OPEN INNOVATION PLATFORM FOR IOT-BIG DATA IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA - WAZIUP

 
OPEN INNOVATION PLATFORM FOR IOT-BIG DATA IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA - WAZIUP
Open Innovation Platform for IoT-Big data

            in Sub-Sahara Africa

       Grant Agreement Nº 687607

                 Report D4.4

      Results of Use Case Validation

                 (Alpha version)

       Responsible Editor:    C4A
            Contributors:     CNET, EGM, UPPA, UIL, IT21, UGB, PUBD,
                              iSpace, FL, C4A, CTIC
     Document Reference:      WAZIUP D4.4 – Results of Use Case validation
                              (Alpha version)
              Distribution:   Public
                  Version:    1.0
              10/02/2018      10/02/2018
OPEN INNOVATION PLATFORM FOR IOT-BIG DATA IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA - WAZIUP
Project Nº 687607                                                       WAZIUP D4.4

TABLE OF CONTRIBUTORS

Section                         Contributor             Reviewers

Introduction              UGB                             UGB
Section Agriculture       Babacar (UGB)          Mehdi (IT21)
                          Amos (FL)              Tiago (UNPARALEL)
                          Malo (PUDB)
                          Sename (WOELAB)
Section Fish farming      Babacar (UGB)          Charlotte (EGM)
                          Amos                   Amos (FL)
Section Cattle rustling   Babacar (UGB)          Mamour (UPPA)
                          Amos (FL)              Ousmane Dieng (UGB)
Section Urban Waste       Sename (WOELAB)        Ousmane Thiaré (UGB)
                          Koffi (WOELAB)
Scalability               Amos (FL)              Babacar (UGB)

About Logistics           Ousmane Thiaré (UGB)   Babacar (UGB)
Conclusion                UGB                    UGB

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OPEN INNOVATION PLATFORM FOR IOT-BIG DATA IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA - WAZIUP
Project Nº 687607                                                                                                        WAZIUP D4.4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.     Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 5
2.     MVP Agriculture ............................................................................................................... 6
     2.1.    Validation case .......................................................................................................... 6
     2.2.    Deployment for Agriculture ....................................................................................... 7
     2.3.    Technical Feasibility and Integration ......................................................................... 8
       2.3.1.       Integration of devices ......................................................................................... 8
       2.3.2.       Energy consumption efficiency .......................................................................... 9
       2.3.3.       Integration of gateway data to the platform ....................................................... 9
       2.3.4.       Waziup APIs & Analytics ................................................................................... 9
       2.3.5.       Summary of technical integration and feasibility ................................................ 9
     2.4.    Deployment & maintenance efforts ......................................................................... 11
     2.5.    Environmental aspects ............................................................................................ 11
     2.6.    Device safety .......................................................................................................... 11
3.     MVP Fish farming ........................................................................................................... 13
     3.1.    Validation cases ...................................................................................................... 13
     3.2.    Devices deployment ................................................................................................ 13
     3.3.    Technical Feasibility and integration ....................................................................... 14
       3.3.1.       Integration of devices ....................................................................................... 14
       3.3.2.       Energy consumption efficiency ........................................................................ 15
       3.3.3.       Integration of gateway data to the platform ..................................................... 15
       3.3.4.       Waziup APIs & Analytics ................................................................................. 15
       3.3.5.       Summary of technical integration and feasibility .............................................. 15
     3.4.    Deployment and maintenance efforts ..................................................................... 17
     3.5.    Environment and device safety ............................................................................... 17
     3.6.    Summary of non technical aspects ......................................................................... 17
4.     MVP Cattle rustling ........................................................................................................ 19
     4.1.    Validation cases ...................................................................................................... 19
     4.2.    Collars deployment ................................................................................................. 20
     4.3.    Technical Feasibility and integration ....................................................................... 21
       4.3.1.       Integration of devices ....................................................................................... 21
       4.3.2.       Energy consumption efficiency ........................................................................ 21
       4.3.3.       Integration of gateway data to the platform ..................................................... 21
       4.3.4.       Waziup APIs & Analytics ................................................................................. 21

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OPEN INNOVATION PLATFORM FOR IOT-BIG DATA IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA - WAZIUP
Project Nº 687607                                                                                                         WAZIUP D4.4

