Instruction Manual Model MAC-51Bx Magnetic and Dual-Frequency Pipe and Cable Locator - Manufactured by Schonstedt Instrument Company 4 Edmond Road ...

 
Instruction Manual

                     Model MAC-51Bx

                Magnetic and Dual-Frequency
                  Pipe and Cable Locator

                            Manufactured by
                     Schonstedt Instrument Company
                            4 Edmond Road
                        Kearneysville, WV 25430

                       Telephone: (304) 725-1050
                           Fax: (304) 725-1095

February 2000
TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                           Page
Section I General
       Introduction                                                         1-1
       Magnetic (MAG) Locating Mode                                         1-1
       Cable/Line Tracing (HI/LO) Locating Modes With Fault Locating        1-1
       Standard Accessories                                                 1-2
       Optional Inductive Signal Clamp                                      1-2
       Specifications                                                       1-3

Section II Magnetic Locator Operation
       Theory of Operation                                                  2-1
       Mode Selection and Gain Setting                                      2-2
       Low Gain Operation                                                   2-2
       High Gain Operation                                                  2-3
       Search Procedure                                                     2-3

Section III Magnetic Locating Mode Application Notes
       Basic Signal Patterns                                                3-1
       Strongly Magnetized Markers                                          3-2
       Locating Manholes, Septic Tanks and Water Wells                      3-3
       Locating Items Under Snow or Water and Tracing Barbed Wire           3-4
       Searching Areas Along a Chain Link Fence                             3-5
       Locating Valve Boxes                                                 3-6
       Locating Cast-Iron Pipes                                             3-6
       Locating Steel Drums                                                 3-7
       Additional Applications                                              3-7
       Other Notes                                                          3-7

Section IV Cable and Line Tracing
       Theory of Operation                                                  4-1
       Transmitter, Turn-On and Battery Check                               4-2
       Inductive Signal Coupling (For HI and LO Modes)                      4-3
       Conductive Signal Coupling (For HI and LO Modes)                     4-3
       Inductive Signal Coupling With Signal Clamp (For HI Mode Only)       4-4
       Mode Selection                                                       4-4
       Gain Settings for Tracing a Cable or Line                            4-5
       Cable Tracing (HI Mode) Using Inductive Coupling                     4-5
       Conductively Applied Tracing Signals (For HI and LO Modes)           4-6

Section V Cable and Line Tracing Application Notes
       Inductive Signal coupling for Cable/Line Tracing in the High Mode    5-1
       Conductive Coupling for Cable and Line Tracing in HI Mode            5-1
       Conductive coupling for Cable and Line Tracing in the LO Mode        5-2
       Dealing with Clutter Signals (HI Mode)                               5-3
       Single-Lobe Identification (HI Mode)                                 5-3
       Bends and Junctions (HI and LO Mode)                                 5-4
       Signal Spreading (HI Mode)                                           5-4
       Magnetic (MAG) Mode Aids in Interpreting Ground Clutter              5-4
       Isolators and Signal Path Continuity (HI Mode)                       5-5
       Isolators and Inductive Excitation (HI Mode)                         5-5
       Isolators and Conductive Excitation (HI and LO Modes)                5-6
       Determining Target Depth by Triangulation                            5-7

Section VI Maintenance
       Replacement of Receiver Batteries                                    6-1
       Replacement of Transmitter Batteries                                 6-1
       Receiver Troubleshooting Guide                                       6-3

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                 i
Transmitter Troubleshooting Guide                                                                              6-3
         Service Information                                                                                            6-3
         Warranty                                                                                                       6-6

                                                 LIST OF FIGURES
Figure    Title                                                                                                    Page

1-1      MAC-51Bx Magnetic and Dual Frequency Pipe and Cable Locator                                                    1-1
2-1      Detecting Magnetic Field of an Iron Marker                                                                     2-1
2-2      Normal Range Gain Setting                                                                                      2-2
2-3      Low Range Gain Setting                                                                                         2-3
2-4      High Range Gain Setting                                                                                        2-4
3-1      Signals from Vertical and Horizontal Targets                                                                   3-1
3-2      “X” Pattern Provides Precision Locating                                                                        3-1
3-3      Raising the Locator Eliminates Unwanted Signals                                                                3-2
3-4      Signal Pattern From a Strongly Magnetized Marker                                                               3-2
3-5      Locating Manhole Covers                                                                                        3-3
3-6      Locating Well Casings                                                                                          3-3
3-7      Signal Pattern Provided by Septic Tank Handles                                                                 3-3
3-8      Locating Objects under Snow or Water                                                                           3-4
3-9      Tracing Barbed Wire from Old Fence Lines                                                                       3-4
3-10     Searching in the Vicinity of a Chain Link Fence                                                                3-5
3-11     Placement of Locator                                                                                           3-5
3-12     Locating Valve Boxes                                                                                           3-6
3-13     Signal Pattern Provided by Cast-Iron Pipes                                                                     3-6
3-14     Signal Pattern Provided by Steel Drums                                                                         3-7
4-1      Transmitter and Receiver Placement                                                                             4-1
4-2      Signal Pattern from HF/LF Tracing Signals                                                                      4-2
4-3      Transmitter Features                                                                                           4-2
4-4      Transmitter Operating Positions                                                                                4-3
4-5      Transmitter Hookup For Conductive Coupling                                                                     4-3
4-6      Inductive Signal Clamp Hookup                                                                                  4-4
4-7      Gain Setting for Normal Range                                                                                  4-4
4-8      Null Shape Versus Gain Setting                                                                                 4-5
4-9      Inductively Coupled Tracing Signals                                                                            4-6
4-10     Conductively Applied Tracing Signals                                                                           4-6
5-1      Inductive Coupling Setup                                                                                       5-1
5-2      Conductive Coupling Setup                                                                                      5-2
5-3      Conductive Coupling for Break Locating                                                                         5-2
5-4      Repositioning Transmitter to Reduce Interference                                                               5-3
5-5      Single Lobe Identification Technique                                                                           5-3
5-6      Identification of Bends and Junctions                                                                          5-4
5-7      Shorting Wire in Place to Bypass an Isolator                                                                   5-5
5-8      Pedestal with Grounding Clip Installed                                                                         5-6
5-9      Pedestal with Ground Wire Removed                                                                              5-6
5-10     Determining Target Depth by Triangulation                                                                      5-7
6-1      Exploded view of Receiver Electronic Unit                                                                      6-1
6-2      Replacement of Transmitter Batteries                                                                           6-2
6-3      MAC-51Bx Receiver Repair Parts                                                                                 6-4
6-4      MAC-51Bx Transmitter Repair Parts                                                                              6-5

                                                    Important Notice

    Schonstedt believes the statements contained herein to be accurate and reliable. But their accuracy, reliability,
    or completeness is not guaranteed.

