces acting on the particle. So, it can be
   In equation (23), Bp is the buoyancy                        presented for the x direction in the
production term and it is calculated from                      Cartesian coordinates, the force balance is
                                                               calculated from
              ui ui ui
Bp  tb          (        )                     (27)                                       gi   p   a 
              x j x j xi                                    dVpi
                                                                        FDi Va  Vpi                        (30)
                                                                dt                                 p
    In the presence of the theory involved in
smoke aerosol particles transport, the only                    where Vpi is the velocity of particle, gi is
of particulate phase of smoke aerosol is a                     the gravitational acceleration vector, p is
very small fraction (less than 0.0001%) of                     the particle density, FDi is the drag force,
its total mass and volume. Bulk properties                     and it is calculated from
of smoke aerosol differ imperceptibly from                             3 g Re CD
those of pure air. So, one must adopt a                        FDi                                             (31)
                                                                         4  p Dp2
microscopic point of view in the study of
the properties of smoke aerosols (White,                       where µg is the velocity of air, Dp is the
1963; Kihm, 1987; Hinds, 1999).                                particle diameter, Re is the Reynolds
    By assuming smoke aerosol particle-                        number, CD is drag efficiency, and it can be
laden air is a fluid with the density of air.                  given by (Haider & Levenspiel, 1989)
Diffusion of smoke aerosol particles is
determined by the convective diffusion                         CD 
                                                                       24 1  1 Re 2       3 Re
equation and it is given by (Kanaoka et al.,                                   Re              4  Re
                                                                  In this equation, β1, β2, β3, and β4 is the
                                  J
    a M f  
                     aVa M f    i
                                                               constant value and the Reynolds number
                                                               (Re) is written as

Kalasee, W. and Teekapakvisit, C.

       a Dp Vpi  Va                                 wood combustion. The study of particles
Re                                     (33)          concentration distribution on modification
            g                                        of the rubber smoking chamber by CFD
                                                      technique field is very interesting in the
    Lu et al. (1996) described the CFD
technique using a single phase to represent
the aerosol particle and air flow. Air                CONCLUSION
continuity was used to calculate the set of           This review focuses on literature findings
equations for the control volumes and                 concerning RSS chamber of community-
Lagrangian method was employed in the                 level rubber cooperatives in Thailand, RSS
tracking model of particles.                          production process and monthly RSS
    Purba & Tekasakul (2012) presented that           production change, Particles size distribution
CFD technique was used to examine                     and particles sampling method, PAHs
temperature, velocity, smoke and soot                 concentration,     the particles separation
particles concentration, and particles                apparatuses reports and the decrease of the
trajectories in the rubber smoking chamber.           quantity smoke and soot particles by
The resulting figures such as pressure,               ventilation designed by computational fluid
temperature, particle path lines and                  dynamics (CFD) technique. The following
streamline contours are also referred to the          are the conclusions and recommendations
authors or the publication (Particulate               from the review:
Science and Technology). The high particles              - RSS chamber of community-level
concentration occurred above the ceiling              rubber cooperatives in Thailand can be
areas. However, the particles concentration           classified into two models: old and new
was decreased along the height in a                   model. The capacity of each chamber of
downward direction. The smoke and soot                new model (1995) is double in capacity of
particles concentration was largely decreased         old model (1994).
by a modified ridge vents increasing at roof             - Fresh rubber latex is poured to tanks.
of the rubber smoking chamber.                        Water and the acid are added to para-
    The report of Dejchanchaiwong et al.              rubber latex to solidify the latex (tofu-like
(2017) has presented that a new rubber                slabs). These slabs are then washed and
smoking chamber was constructed by the                squeezed to form thin layer sheets which
designed and simulated model of                       have a thickness about 3-4 mm by a
Tekasakul & Promtong (2008). The                      squeezing machine. Theses sheets are then
resulting figures; hot air velocity and               hung on a cart and they are dried in a
temperature contours; are also referred to            smoke chamber by hot gas from PR wood
the authors or the publication (Applied               combustion. During the high season, the
Thermal Engineering). Although, the Para              capacity of the factory is more than 15000
rubber wood consumption, the uniform                  sheets per week and it has capacity about
temperature and hot air velocity, and                 7000-11000 sheets per week during the
reduction of drying time are the main                 moderate season (Choosong et al., 2010).
objective of this research. But the indirect             - In the rubber smoking factory, smoke
benefit of this research is the reduction of          and soot particles from PR wood
smoke and soot particles from Para rubber             combustion contribute to pollution in the
wood combustion by hot air reusing.                   industry area, workplace and neighboring
    Recommendation of this review, CFD                atmosphere. Smoke, soot, and PAHs
technique is very interesting method to               concentration is very high for the furnace,
improve the rubber smoking chamber. The               chamber      and     workspace.      Cascade
CFD technique can be used to decrease                 impactors such as Andesen sampler are
aerosol concentration from Para rubber

Pollution, 6(2): 267-284, Spring 2020

equipment for measuring the smoke and                   CFD technique can be used to decrease the
soot particles size distribution from para-             Para rubber wood consumption, energy
rubber wood combustion. MMAD and                        decreased by a uniform velocity and
GSD of smoke and soot particles were                    temperature in the smoking chamber
found to be 0.95 micron and 2.51,                       (Promtong & Tekasakul, 2007; Tekasakul &
respectively (from Kalasee et al., 2003                 Promtong, 2008; Tanwanichkul et al., 2013;
report). But the report from Chomanee et                Dejchanchaiwong et al., 2014; Tekasakul et
al., 2009 presented that MMAD and GSD                   al., 2015; Dejchanchaiwong et al., 2016 and
were found to be 0.68 micron and 3.04,                  Dejchanchaiwong et al., 2017).
respectively after improvement the air                      This review would be very helpful to
condensation.                                           the scientists and researchers who are
    - PAHs are emitted to an ambient air                learning and working on a field in the
primarily from the incomplete of fuel                   aerosol technology, the reduction of smoke
combustion. PAHs had two types of poly-                 and soot particles and PAHs concentration
aromatic (PA) molecules: with and without               from Para rubber wood combustion, and
side chain. PAHs compounds from Para                    improving the rubber smoking chamber by
rubber wood combustion were found 15                    CFD technique.
different PAHs components (Tekasakul et
al., 2005; Furuuchi et al., 2006) and then              Conflict of Interest
able to be classified in two types: 2-3 rings           The authors declare no conflict of interest.
and 4-6 rings (Chomanee et al., 2009).
    - Three aerosol collecting techniques;              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
                                                        The authors thank King Mongkut’s
filtration by stainless-wire mesh, inertial
                                                        Institute of Technology Ladkrabang
impaction (impaction wall) and ESP; are
                                                        (KMITL), Prince of Chumphon Campus
installed to remove the smoke and soot
                                                        for giving an opportunity on this research.
particles from the Para wood burning. This
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