     4.4.    Deployment and maintenance efforts ..................................................................... 23
       4.4.1.       Access to Pilot Sites ........................................................................................ 23
       4.4.2.       Ease of Deployment (estimated time to deploy) .............................................. 23
       4.4.3.       Remote Access to devices .............................................................................. 23
     4.5.    Environment and device safety ............................................................................... 23
     4.6.    Summary of non-technical aspects ......................................................................... 23
5.     MVP Urban Waste ......................................................................................................... 25
     5.1.    Devices deployment ................................................................................................ 25
     5.2.    Technical Feasibility ................................................................................................ 25
       5.2.1.       Integration of devices ....................................................................................... 25
       5.2.2.       Energy consumption efficiency ........................................................................ 25
     5.3.    Technical Integration ............................................................................................... 25
       5.3.1.       Integration of gateway data to the platform ..................................................... 25
       5.3.2.       Waziup APIs & Analytics ................................................................................. 26
     5.4.    Deployment and maintenance efforts ..................................................................... 26
       5.4.1.       Access to Pilot Sites ........................................................................................ 26
     5.5.    Environment and device safety ............................................................................... 26
6.     Scalability ....................................................................................................................... 27
     6.1.    Fish farming ............................................................................................................ 27
     6.2.    Cattle rustling .......................................................................................................... 27
     6.3.    Urban Waste ........................................................................................................... 27
     6.4.    Soil moisture deployment ........................................................................................ 27
7.     About logistics ................................................................................................................ 28
8.     Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 29

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OPEN INNOVATION PLATFORM FOR IOT-BIG DATA IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA - WAZIUP
Project Nº 687607                                                                       WAZIUP D4.4

1. INTRODUCTION
This document reports the works about deployment and validation of MVPs into the dedicated pilot
sites. We recall that, the concept of MVP has been introduced, following a survey of use cases for
each application: agriculture, water management, cattle rustling and urban waste. MVPs and
leaders are provided in the Table 1. Based on that survey, a set of validation cases have been
identified for each application.
Table 1: MVP and leaders

   MVP                  Leader

   Agriculture          Innotec21

   Fish farming         EGM

   Cattle rustling      UPPA

   Urban Waste          WOELAB

Following the document, different aspects are presented. These aspects are either technical or non-
technical. Technical aspects rely on some metrics such as the LoRa infrastructure in use for the
deployment, and the study of the feasibility and integration. This later addresses the eventual issues
along the whole deployment process, from devices integration to analytics. Then, non-technical
aspects are introduced, as they may relate the purpose of the application from the user’s
perspective. Questions about deployment and maintenance effort are addressed with each pilot
partner, followed by logistics issues, and environment and device safety.
As introduced before, the methods used in this report, consists of collecting data from the pilot
partners, by means of a survey. Then, based on whether the measured aspect is relevant as an issue,
we put the information inside the report, with a particular look around the feasible solutions.
The document is organized as follows: each MVP is presented in a dedicated section. In Section 2,
MVP agriculture is presented. In Section 3, MVP Water is presented, followed by MVP cattle rustling
in Section 4. Urban waste is presented in Section 5. Finally, Section 6 and 7 introduce important
points about scalability and logistic issues. Section 8 concludes the report.

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Project Nº 687607                                                                         WAZIUP D4.4

2. MVP AGRICULTURE
2.1. Validation case
In modern agriculture, different factors can be monitored, like water quality, weather, storage
conditions etc. Having the ability to monitor and if possible control those factors is a key to increase
the productivity. In this MVP, the problem that is addressed is related with soil monitoring, weather
monitoring and storage area monitoring.
Based on the survey performed in the D1.1, three use cases for different problems have been
identified. Then two use cases were selected, as shown in the Figure 1:

                                  Figure 1: Use Cases for Agriculture

The use cases were initially supported by four validation cases. Then, three validation cases have
been selected. These latter have offered several test scenarios located on the four pilot sites:
Senegal, Ghana, Burkina and Togo. The selected validation cases that are described in D1.1 and also
their relationships with each use case are listed in the Table 2 below:
Table 2: Validation cases for MVP Agriculture

Validation case                                                           Use case
VC1 - Field weather situation                                             UC2

VC2 - Soil composition on my farm for preventing inputs waste             UC1

VC3 - Pest situation on my farm                                           UC1

The selected validation cases concern field weather situation, soil composition and pest situation for
farmers. The last two ones relate to the use case 1.
The expected outcome is to produce a Minimal Viable Product for the Agriculture domain. WAZIUP
provides technological solutions for all identified use cases. In order to validate it, several
deployments are being conducted in the four (04) pilot sites according to the validation cases
described in D1.1 official release.

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Project Nº 687607                                                                             WAZIUP D4.4

Results about deployment for each pilot site are provided in D4.3. However, the next section shortly
presents the deployment characteristics in the different pilot sites, focusing on the pilot site
description and LoRa infrastructure. Then, technical feasibility is presented, followed by other non-
technical aspects.