   Schonstedt’s only obligation shall be to repair or replace any instrument proved to be defective within three years
   of purchase. Schonstedt shall not be responsible for any injury to persons or property, direct or consequential,
   arising from the use of any instrument.
Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                             ii
Section I
                                                        General
Introduction

The all purpose MAC-51Bx Magnetic and Dual-Frequency Pipe and Cable Locator is the only underground locator that
combines magnetic locating (for iron and steel objects) with dual-frequency cable/line tracing into one compact system.
The system consists of two major units: a dual-frequency (LF and HF) transmitter and a three-mode receiver (MAG, LO
and HI). The transmitter operates up to 60 hours on eight alkaline C-cell batteries; the receiver up to 120 hours on two
9-volt lithium batteries.

                      Figure 1-1. MAC-51Bx Magnetic and Dual-Frequency Pipe and Cable Locator

Magnetic (MAG) Locating Mode

The receiver is the only unit for operation in the Magnetic mode. Set the Mode switch to MAG, adjust the Gain control,
and you have the best magnetic locator available. Operation in the Magnetic mode is explained in Sections II and III.

Switching between LO, HI and MAG modes while tracing a cable, is a unique method for unscrambling ground clutter.
Gas and water pipes in the immediate vicinity of the target with a HF trace signal being applied may emit parasitic
signals that can distort the cable locating null. In the magnetic mode, cast-iron water pipes and gas lines can be identi-
fied quickly and even classified as to their type by the conventional spacing of joints, which provide the strongest
signals.

Cable/Line Tracing (HI/LO) Locating Modes

The MAC-51Bx transmitter simultaneously transmits 571 Hz (LF) and 82.5 kHz (HF) signals. When applied to any
continuous metal conductor, the HF trace signal jumps gaskets between pipe sections and small breaks in the line. The
LF trace signal does not bleed onto adjacent or crossing lines, and will stop at a complete break in the conductor. With
the receiver you can select and compare received audio signals from both frequencies without having to return to the
transmitter.

Setting the receiver’s Mode switch to LO allows you to trace the cable, locate a complete break (where the signal disap-
pears), and then continue tracing beyond the fault by switching to the HI mode. The approximate depth of an
underground cable can be determined using the 45° null-point triangulation method. Operation of the MAC-51Bx in the
LO and HI modes is explained in Sections IV and V.

Standard Accessories
Basic accessories supplied with the MAC-51Bx include a headphone jack, spare batteries holders and a conductive
cable assembly with ground stake. An inductive signal clamp, mini transmitter and headphones are available as options.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                           1-1
Optional Inductive Signal Clamp (HI Mode only)

This option increases the versatility of the MAC-51Bx by providing a convenient method of selectively applying the trace
signal to cable conductors covered with nonmetallic insulation in the HI Mode only.

It induces a strong signal to only the conductor that it is clamped around. This method allows you to put a stronger
signal on a specific cable to be traced in congested areas containing cables, water and gas lines, or other conductors
that may emit lower level parasitic trace signals.

Operation is simple and easy. Plug the clamp lead into the transmitter accessory jack and close the clamp around the
cable. No ground connection is required. Hook-up can be made to all continuous metal pipes and cables up to three
inches in diameter.

Optional Mini Transmitter

The Model MT-2 is a miniature transmitter (3 in. x 1 in.) used in combination with a MAC-51Bx receiver to trace
nonmetallic pipes, pinpoint obstructions, and locate concrete septic tanks. (The Receiver’s Mode switch must be set to
HI.)

As the MT-2 (Mole) is pushed through a buried nonmetallic pipe, it emits a signal that can be detected at depths up to
18 feet by using the MAC-51Bx receiver. The Mole has a concave surface so it can be secured with electrical tape to a
plumber or electrician’s snake, or it can be closed in a pipe “PIG”.

One AAA penlight alkaline battery provides up to 30 hours operation. Tightening the battery cap (CW) turns the unit on.
Loosening the battery cap (CCW) until the battery moves when the MT-2 is shaken turns the unit off.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                            1-2
MAC-51Bx Specifications

TRANSMITTER

         Operating Voltage                             12V (8 alkaline C-Cell batteries)
         Battery Life                                  60 hours (on & off usage @ 70F)
         RF Output                                     82.5 kHz modulated at 382 Hz, Pulsed at 4.4 Hz
                                                       571 Hz pulsed at 4.4 Hz
         Audio Indicator                               2.58 kHz pulsed at 4.4 Hz
         Weight                                        Approx. 5.5 lb. (2.5kg)
         Operating Temp.                               -13°F to 140°F (-24°C to 60°C)
         Overall Size                                  43.5 in. x 7 in. x 5 in. (110.5cm. x 17.8 cm x 12.7 cm)

RECEIVER

         Operating Voltage                             9V (2 alkaline or 2 lithium batteries)
         Battery Life                                  60 hrs, alkaline (on & off usage @ 70F)
                                                       120 hrs, lithium (on & off usage @ 70F)
         Audio Output                                  Approx. 40 Hz idling tone from speaker Frequency of pulsing tone
                                                       (increases or decreases) with signal intensity
         Weight                                        2.64 lb. (1.20 kg.)
         Operating Temp                                -13°F to 140°F (-25°C to 60°C)
         Overall Length                                42.3 in. (107.4cm.)
         Waterproof Length                             34.5 in. (87.6 cm.)
         Nominal Sensor Spacing                        20 in. (50.8 cm.)