2.2. Deployment for Agriculture
Different types of crops have been experimented: tomatoes (Senegal), banana (Burkina), and other
vegetables like Lettuce, Spring Onion, Chinese Cabbage, chilies. The objectives of each one of these
experiments are described in the D4.3 official released.
LoRa parameters are set to LoRa Mode 1. In all the pilot sites, devices are deployed at 1km (in
Senegal) and 200m (in other pilot sites) away from the gateway locations. A clear visibility is present
between the gateway and the devices in all pilot sites. Again, the weather station has been deployed
in Senegal and Burkina for the purpose of the application.
Soil moisture sensors capture data and send them to the gateway. The data rate has been set
according to the discussion with professionals in the area, and the requirements of the application.
For example, in Senegal data are sent every 2 hours, while in Burkina, the interval is set to 20
minutes, and in Ghana every 1 hour. Similarly, data from the weather station are sent to the
gateway, even if weather data is not yet used in the application. Table 3 shows a short presentation
of the deployment parameters. Complete information about each pilot site deployment specificity
can be found in the D4.2 and D4.3 official releases.
Table 3: Deployment characteristics for the 4 pilot sites in Agriculture MVP

                        Measured aspects                    Senegal   Burkina      Ghana         Togo
                                                                        Faso

      Pilot Site        Dimension of the pilot              50x50 m     Not       8094 m2         Not
     Description        site                                          available                 available

                        Type of crops                      Tomatoes   Banana      Vegetable    Vegetables
                                                                                     s1

                        LoRa mode (s)                       Mode 1    Mode 1       Mode 1       Mode 1

                        Approximated distance                 1km      200m        200 m         200m
         LoRa
                        between the devices and
    Infrastructure
                        the gateway location

                        Presence of visibility                 Yes      Yes         Yes           Yes
                        between devices and
                        gateway

1
    Lettuce, Spring Onion, Chinese Cabbage, chilies (hot pepper)
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Project Nº 687607                                                                         WAZIUP D4.4

                    Has the weather station         Yes            Yes            No          No
                    been deployed?

                    Usage of weather data?        Not yet       Not yet        Not yet      Not yet

                    Packet sending rate?         Every 2h       Every 20       Every 2h     Every 1h
                                                                  min

2.3. Technical Feasibility and Integration
2.3.1. Integration of devices

The integration process is achieved by relying on the releases from WP2 led by UPPA, with
the requirements of building low power and low-cost IoT devices. Following the provided
resources, the integration of hardware materials led to some functional devices, already
deployed into the different pilot sites (See Figure 2).

                     Figure 2: Soil moisture sensors after integration and deployment

Figure 2 shows soil moisture devices after integration and deployments. Soil moisture devices are
essentially comprised of soil moisture sensors to capture ground data related to soil humidity.
Sometimes, they may incorporate temperature and humidity sensor to measure ambient
temperature and relative humidity.
For each deployment site, the repartition of sensors is shown on the Table 4.

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Project Nº 687607                                                                         WAZIUP D4.4

Table 4: Soil moisture sensors repartition along pilot sites

Pilot Site                                           Number of deployed sensors

Senegal (UGB farm)                                                5

Burkina Faso (Nasso site)                                         2

Ghana (Peace Love Vegetable Farm)                                 2

Togo (Urbannatic gardens)                                         1

Five sensors have been deployed in Senegal, two in both Burkina and Ghana, and one sensor in Togo
garden. The process of integrating devices for building low-cost IoT devices has been driven using
documentation provided in the D2 official releases. From different sides, the process has been
experienced as quite easy. One delicate task is to connect the soil moisture sensor along the tube to
the closed outdoor box. A complete documentation is in preparation with the MVP leader (IT21),
that will help figure out the different steps in building functional soil moisture nodes ready for field
deployment.

2.3.2. Energy consumption efficiency

Depending on the components connected to the sensor board, the energy consumption can flow up
from days to months. The energy consumption is not yet an issue since only 6 packets of messages
are sent every day. A document is in preparation to better assess energy consumption based on the
specific boards, the types of sensors and the used radio modules. This information will be described
in the next version of the validation case deliverable.

2.3.3. Integration of gateway data to the platform

About the integration of the data into the platform, data are pushed to the Waziup platform using
post-processing script. Once on the platform, data are easily visualized using the tools provided by
Waziup: Kibana or the Waziup dashboard.

2.3.4. Waziup APIs & Analytics

About data production, more than one month of data have been produced in UGB, and one week in
Burkina Faso. In Togo, sensor is sending since almost one year, while in Ghana, they are experiencing
their first deployments. The analytics are still at the medium stage. Available results about analytics
are provided in the D3.3 official release. This triggered the need to address the issue of collecting
more data in the next few months.

2.3.5. Summary of technical integration and feasibility

Table 5 shows a summary of the collected results regarding technical feasibility and integration for
all the pilot sites.
Table 5: Technical feasibility and integration

Measured aspects                                 Senegal       Burkina       Ghana           Togo

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Project Nº 687607                                                                      WAZIUP D4.4

Integration process                         Easy            Easy           Easy            Easy

Batteries replacement                     Every 10        Not yet        Not yet         Not yet
                                            days         applicable     applicable      applicable

Duration of the network once            Less than 15      Not yet        Not yet         Not yet
sensors are deployed with full              days         applicable     applicable      applicable
batteries

Connectivity between gateway and           Almost         Almost          Almost          Almost
devices stable                             stable         stable          stable          stable

Packet reception rate estimation            90%             90%            90%             90%

Device calibration                          Yes             Yes             Yes            Yes

Data pushing on the Waziup                  Yes             Yes           Not yet          Yes
platform

How are the data pushed to Orion?          Post-           Post-           Not            Post-
(post-processing script, manually)       processing      processing     applicable      processing
                                           script          script                         script

Problems related to data uploading        Internet         None          Internet        Internet
                                        connectivity                   Connectivity    Connectivity
                                         not stable                     not stable      not stable

Entities mapping to Orion                Sensor ->       Sensor ->       Sensor ->      Sensor ->
                                          Entity          Entity          Entity         Entity

Usage of any metadata for the need           No             No              No              No
of the application

Data visualization                        Available      Available        Not yet        Available

Which visualization option is the        Dashboard         Kibana      Not              Dashboard
most accessible?                                                       applicable

Are you using other clouds like         ThingSpeak          No              No         ThingSpeak
ThingSpeak, or local viz tools for
data visualizations?

How many days of data has the            More than         week            week        Almost one
application produce?                     one month                                        year

What is the status about Analytics?       Medium          Medium         Medium          Medium

Another point is the lack of complete datasets for analytics. Actually, basic techniques are used in
the context of data processing. More data is needed from each pilot site, so that advanced analytics
can be applied in the next few months.
One last point concerns the weather station which is deployed into all the dedicated pilot sites, and
data are being pushed from the different gateways. However, weather data is at the stage of
validation. Once done, data could be used to provide prediction to farmers about weather situation.
Based on that, the next step will be to integrate weather data in the agriculture application.

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Project Nº 687607                                                                        WAZIUP D4.4

2.4. Deployment & maintenance efforts
The different pilot sites are physically accessible, either for Burkina Faso and UGB. In Togo, the
deployment is done within a garden, so the accessibility is not an issue. According to the
deployments in Burkina and Senegal, physical access is required in case of devices not responding.
Remote access to devices is not yet possible. About the stability of the integrated devices, problems
have been identified in both side: gateway and device side. Sometimes, problems may arise from the
device side, like the board not responding, the likely breakdown of wired connections. From the
gateway side, internet connectivity is one of the most frequent problems. Another issue is the
eventual lack of stable connectivity between sensors and the gateway (see D4.2 and D4.3 results
testbed).

2.5. Environmental aspects
Environmental aspects can sometimes bring outside effects after the correct deployment of sensors.
The presence of rain, sun and wind are important parameters to know about before deploying
devices. According to the deployment in Waziup, the sun is present almost everywhere, and ambient
temperature ranges from 13° to 24° in Senegal, and 14 to 30° in Burkina. The presence of rain leads
to the use of enclosed boxes for outside deployment.
Until now, any specific issue has been addressed concerning environmental aspects, except from the
gateway safety. This one is related to UGB gateway deployment. Several deployments presented
certain issues, related to different identified problems. However, among them, the presence of hot
sun hitting all day long above the outdoor box has been identified as one important problem very
likely to affect the proper functioning of the gateway. Then a mechanism of aeration has been
thought of, consisting of drilling holes in the lateral sides of the outdoor box incorporating the
gateway, so as to permit air flow motion, and to balance the temperature inside the box.
Another environment specific attempt is the deployment of devices in irrigating fields which
enforces the hermetic encapsulation of the device. The same remark applies when it is to deploy the
sensor IoT devices in rainy areas.

2.6. Device safety
Device safety is the ability of devices to remain on their deployed locations despite the conditions of
the area of interest. For example, the presence of chiefs may expose the devices to rubbery. Some
areas might be located in dense animal penetration farms. For this case, the destruction of the
devices might be very likely. There will be a need to protect them, by any needed mechanism, so
that sensors are stable in producing data during all the duration of the application.
A broad view summarizing non-technical aspects (deployment and maintenance effort, scalability,
logistics and environmental aspects) is provided in Table 6.
Table 6: Summary of non-technical aspects for MVP Agriculture

Measured aspects                               Senegal     Burkina        Ghana          Togo

Accessibility of the pilot site           Easy             Easy           Easy           Easy

Devices deployment in the field           Manually         Manually       Manually       Manually

Remotely access IoT devices               No               No             No             No

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Project Nº 687607                                                            WAZIUP D4.4

Are the integrated devices stable?       Almost         Almost     Almost    Almost

From which side problems arise more      Device         Device     Device    Device
often? (devices side, Gateway side)

Was there any need to replace not        Yes, when      Not yet    Not yet   Not yet
responding sensor? How often?            batteries go
                                         off

How often are required physical          When           Not yet    Not yet   Not yet
accesses to the pilot site?              batteries go
                                         off

Interference in Farm activities          No             No         No        No

Willingness to have more devices         Yes            Yes        Yes       Yes

Adaptable to other pilot sites           Yes            Yes        Yes       Yes

Where have the hardware pieces           Own            From       From      From
been provided?                           integration    partner    partner   partner

Presence of rain                         Sporadic       Not yet    Not Yet   Yes

Presence of sun                          Yes            Yes        Yes       Yes

Min-max temperature                      10-34 °C       14-34° C   34° C     28-34° C

Presence of wind                         Yes            Yes        Yes       Yes

Are the devices well enclosed and        Yes            Yes        Yes       Yes
protected in the box

Is the pilot site safe from steals and   Yes            Yes        Yes       Yes
other unwanted (e.g. animal)
penetration?