(Specifications subject to change without notice)

                                                                NOTE

                  The receiver’s manual gain feature gives you a significant advantage in being able to
                  adjust the sensitivity, based on your expertise, to optimize the locating and pinpointing
                  of a wide range of underground targets.
                  You will find that as your experience in evaluating the audio indications associated with
                  different types of targets and gain settings increases, manually adjusting the gain also
                  becomes second nature. This minimizes search time and helps you to determine the
                  type of target and its approximate depth. Your familiarity with various gain settings for,
                  and the audio indications from specific types of targets will become very cost effective
                  and personally satisfying.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                             1-3
Section II
                                             Magnetic Locating Mode

Theory of Operation

In the Magnetic (MAG) mode, the MAC-51Bx receiver responds when the magnetic field strength at the two sensors,
which are 20 inches apart, is different. This response consists of a change in the idling frequency of the audio signal
emitted from the speaker.

Figure 2-1 illustrates an application of the locator in which it is used to detect an iron pipe marker of the type used for
property identification. The magnetic field of the marker is stronger at sensor A than it is at sensor B. As a result, the
frequency of the signal from the speaker is higher than the 40 Hz idling frequency which exists when the field strength is
the same at both sensors.

                                 Figure 2-1. Detecting Magnetic Field of an Iron Marker

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                             2-1
Mode Selection and Gain Setting

Set the Mode switch to MAG and adjust the Gain control for the normal range as shown in Figure 2-2.

In most areas the locator can be oriented in any direction without producing a significant change in the frequency of the
tone from its idling rate. However, in some areas where magnetic disturbances are encountered from nearby structures,
rocks, sand or ferrous trash, the control should be adjusted for a lower gain as illustrated in Figure 2-3.

                                         Figure 2-2. Normal Range Gain Setting

Low Gain Operation

Unwanted background signals due to nearby magnetic objects may require that the effective range of the locator be
reduced. This is accomplished by turning the Gain control towards LO. Reduced range is also useful for pinpointing the
location of a strongly magnetized marker (see Figure 3-2).

                                          Figure 2-3. Low Range Gain Setting

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                         2-2
High Gain Operation

The effective range of the locator is increased by turning the Gain control towards HI. A high gain setting is useful for
detecting smaller targets. Due to the increased sensitivity with high gain, the pitch of the output tone may vary due to
the instrument’s orientation relative to the Earth’s magnetic field.

                                           Figure 2-4. High Range Gain Setting

Search Procedure

Set the Gain control for normal operation and hold the
locator just below the large end with the “box” resting
comfortably on the underside of your forearm, as illus-
trated in Figure 2-5. Because the upper sensor is
located near the area where the locator is usually
held, wrist watches may produce unwanted changes in
the signal frequency. Therefore, a watch worn on the
wrist of the hand holding the locator should be
removed. Avoid bringing the locator close to your
shoes, since the might contain magnetic material.

To obtain maximum area coverage, the locator should
be swept from side-to-side with the small end of the
instrument kept close to the ground. A higher
frequency tone from the speaker will be heard when
the locator is closest to an iron or steel object.

When using a high Gain setting, avoid turning the
locator about its long axis. This might produce
unwanted variations in the output signal. The pres-
ence of a ferromagnetic object will be indicated by a
change in the tone of the output frequency.

                                                                            Figure 2-5. Searching with the Locator

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                               2-3
Section III
                                  Magnetic Locating Mode Application Notes

Basic Signal Patterns

                                 SIGNAL FOR A                             SIGNAL FOR A
                                 VERTICALLY                               HORIZONTALLY
                                 ORIENTED                                 ORIENTEDTARGET -
                                 TARGET - GREATEST                        GREATEST OVER ENDS
                                 OVER TOP

                                  Figure 3-1. Signals from Vertical and Horizontal Targets

After you have detected the presence of a target, hold the locator vertically and move it back and forth in an “X” pattern.
The peak signal occurs directly over a vertical target, and over the ends of a horizontal target. Reduce the gain setting
as required to facilitate pinpointing a target.

The “X” pattern is ideal for pinpointing small objects. A standard 1-1/4 inch PK nail buried up to 12 inches can be
located so precisely with this technique that it can be uncovered using a 1/2-inch star drill.

                                    Figure 3-2. “X” Pattern Provides Precision Locating

If you find more then one signal in the vicinity of a target, just raise the locator several inches higher (this has the same
effect as reducing the gain). Any signal that disappears when the locator is raised is probably not coming from the
actual target. The signal from a rusty bolt or other small item will decrease much faster with distance than the signal
from a larger target such as a corner marker. An 18-inch length of 3/4-inch pipe can be located at depths up to 9 feet.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                              3-1
SIGNAL ABOVE GROUND

                                              SIGNAL AT GROUND

                 SMALL BOLT                                           CORNER MARKER

                              Figure 3-3. Raising the Locator Eliminates Unwanted Signals

Strongly Magnetized Markers

A strongly magnetized iron pipe at or near the surface may provide location information that is misleading.

The heavy line in Figure 3-4 represents the variation in tone frequency when the locator is moved over the pipe. When
moving the instrument from A to B, the frequency of the tone increases and then suddenly decreases at B. From just
beyond B the frequency of the tone increases sharply, becomes very high directly over the marker and decreases just
before reaching C. From C to D the pattern is the reverse of that form A to B. It is obvious that the locator must enter
the B-C region. Otherwise the marker might be assumed to be between A and B or C and D.

                                                     SIGNAL PATTERN

                                                       IRON PIPE

                             Figure 3-4. Signal Pattern from a Strongly Magnetized marker

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                         3-2
Locating Manholes, Septic Tanks and Water Wells

The magnetic field is strongest at the edge of a shallow manhole cover. Turn the Gain control to LO and you can easily
trace the edge of a cover near the surface. Locating depth ranges up to 10 feet.