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Project Nº 687607                                                                      WAZIUP D4.4

3. MVP FISH FARMING
3.1. Validation cases
In the “Fish farming” domain, four use cases identifying different problems based on different types
of data have been presented. These are listed on the Figure 3, and described on the D1.1.

                                  Figure 3: Use cases for fish farming

A survey has been conducted with the purpose to know the preferences of the use cases. This survey
is presented on D1.1 and based on its result it is decided that the following validation case will be
handled as shown in Table 7.
Table 7: Validation cases for MVP Fish farming

Use case                        Survey Results

Fish Pond Water Quality             ●   High -94.44%
                                    ●   Medium – 5.56%

3.2. Devices deployment
The deployment of devices concerns 4 sites located in 3 countries: Ghana, Senegal and Burkina Faso.
In Ghana, a first deployment has been done one year ago, and it is experiencing the second
deployment following the second version of the prototype. In the two other countries, a first
deployment has been performed this last month. Actually, data from three different sites are being
pushed in the Waziup platform. Table 8 presents deployment parameters in the 4 sites. Complete
information about each pilot site deployment specificity can be found in the D4.3 official releases.

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Project Nº 687607                                                                          WAZIUP D4.4

Table 8: Deployment characteristics for all the pilot sites

                     Measured aspects                  Burkina      UGB       Ghana        Ghana
                                                                              (Kumah       (KNUST
                                                                              Farm) - V1   Farm) - V2

   Pilot Site        Dimension of the pilot site        Hatchery   50 x 25       20x40       10x80
  Description
                     Type of fishes                      Claria/      Tilapia/ catfish       Tilapia
                                                         tilapia

      LoRa           LoRa mode                           Mode1     Mode 1       Mode 1      Mode 1
 Infrastructure
                     Approximate distance                200m      300m          150m        100m
                     between the devices and the
                     gateway location

                     Presence of visibility between       Yes       Yes           Yes          Yes
                     LoRa IoT devices and gateway

                     Is the application using water           No     No            No          No
                     quality data?

                     Packet sending rate?                20min     3 times       20min       20min
                                                                   per day

                            Figure 4: Buoy (DO & PH sensors) after deployment

Figure 4 shows the three sites, with the water monitoring devices deployed. The first two pictures
from the left are outdoor deployments. While in Burkina, the pond is located indoor within a
hatchery.

3.3. Technical Feasibility and integration
3.3.1. Integration of devices

In this MVP, hardware integration has not been experienced by pilot partners. EGM provided devices
to each of them, with the objective to be deployed in the dedicated pilot site. Since then, the

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Project Nº 687607                                                                        WAZIUP D4.4

required task remains on the gateway side, which objective is to collect data from devices and
pushing them on the Waziup platform.

3.3.2. Energy consumption efficiency

Since the device is permanently requested to provide data even during the night, a solar panel has
been attached above the box incorporating the device, which delivers power to the operating
device. The solar is linked to a rechargeable battery, able to store energy that will power the device
when the sun goes down.
In Burkina Faso, we experienced energy problem. When all the sensors work simultaneously, there is
a problem of battery. The power supplied is not sufficient to power all the sensors. A solution to this
problem is currently being sought by EGM.

3.3.3. Integration of gateway data to the platform

Currently, data are being pushed to the Waziup platform, via the gateway. In UGB, the experienced
problem about pushing data on the platform, was due to the non-stability of the gateway, which was
not receiving data some days after the deployment of the buoy. Since the gateway is switched on by
non-uniform power intensity, the delivered power may fluctuate from high to low, causing instability
in the packet reception. The solution to that was to use an adaptor, that will adapt the power input
from the sector, and deliver the required amount of power, in case of electric starvation.
From the device side, one technical issue was the difficulty to wake up the device after it entered
sleep mode. Since data are not sent every minute, the device shall go to sleep mode once data are
captured, and packet sent to the gateway. Data pushing were sporadic at some points. After
interactions with technical guys from EGM, the problem has been solved. Actually, all devices are
sending data to the gateway, and can switch between sleep and active mode.

3.3.4. Waziup APIs & Analytics

As said in the last subsection, data are being pushed into the Waziup platform. The use of Waziup
APIs helped pilot partners to retrieve the pushed data, and to visualize them using provided tools
from the platform.
At this moment, analytics is at its medium stage, since data analysis occurred only during the first
buoy deployment in Ghana the last year. In order to target analytics, we need to collect enough data
in the last next weeks in all the pilot sites.

3.3.5. Summary of technical integration and feasibility

Table 9 shows a summary of the collected results regarding technical feasibility and integration for
all the pilot sites.

Table 9: Technical feasibility and integration for MVP Water

                       Measured aspects           Burkina      Senegal      Ghana        Ghana
                                                                            (Kumah       (KNUST
                                                                            Farms) -     Farm) -
                                                                            V1           V2

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Project Nº 687607                                                                     WAZIUP D4.4

 Integration of     Has the integration           Yes          Yes         Quite         Yes
    devices         process been easy?                                     Easy

                    Is the documentation          Yes          Yes          Yes          Yes
                    about devices
                    integration easy to
                    exploit and use?

    Battery         How often are the           Not yet      Not yet      Not yet      Not yet
management &        batteries replaced?
    Energy
 consumption        What is the duration of       Not          Not          Not          Not
   efficiency       the network once           applicable   applicable   applicable   applicable
                    sensors are deployed
                    with full batteries?

    LoRa            Is the connectivity           Yes          Yes          Yes          Yes
connectivity in     between gateway and
     LR             devices stable?
communication
                    Packet reception rate         90%          85%         75%         Yet to
                    estimation?                                                       estimate

 Quality of the     Are the devices               Yes          No           No           Yes
   data and         calibrated before
  calibration       deployment?

                    Are the data easily           Yes          Yes          Yes          Yes
                    exploitable?

 Integration of     Are the gateways              Yes          Yes          Yes          Yes
gateway data to     pushing data on the
  the platform      Waziup platform?

                    How are the data             Post-        Post-        Post-        Post-
                    pushed to Orion?           processing   processing   processin    processin
                    (post-processing script,                                 g            g
                    manually)

  Data format       Are the data easily           Yes          Yes          Yes          Yes
                    exploitable?

Data Uploading      Problems related to           No           No           No           Yes
                    data uploading?

Pushing to Orion    How are entities           Sensor->     Sensor->     Sensor->     Sensor->
                    mapped to Orion ?           Entity       Entity       Entity       Entity
                    Sensor->Entity ?

                    Are you using any             No           No           No           No
                    metadata for the need
                    of the application ?

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Project Nº 687607                                                                          WAZIUP D4.4

 Visualize with     Are the data ready to           Yes            Yes           Yes           Yes
    Kibana,         be visualized once
  dashboard         pushed on the
                    platform ?

                    Which visualization          Kibana,       Dashboard      Dashboar     Dashboar
                    option is the most          Dashboard                        d            d
                    accessible ? (Kibana,
                    Dashboard)

                    Are you using other             No             Yes           Yes           Yes
                    clouds like ThingSpeak,
                    or local viz tools for
                    data visualizations ?

Data & Analytics    How many days of            More than      One week          More       About 1
                    data has the                one month                       than a      month
                    application produce ?                                        year

                    What is the status           Medium         Medium         Medium       Medium
                    about Analytics ?
                    (Simple, Medium,
                    Advanced)

3.4. Deployment and maintenance efforts
The different pilot sites are physically accessible. Physical access is required when the device is not
responding. Remote access to devices is not yet possible. About the stability of the integrated
devices, most frequent problems have been identified in both sides: gateway and device side.
Problems that arise from the device side were due to the technical issue identified in the last
previous subsection. Due to the strong level of integration of the device, it is not likely to be subject
to wire connections’ breakdown.

3.5. Environment and device safety
Environmental aspect is not a big issue in device deployment. Usually pilot sites for fish farming are
well protected in the context of indoor deployment (like in PUDB), or enrolled with iron fences (like
in UGB), so that device rubbery is not probable. In the same time, device destruction is not very
likely to occur, since the only interactions with the device is due to the deployment (battery is not
replaced). Individuals in the pond, are the fishes, and maybe tiny insects, usually attracted by the the
remnants of the meals used to feed the fishes. Insects use to deeply dive in the pond, and are most
of times, animal proteins providers for fishes.

3.6. Summary of non technical aspects
A summary of non technical aspects is provided in Table 10.

                                                                                           Page 17 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                         WAZIUP D4.4

Table 10: Summary of non technical aspects for MVP Water

Measured aspects                          Burkina              UGB        Ghana           Ghana
                                                                          (Kumah          (KNUST
                                                                          Farms) - V1     Farm) - V2

Accessibility of the pilot site                 Easy           Easy           Easy            Easy

Devices deployment                          Plugged        Plugged into   Plugged into    Plugged into
                                           into water         water          water           water

Remote access to IoT devices                    No             No              No             Yes

Integrated devices stability              More often       More often     More often          Yes

From which side problems arise more       Devices           Devices/       Gateway          Gateway
often ?                                                     Gateway

Need to replace not responding sensor           No             Yes             No              No
? How often ?