The great length of a well casing provides a strong field at the surface that makes it easy to locate casings buried up to
18 feet deep.

           Figure 3-5. Locating Manhole Covers                          Figure 3-6. Locating Water Well Casings

The MAC-51Bx receiver can be used to precisely locate the metal handles or reinforcing bats on septic tank covers at
depths up to 4 feet

                                                    OUTPUT SIGNAL

                               Figure 3-7. Signal Pattern Provided by Septic Tank Handles

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                           3-3
Locating Items under Snow or Water and Tracing Barbed Wire.

The locator can be used in flooded areas - just keep the electronic unit (“can”) out of the water.

Snow poses no problem. Thrust the locator into the snow as deep as necessary to locate the target, up to the base of
the “can”.

                                    Figure 3-8. Locating Objects Under Snow or Water

You can often trace barbed wire (from old fence lines) buried just beneath the surface. Even if the wire is only a trail of
rust it can still be detected neat the surface. Tip the locator a little lower than usual - but not parallel with the ground.

First, examine trees for benchmarks and bits of embedded barbed wire. The hold the locator parallel with the direction
of the wire.

                                  Figure 3-9. Tracing Barbed Wire from Old Fence Lines

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                              3-4
Searching Areas Along a Chain Link Fence

Searching in the vicinity of a chain link fence requires a reduced Gain setting and also some control over the orientation
of the locator. As illustrated in Figure 3-10, position the locator horizontally with its long axis perpendicular to the fence.
This ensures that the upper sensor is kept away from the fence.

                                Figure 3-10. Searching in the Vicinity of a Chain Link Fence

Perform the search by moving along the fence, keeping the end a constant distance from the fence. When a point 1-5/8
inches form the end of the locator is directly over the stake, the signal will drop abruptly as shown in Figure 3-11. Any
variation in the position of the locator will produce an abrupt rise in the frequency in the tone.

                      Figure. 3-11. Placement of Locator while Searching Along a Chain Link Fence

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                               3-5
Locating Valve Boxes

Both the valve and its casing, when iron, provide strong
magnetic fields which make them easy to locate. Plastic
enclosures containing magnets are easily located at
depths of 10 feet or more.

                                                                 Figure 3-12. Locating Valve Boxes Boxes and Casings

Locating Cast-Iron Pipes

As illustrated in Figure 3-13, cast-iron pipes produce the strongest magnetic signals at their joints.

                                 Figure 3-13. Signal Pattern Provided by Cast-Iron Pipes

The initial search should be performed as follows:

        1.   Set the Gain control to HI.
        2.   Hold the locator vertically 1 to 1-1/2 feet above the surface
        3.   Walk along without turning or tilting the locator.
        4.   Mark the locations where the maximum signals occur.
        5.   Return to an area of maximum signal strength and hold the locator several inches above
             the surface. The gain setting will probably have to be reduced during this second pass.
             Four-inch, cast-iron pipes can be located at depth up to 10 feet.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                      3-6
Locating Steel Drums

As shown on Figure 3-14, the MAC-51Bx’s signal pattern will vary depending how deep the drum is buried. A fifty-five
gallon drum can be located at depths up to 10 feet.

                SIGNAL PATTERN FOR DRUMS BURIED APPROXIMATELY 4 TO 10 FEET

                          SIGNAL PATTERN FOR DRUMS BURIED APPROXIMATELY 4 FEET OR LESS

                                 Figure 3-14. Signal Pattern Provided by Steel Drums

Additional Applications

       1. The military and many local and state police departments use the MAC-51Bx to detect
          buried ordnance and discarded weapons.

       2. People drilling in an area where hazardous material might be encountered use the MAC-51Bx
          to search the area prior to drilling. Other Schonstedt gardiometers are available that can be
          lowered down the hole for periodic checks as drilling progresses.

Other Notes

       1. A burbling sound indicates the presence of an energized powerline, in the MAG Mode.

       2. The instrument in the MAG Mode will not detect nonmagnetic items such as gold, silver,
          copper, brass, aluminum tin cans and bottle caps. In the HI and LO Modes it will detect any
          continuous metal, line or cable.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                      3-7
Section IV
                                              Cable and Line Tracing

Theory of Operation

In the Cable and Line Tracing (HI and LO) locating modes, you must use the receiver in combination with the dual-
frequency transmitter which is housed in the carrying case.

As illustrated in Figure 4-1, the transmitter is placed over and in line with any continuous metal conductor. Its two simul-
taneous output frequencies (HF and LF) produce alternating currents that are induced (HF) and conducted (LF), onto the
conductor as tracing signals. The transmitter emits a steady beeping sound to let you know that it is operating. You can
detect the two tracing signals by using the receiver’s HI or LO mode. The receiver emits a siren-like sound ion both
modes that decreases to a minimum pitch when the locator’s tip is directly over the target conductor, and peaks on each
side.

                                                      TRANSMITTER                                     RECEIVER

                                     Figure 4-1. Transmitter and Receiver Placement

The tracing currents generate alternating circumferential fields around the conductor. These alternating fields induce two
signals into the receiver’s sensor. As the receiver is moved back and forth across the cable in a search pattern, the
pitch of the audio output from the receiver increases and decreases.

The heavy line in Figure 4-2 represents the increase and decrease in pitch of the audio signal as the receiver is moved
back and forth over a line or a cable excited by the transmitter. Moving from A to D causes the pitch to increase to a
maximum at B and decrease to a minimum directly over the target. At C the pitch again increases and then decreases
at D.

The MAC-51Bx can be used to trace any long conductive element such as a anode string or metalized warning tape as
well as cable and pipe.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                           4-1
A                     B                              C                 D

                                                                                           SENSOR
                 SIGNAL
                PATTERN

                                                                      CABLE

                                 Figure 4-2. Signal Pattern from HF/LF Tracing Signals

                                                         NOTE

                                    For convenience, all targets will be referred to
                                    as lines throughout Sections IV and V.