How often are required physical           When             When              When           Not yet
accesses to the pilot site ?              devices not      devices not    device is not
                                          responding       responding     responding

Interference in Farm activities                 No             No              No              No

Willingness to have more devices                Yes            Yes            Yes             Yes

Adaptable to other pilot sites                                 Yes            Yes             Yes

Where have the hardware pieces been       Provided         Provided by    Provided by     Provided by
provided ?                                by MVP           MVP leader     MVP leader      MVP leader
                                          leader

How many days before getting the          Implement        Implementa     Implementa      Implementa
purchased equipments?                     ation time       tion time      tion time       tion time

Presence of rain ?                        No                 Sporadic         Yes           Not yet

Presence of sun ?                         Yes                  Yes            Yes             Yes

min-max temperature ?                     14-30               12- 30           34              34

Presence of wind ?                        Yes                  Yes            Yes             Yes

Are the devices well enclosed and         Yes                  Yes            Yes             Yes
protected in the box ?

Is the pilot site safe from steals and    Yes                  yes            Yes             Yes
other unwanted (e.g. animal)
penetration ?

                                                                                          Page 18 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                          WAZIUP D4.4

4. MVP CATTLE RUSTLING
4.1. Validation cases
In the “Cattle rustling” domain, two (02) use cases identifying different problems based on different
types of data have been presented. These are described in the Figure 5, and described on the D1.1.

                                   Figure 5: Use cases for Cattle rustling

The use cases were initially supported by four (04) validation cases which are going to offer several
test scenarios located on different pilot sites. Below are listed the four (04) validation cases that are
described on the D1.1 and also their relationships with each use case.
Table 11: Validation cases for MVP Cattle rustling

                 Validation case                        Supported use case

VC1 - Real-time speed of the cattle’s herd                       UC1

VC2 - Real-time position of the cattle herd                      UC1

VC3 - Trace route of the cattle’s itinerary                      UC1

VC4 - Receive notification in critical situations                UC2

The UC1 is supported both by VC1, VC2 and VC3 since they are based on the same place and it will
be using the same type of data, however the VC4 is going to have a more complex application of the
data where further processing will be required.
A survey has been conducted in Senegal with the purpose to know the preferences of the use cases.
This survey is presented on D1.1 and based on its result it is decided that validation case 2 should be
handled first.

                                                                                           Page 19 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                          WAZIUP D4.4

4.2. Collars deployment
UPPA developed the hardware integration, collar design and assembling documentation of the
Cattle Rustling MVP. For this MVP, two (02) collars have deployed. Two (02) cattle out of fifty (50)
have been identified, and collars put around their necks. As stated in the last version of the
prototype in D4.3 official release, collars are made with GPS module, and a PCB board incorporating
an Arduino Pro mini board, an antenna, and other required components. Pictures of the deployment
are provided in the Figure 6 below. Deployment technical characteristics are shown in the Table 12.

                              Figure 6: Collars deployed around cattle’s neck

Table 12: Deployment characteristics of collars in Senegal

                    Measured aspects                                     CIMEL Center (Senegal)

Deployment          What is the used LoRa mode (s)?                      Mode 1
Description
                    What is the approximate distance between the         From hundred meters to
                    devices and the gateway location?                    less than 10 km, since the
                                                                         cattles are moving

                    Is there clear visibility between LoRa IoT devices   Yes
LoRa                and gateway?
Infrastructure
                    Has the weather station been deployed?               Not applicable

                    Is the application using weather data?               Not applicable

                    Are the devices and WS using the same gateway?       Not applicable

                    Packet sending rate?                                 every 20 min

                                                                                            Page 20 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                         WAZIUP D4.4

4.3. Technical Feasibility and integration
4.3.1. Integration of devices

Despite the availability of a complete documentation about the collar prototype new release, the
integration task is a delicate process. This is due to the specificity of devices which is comprised of:
GPS module, an Arduino pro mini, an integrated antenna, added to the wires and the connectors
used for linking materials together. All these components have to be integrated into one outdoor
box, with an electric wire used to power the collar. The integration process requires soldering, and
careful attention must be given in order not to destroy the PCB board, or devices.

4.3.2. Energy consumption efficiency

Due to the use of GPS module that is very greedy at energy, a particular care must be done on
energy consumption. To longer the lifetime of the collar, the energy consumption must be efficiently
managed. To achieve this, two actions are undertaken:
    •   in order to achieve an extreme low power device, the power consumption can be greatly
        reduced by removing the power led (left box) and the voltage regulator (right box): 5µA in
        sleep mode. Red boxes in the Figure 7 show the elements to be removed from the board.
    •   During the operation, in order to reduce as much as possible, the energy consumption, the
        GPS is completely switched off between two (2) wake up. This means instead of activating
        the board all the time, it is more efficient when it switches between low and high energy
        mode, leading to drastically reduce the activity duration to the minimum required.

                       Figure 7: Arduino Pro Mini board with LEDs to be removed

4.3.3. Integration of gateway data to the platform

About the integration of the data into the platform, data are pushed on the Waziup platform using
post-processing script. Once on the platform, data are easily visualized using the tools provided by
Waziup: Kibana or the Waziup dashboard.