Transmitter, Turn-On and Battery Check

Set the ON/OFF switch to on and listen for a steady beeping sound. If a beeping is not heard, the batteries must be
replaced as described on page 6-1.

                    CARRYING CASE                                                        ACCESSORY JACK
                                                               ON/OFF SWITCH

                                                                                                          INSIDE
                                                                                                            TOP

                                                                                                           BASE

                                                                                             TRANSMITTER
                           ANTENNA                                                           ELECTRONICS

                                           Figure 4-3. Transmitter Features
Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                         4-2
Inductive Signal Coupling (For HI Mode Only)

The most common method of applying a tracing signal is inductive coupling. With the cover open and the arrow pointing
up, place the transmitter over the line as illustrated in Figure 4-4. Turn the transmitter ON/OFF switch to ON and you
will hear a steady beeping sound. If not, replace the batteries.

                                        Figure 4-4. Transmitter Operating Positions

Conductive Signal Coupling (For HI and LO Modes)

If and exposed section of cable, line, or conduit is accessible, the tracing signal can be applied directly to the line. (The
LF signal will not jump gaps. So keep in mind that when applying the conductive signals to a metal pipe with non-
conductive joint gaskets, the LF signal only cannot be traced beyond the first joint from where the signal is applied.)

Plug the conductive cable assembly into the transmitter’s accessory jack and turn the power switch to ON. (Inserting the
plug automatically disables the transmitter’s inductive mode and applies the exciting current to the cable clips.) Connect
one cable clip to a conductive portion of the line. Drive the ground stake into the soil off to the side of the line and
attach the other clip to the stake. A good electrical contact between the clips, the line, and the ground stake is very
important.

                                                         WARNING

                                      Clipping to power lines is dangerous and
                                      should not be attempted. Insulation on the clip
                                      is not designed to protect against power line
                                      voltages.

                               STAKE

                                                                                                 CLIP

                                                                                               CABLE
                      CLIP                          ACCESSORY JACK

                                 Figure 4-5. Transmitter Hookup For Conductive Coupling

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                             4-3
Inductive Signal Coupling With Signal Clamp (For HI Mode Only)

The inductive signal clamp (optional) provides a convenient method of applying the tracing signal to electrical cables
covered with non-metallic insulation. Plug the clamp lead into the transmitter accessory jack, turn on the transmitter and
close the clamp around the cable. No ground connection is required. The clamp can be used on the cables up to three
inches in diameter.

                                                        WARNING

                                Exercise caution when clamping around any power line.
                                Under no circumstances clamp around high tension
                                lines (lines carrying greater than 220V). High voltage
                                can jump through the insulation and travel on the cable
                                assembly to the operator causing a dangerous electric
                                shock.

                          Figure 4-6. Inductive Signal Clamp Hookup

Mode Selection

Set the receiver’s Mode switch to LO for tracing a particular line with a conductively applied LF signal because the signal
will not bleed onto adjacent lines. Also use the LO Mode to locate a complete break. Set the Mode switch to HI for
tracing a line or pipe with an inductively coupled signal, and when tracing beyond a break for verification purposes. Set
the Mode Switch to MAG for locating ferrous metal targets or for verifying an energized power line. In the HI Inductive
Mode, you should move the receiver at least 20 feet away from the transmitter to start tracing to avoid picking up the HF
tracing signal through the air directly from the transmitter. You will have to increase the Gain as the distance between
the receiver and transmitter increases.

        Figure 4-7. Gain Setting for Normal Range

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                          4-4
Gain Settings for Tracing a Cable or Line

You must use the proper Gain setting to obtain an optimum width null. A null is the audio signature that lets the operator
know when he is positioned directly over the target line. If you set the Gain too low, the null between the two signal
peaks (highest audio pitch) will cover too large an area, making it difficult to trace the line. If the sensitivity is set too
high, the null will be too narrow and very difficult for you to identify. You will find that setting the Gain to get the null
width as illustrated by the medium Gain curve in Figure 4-8 is the secret to successful tracing.

                                               TARGET CENTER

               AUDIO            PITCH                                                HIGH GAIN
              OUTPUT          INCREASE
                                                                                     MEDIUM GAIN
                                                                                     LOW GAIN

                                                                        CABLE

                                        Figure 4-8. Null Shape Versus Gain Setting

Cable Tracing (HI Mode) Using Inductive Coupling

Position the transmitter over the target line and turn the power switch to ON. A steady beeping will be heard that indi-
cates the transmitter is operational. Move approximately 20 feet away from the transmitter along the suspected target
line before you start to trace the signal. This ensures that the receiver is not receiving the signal through air directly
from the transmitter. Adjust the Gain control for a medium pitch signal. Hold the receiver just below the large end as
illustrated in Figure 4-9.

                                                           NOTE

                                     Do not swing the receiver when pinpointing the
                                     null. The null appears directly over the target
                                     only when the receiver is held in a vertical posi-
                                     tion. If it is held at an angle, the null will not
                                     indicate the exact location of the target line.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                             4-5
Hold the receiver in a vertical position with the sensor end close to the ground as you move it back and forth across the
line. Adjust the Gain control until you get a good signal null (minimum pitch) when the locator’s tip is directly over the
line. As you move away from the transmitter, it will be necessary to keep increasing the Gain.

                                     Figure 4-9. Inductively Coupled Tracing Signals

Conductively Applied Tracing Signals (For HI and LO Modes)

To conductively apply tracing signals, you must physically connect the transmitter’s output frequencies to an exposed
metal section of the line using the conductive cable assembly and the ground stake. After the two clips are connected to
the line and to the ground stake (good electrical contacts are essential), the procedure for using the receiver is the same
as for inductively coupled signals except that you can begin tracing right next to the transmitter.

                                                        WARNING

                                     Clipping to power lines is dangerous and
                                     should not be attempted. Insulation on the clip
                                     is not designed to protect against power line
                                     voltages.

                                  STAKE

                                                                                           CLIP

                      CLIP                                                                 CABLE
                                                ACCESSORY JACK

                                    Figure 4-10. Conductively Applied Tracing Signal

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                           4-6
Section V
                                   Cable and Line Tracing Application Notes

Inductive Signal coupling for Cable/line Tracing in the Hi Mode

This is the easiest and quickest way of applying the tracing signal to a conductor and provides a signal strong enough to
trace most cable/lines in the HI Mode. Induction does not require access to an exposed section of the line which very
often is not available. The 82.5 kHz HF signal will jump the gaskets in pipe line joints, bad telephone lines bond and
small sheath breaks, but its strength will fade quickly as distance from the transmitter increases when the target line
(gas or water pipe) is an electrically poor or a leaky conductor (up to 500 feet from the transmitter).

Ant time an HF signal is induced on a cable/line, the same signal will be induced on nearby utility lines which may cause
some confusion when trying to identify the null because it may be shifted towards a nearby line. When this happens,
you can hold the receiver horizontally near the ground, as shown in Figure 5-5, and listen for a single-peak audio signal
which occurs directly over the target line. You can also apply the tracing signal conductively and set the Receiver Mode
switch to LO.

                                                                            CABLE

                                           Figure 5-1. Inductive Coupling Setup

Conductive Coupling for Cable and Line tracing in HI Mode

This is the most reliable and best way to apply the strongest tracing signal to the target conductor. Like an inductively
coupled signal, the 82.5 kHz HF signal will jump pipeline joint gaskets, bad telephone bonds and small sheath breaks.
However, its strength will remain strong over a much greater distance and can be traced up to 2,000 feet. A good elec-
trical contact between the clip and the conductive portion a target line is essential. If necessary, use a file to clean off
rust or paint to ensure a good electrical connection. Electrical contact must also be made to the ground by using the
supplied stake. For the best results, drive the stake into the ground as far off to the side of the line as the connecting
cable will permit (See Figure 5-2).

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                             5-1
WARNING

                                     Clipping to power lines is dangerous and
                                     should not be done. Insulation on the clip is not
                                     designed to protect against power line voltages.

                           STAKE

                                                                                                     CLIP
            CLIP

                                                 ACCESSORY JACK

                                          Figure 5-2. conductive Coupling Setup

Conductive Coupling for Cable and Line Tracing in the LO Mode

Use conductive coupling and the LO Mode for locating a cable or line when there are other nearby targets, and to find a
complete break. You can also use the LO mode to trace a single cable or a line for distances up to 4,000 feet. A good
electrical contact between the clip and the conductive portion the target line is essential. You must remove any rust or
paint to ensure a good electrical connection. Electrical contact must also be made by driving the ground stake into the
ground as far off to the side of the line as the cable will permit. The 571 Hz LF signal will not travel beyond a fault and
will not bleed off onto adjacent cables/lines and pipes. As indicated in Figure 5-3, you can verify the type of target
(magnetic or nonmagnetic) in the MAG Mode, trace the cable using the LO Mode to locate the break (where the signal
disappears), and continue tracing beyond the break in the HI Mode.

                                                        GROUND CLIP                       TRACING
                                                         TO STAKE                        (LO MODE)
                                                                                                               TRACING
                                                                                                              (HI MODE)

    CONDUCTION
                                                                                                          BREAK
    CLIP TO CABLE
                                                                                                         LOCATED

                                    Figure 5-3. Coductive Coupling for Break Locating

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                           5-2
Dealing with clutter Signals (HI Mode)

When using induction to apply the tracing signal, an effective method of reducing interference caused by parasitic
signals from an adjacent line is to fins a second spot on the line that has a good clean null (equal strength lobes on both
sides). Move the transmitter to this spot. Confirm that this is the target line by backtracking with the receiver to the first
site of the transmitter and checking for a null. This procedure of leapfrogging the transmitter is also the standard
method for extending the tracing range on electrically poor or leaky lines.

                               Figure 5-4. Repositioning Transmitter to Reduce Interference

Single-Lobe Identification (HI Mode)

A second line parallel to the line being traced will emit a parasitic signal but at a reduced strength. Interaction of these
signals results in unequal side lobes, which cause a large null off to one side of the target line as indicated by signal
pattern curve A in Figure 5-5. To accurately trace a line under this condition will require practice. An alternate method
is to hold the receiver in a horizontal position perpendicular to the line and listen for a single high pitch audio signal that
occurs directly over the line as indicated by signal pattern B.

                         SIGNAL A                                                    SIGNAL B

                                      Figure 5-5. Single Lobe Identification Technique

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                                5-3
Bends and Junctions (HI and LO Mode)

A variation of the two-line, single-lobe identification problem just described, occurs when the line being traced has a
bend or junction. As the receiver is brought near a bend or junction, the tracing signal becomes difficult to interpret.
When this occurs, walk a 20-foot circle around the spot where the signal becomes confusing to detect the null that will
indicate the line’s new direction. However, to be certain that it is the new direction and not a junction, complete the
circle to check for a second null that will indicate if the line has a branch.

                                    Figure 5-6. Identification of Bends and Junctions

Signal spreading (HI Mode)

Target lines that are poorly insulated from ground such as gas pipes, water pipes and anode strings may cause signal
spreading to occur over long distances from the transmitter, even when the tracing signal is being applied conductively.
This condition is prevalent when ground water is present. The signal also spreads to nearby lines and into the soil itself.
When this situation is encountered, the transmitter must be moved closer to the section of the line to be traced and the
signal must be applied conductively if possible.

Signal spreading can also occur even when lines are well insulated. The tracing signal can travel into buildings via the
ground or the shield of a line and transfer to the shields of other lines leaving the building. Signal spreading can be
minimized by placing the transmitter as far as possible from the building.

                                                          NOTE

                                     If the target is a continuous metal conductor,
                                     such as a cable, you can eliminate most signal
                                     spreading by conductively applying the tracing
                                     signal and using the receiver in the LO Mode.

Magnetic (MAG) Mode Aids in Interpreting Ground Clutter

The MAC-51Bx has a unique feature designed to help you unscramble underground clutter. It is the option of switching
to the MAG mode for a different indication of what other category of targets are in the immediate vicinity. In this mode,

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                           5-4
cast-iron water and gas pipes can be readily identified and even classified as to type by the conventional spacing of
joints. Power mains 50/60 Hz service drops can also be identified by a burbling sound that peaks when the receiver is
directly over the power line, as long as it is actively carrying electrical power. As you become more familiar with the
MAC-51Bx System, you will find that switching between MAG, HI and LO modes becomes an invaluable tracing aid
when underground cutter is encountered.

Isolators and Signals Path Continuity (HI Mode)

The tracer current must travel in a closed loop. When it leaves the line being traced, it loops back, one way or another,
to the beginning of the line. If the current cannot complete its loop the locating system will not operate. You should be
aware of this system requirement when tracing lines that have electrical isolators installed.

Electrical isolators are sometimes placed in a gas line at the meter to provide an electrically open circuit which stops the
flow of galvanic current and reduces corrosion. If you are inductively exciting this type of line by placing the transmitter
close to the meter, you must place a shorting wire on the pipe to bypass the isolator. This allows the tracing current to
return to the pipe through the earth ground of the building. An alternate method is to move the transmitter down line a
few yards away from the building to a point where the gas pipe riser provides a current return path, or to place the
inductive signal clamp on the line below the isolator.

 SHORTING
 WIRE

                                 Figure 5-7 Shorting Wire in Place to Bypass an Isolator

Isolators and Inductive Excitation (HI Mode)

Electrical isolation sometimes occurs inadvertently on phone cables entering a pedestal because the cable’s shield is not
grounded. In most jurisdictions, grounding the shield inside the pedestal is not required unless the cable shares a
trench with power cables. If there is no ground wire, it is recommended that a wire and clips, as shown in Figure 5-8, be
connected from the cable shield to the pedestal before inductively coupling the transmitter’s signals to the target cable.
This will greatly improve the strength of the induced tracing signal.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                            5-5
GROUNDING CLIP

                                    Figure 5-8. Pedestal with Grounding Clip Installed

Isolators and Conductive Excitation (HI and LO Modes)

When conductively connecting trace signals to a phone cable from a pedestal, electrical isolation of the shield is an
advantage. If a ground wire is providing a good path from the shield to earth ground through the pedestal, the trace
current will use it to complete the return loop to the transmitter grounding stake instead of going down the target line.
So if there is a ground wire in place, disconnect it from pedestal before connecting the conductive cable clip to the shield
to ensure that a strong tracer current is applied to the cable.

                                                                  ACCESSORY
                                                                     JACK                CLIP       STAKE
                                          GROUND WIRE

                                   CLIP

                                    Figure 5-9. Pedestal with Ground Wire Removed

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                           5-6
Determining Target Depth by Triangulation

The receiver can be used for the traditional triangulation method to determine the approximate depth of a target as illus-
trated in Figure 5-10. However, when using this method it is necessary to take into account the fact that the center of
the cable-sensor is located 11 inches up the receiver tube from the black tip. When the position of the target has been
determined by the null, mark the spot (#1) on the ground. Hold the receiver tip on the ground at this spot, slant the
instrument at a 45° angle and slowly move directly back, to one side, from the target until a second null is obtained.
Now mark a spot (#2) on the ground that is directly below a point 11 inches up the receiver tube from the black tip.
Measure the distance between spot #1 and spot #2. This measurement indicates the approximate depth of the target.

                                                                 DISTANCE
                                                                  EQUALS
                                       MARK SPOT 1               DEPTH OF
                                                                  TARGET                                 45 Degrees

                                                                                                        MARK SPOT 2

                                                                                       TARGET

                                 Figure 5-10. Determining Approximate Depth of Target

                                                          NOTE

                      You should always take a depth reading on both sides of the line. If the
                      measured distances between spots #1 and #2 on both sides of the line are
                      not the same, there is a good chance that a nearby line is causing the two
                      measurements to be different. Move further along the line and repeat the
                      depth reading procedure until the measurements are the same on both
                      sides of the line. Once two very similar measurements are obtained, the
                      calculated depth of the cable will always be within 4 to 6 inches of its actual
                      depth. “Simple geometry calculations never give an incorrect indication of
                      depth.” Push-Button depth indications provided by some products are
                      affected by soil composition, salinity, and moisture content and have been
                      reported to be off by up to 2-1/2 feet.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                          5-7
Section VI
                                                      Maintenance

The MAC-51Bx system is built to give trouble-free operation. Normally, maintenance is limited to the occasional replace-
ment of batteries. In the event that a malfunction does occur, refer to the appropriate Troubleshooting Guide on page
6-3. They list a few possible problems that can generally be corrected in the field so that you will be able to continue
using the locator without interruption.

Replacement of Receiver Batteries

The receiver is powered by two lithium 9-Volt batteries carried in the battery holder as illustrated in Figure 6-1 (alkaline
batteries may also be sued). The unit is shipped with a spare set if lithium batteries stores in the carrying case. Access
to the batteries is obtained by removing the two knurled nuts and sliding off the cover. Always replace both batteries.

                                                          COVER

                 BATTERY HOLDER

                                                                                               KNURLED NUT

                                  Figure 6-1. Exploded view of Receiver Electronic Unit

Replacement of Transmitter Batteries

The transmitter is powered by eight alkaline C-Cell batteries located in a battery holder. Access to the batteries, as illus-
trated in Figure 6-2, is obtained by removing the two knurled nuts, the battery holder cover, and the spare battery cover.
The eight batteries are connected in series. The proper polarities for the batteries, their removal, and installation
sequences are indication Figure 6-2. Batteries must be removed and installed in the order shown.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                             6-1
SPARE BATTERIES
                                                                                   (USER SUPPLLIED)

                                                                          BATTERY
                                                                          BOX TERMINALS

                                                                       REMOVE BATTERIES FROM ENDS
                                                                       OPPOSITE SPRINGS FIRST.
                                                                       INSTALL BATTERIES AGAINST
                                                                       SPRINGS FIRST.

                                                       COIL SPRINGS

                                Figure 6-2. Replacement of Transmitter Batteries

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                         6-2
Receiver Troubleshooting Guide

            Symptom                  Possible Cause                How to Check                    How to Fix
       Dead                      Dead Batteries                 Replace                      -

                                 Batteries not making           Check for contact            Clean contacts
                                 contact                        corrosion

                                 Battery leakage                Do not remove*               Return unit to factory

       Intermittent              Batteries not making           Check for corrosion          Clean contacts
                                 good contact

       Uncontrollable            Weak batteries                 Replace                      -
       screaming
          * Most battery manufacturers’ warranties cover the cost of repair or replacement of any device damaged by
          their batteries. Removing batteries that leak will void their warranty.

                                        Transmitter Troubleshooting Guide

            Symptom                  Possible Cause                How to Check                    How to Fix
       No Sound                  Dead Batteries                 Replace                      -

                                 Batteries not making           Check for contact            Clean contacts
                                 contact                        corrosion

                                 Broken wires                   Visually inspect

                                 Battery leakage                Do not remove*               Return unit to factory
       Intermittent sound Batteries not making                  Check for corrosion          Clean contacts
                          good contact
          * Most battery manufacturers’ warranties cover the cost of repair or replacement of any device damaged by
          their batteries. Removing batteries that leak will void their warranty.

                                                   Service Information

If the locator need service, please return it to the factory along with the following information: Name, Address, Where
Purchased, Date and Description of Trouble(s). A telephone estimate will be provided prior to service work being done.
See shipping information on Page 6-6.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                         6-3
Schonstedt Instrument Company

                                                                             ITEM   PART NO.       DESCRIPTION

                                                                              1     H30006       HEADSET (OPTIONAL)

                                                                              2     208396       PHONE JACK ASSY.

                                                                              3     K20030       KNOB, ROUND (VOLUME)

                                                                              4     K20027       KNOB, POINTER

                                                                              5     SMVIN6C500   SCREW, MOUNTING (2)

                                                                              6     208442       GROUND SPRING (2)

                                                                              7     302301       SPEAKER MODULE

                                                                              8     208306       BATTERY HOLDER & BD ASSY.

                                                                              9     208369       COVER WITH LABEL

                                                                              10    K20021       KNURLED KNOB (2)

                                                                              11    207215       CAP KIT WITH SCREEN

                                                                              12    206006       SCREEN

                                                                              13    208212       CRUTCH TIP (BLACK)

                                                                              14    302284       CHASSIS

                                                                              15    208406       INTERFACE CABLE ASSY.

                                Figure 6-3. MAC-51Bx Receiver Repair Parts
6-4
Schonstedt Instrument Company

                                                                                ITEM   PART NO.       DESCRIPTION

                                                                                 1     402320     INSTRUMENT CARRYING CASE

                                                                                 2     302303     ELECTRONICS BOX

                                                                                 3     208431     JACK, ACCESSORY

                                                                                 4     208432     SWITCH, ON-OFF

                                                                                 5     301674     BATTERY HOLDER/COVER

                                                                                 6     205252     KNURLED NUT (2)

                                                                                 7     B11009     BATTERY, C TYPE (8)

                                                                                 8     207315     BATTERY CASE

                                                                                 9     302307     CONDUCTIVE CLAMP

                                                                                 10    208263     GROUND STAKE

                                                                                 11    301646     INDUCTION CLIP*

                                                                                 12    MT-2       MINI-TRANSMITTER (MOLE)*

                                                                                 13    B11014     BATTERY, 9V LITHIUM (2 SPARE)

                                                                                 14    L55002-1   LATCH

                                                                                 15    L55002-2   LATCH KEEPER

                                Figure 6-4. MAC-51Bx Transmitter Repair Parts
6-5
Limited Warranty

The Schonstedt Instrument Company (Schonstedt) warrants each product of its manufacture to be free from defects in
material and workmanship subject to the following terms and conditions. The warranty is effective for three years after
shipment by Schonstedt to the original purchaser.

Our obligation under the warranty is limited to servicing or adjusting any product returned to the factory for this purpose
and to replacing any defective part thereof. Such product must be returned by the original purchaser, transportation
charges prepaid, with proof in writing, to our satisfaction, of the defect. If the fault has been caused by misuse or
abnormal conditions of operation, repairs will be billed at cost. Prior to repair on this instance, a cost estimate will be
submitted.

Service or shipping information will be furnished upon notification of the difficulty encountered. Model and serial numbers
must be supplied by the user. Batteries are specifically excluded under warranty.

Schonstedt shall not be liable for any injury to persons or property or for any other special or consequential damages
sustained or expenses incurred by reason of the use of any Schonstedt product.

                                    FOR SERVICE OR REPAIR
                                     Please ship locator (in its case) to:

                                      Schonstedt Instrument Company
                                             4 Edmond Road
                                         Kearneysville, WV 25430

                                                         PATENTS

Manufactured under the following Patents: United States: 2,916,696; 2,981,885; 3,894,283; 3,909,704; 3,961,245;
3,977,072; 4,110,689; 4,161,568; 4,163,877; 4,258,320; 4,388,592; and Design 255552. Canada: 637,963; 673,375;
1,006,915; 1,037,121; 1,141,003; 1,177,891 and 1,206,091. Great Britain: 1,446,741; 1,446,742; 1,494,865 and
2,012,430B. France: 2,205,671 and 81 12295, Germany: 25 51 968.0-09; 25 55 630; and 29 01 163. Japan: 1,595,127
and 1,413,844. Other patents pending.

Schonstedt Instrument Company                                                                                            6-6
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