4.3.4. Waziup APIs & Analytics

Waziup APIs are used first to push data into the Waziup platform. The use of Waziup APIs also
helped pilot partners to retrieve the pushed data, and to visualize them using provided tools from
the platform. At the state of this MVP, analytics is not yet necessary. In the next few weeks, an
important step will be to validate the deployment of the prototype, and the provided data. Once

                                                                                           Page 21 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                           WAZIUP D4.4

done, it will consist of collecting more data on the platform, so that analytics can be introduced in
this MVP. Table 13 shows a summary of technical feasibility and integration.
Table 13: Technical feasibility and integration for MVP Cattle

                             Measured aspects                      CIMEL Center (Senegal)

Integration of devices       Integration process                   Delicate process due to the
                                                                   specificity of the materials,
                                                                   require soldering and careful
                                                                   attention must be given in order
                                                                   not to destroy the PCB/board

                             Is the documentation about            Yes
                             devices integration easy to exploit
                             and use?

Battery management &         How often are the batteries           Not yet for one week
Energy consumption           replaced?
efficiency
                             What is the duration of the           Not yet estimated
                             network once sensors are
                             deployed with full batteries?

LoRa connectivity in LR      Is the connectivity between           Not yet estimated
communication                gateway and devices stable?

                             Packet reception rate estimation?     Not yet estimated
                             (if possible)

Quality of the data and      Are the devices calibrated before     No
calibration                  deployment?

                             Are the data easily exploitable?      Yes

Integration of gateway       Are the gateways pushing data on      Yes
data to the platform         the Waziup platform?

                             How are the data pushed to            Post-processing script
                             Orion? (post-processing script,
                             manually)

Data format                  Are the data easily exploitable?      Yes

Pushing to Orion             How are entities mapped to            Collar->Entity
                             Orion? Sensor->Entity?

                             Are you using any metadata for        No
                             the need of the application?

Visualize with Kibana,       Are the data ready to be visualized   Yes
dashboard                    once pushed on the platform?

                             Which visualization option is the     Dashboard
                             most accessible? (Kibana,
                             Dashboard)

                                                                                            Page 22 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                         WAZIUP D4.4

                            Are you using other clouds like       ThingSpeak
                            ThingSpeak, or local viz tools for
                            data visualizations?

Data & Analytics            How many days of data has the         less than one week
                            application produce?

                            What is the status about              Not yet done
                            Analytics? (Simple, Medium,
                            Advanced)

4.4. Deployment and maintenance efforts
4.4.1. Access to Pilot Sites

For cattle rustling case, only one pilot site has been agreed for deployment: CIMEL center with which
UGB collaborates closely. The pilot site is physically accessible. The only problem that can occur is
the difficulty to deal with the cows when attaching the collar. However, this is no more a big
problem because there are professionals at the center who greatly facilitate the process. Physical
access is required when a collar is not responding.

4.4.2. Ease of Deployment (estimated time to deploy)

In the case of cattle rustling, only the pre-deployment takes time because of the delicate process of
building prototypes and time taken to perform tests. However, the deployment is more difficult than
the deployment of other MVPs, because, as said above, cows are generally very hostile and sensitive
to stress. This makes the task of attaching collar not easy. This requires intervention of professionals
who work in the deployment site.

4.4.3. Remote Access to devices

Remote access to devices is not yet supported. Remote access is a very important feature to achieve.
It would greatly facilitate update and maintenance of devices firmware and also avoid physical
access to devices after deployment. Unfortunately, at the state of our IoT solution development,
remote access to device is only on perspective.

4.5. Environment and device safety
CIMEL center, where cattle’s collars are deployed, is a government structure with permanent agents
who live and work there. There are also security agents always present on place. So, the pilot site is
well protected and device rubbery is not probable. The only fear we can have is to see the collars
destroyed or malfunctioned due to the hostility of cows. As an example of this, nine days after the
deployment, the electrical wire of one of the collar was detached causing it to malfunction.

4.6. Summary of non-technical aspects
A summary of non-technical aspects is provided in Table 14.

                                                                                           Page 23 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                            WAZIUP D4.4

Table 14: Summary of non-technical aspects for MVP Cattle rustling

                    Measured aspects                                              CIMEL Center (Senegal)

 Deployment         Accessibility of the pilot site                               Easy to access, but rush
   Efforts                                                                        to deal with the cows

                    Devices deployment in the field                               Collars around cattle’s'
                                                                                  neck

                    Remote access to IoT devices and gateway                      No

Maintenance         Are the integrated devices stable?                            Yes
  Efforts
                    From which side problems arise more often? (devices           Gateway due to a non-
                    side, Gateway side)                                           stable electric support

                    Was there any need to replace not responding sensor?          Not yet
                    How often?

                    How often are required physical accesses to the pilot         Not yet applicable
                    site?

  Scalability       Interference in Farm activities                               No

                    Willingness to have more devices                              Yes

                    Adaptable to other pilot sites                                Yes

   Logistics        Where have the hardware pieces been provided?                 Sensors has been
                                                                                  purchased, and PCB
                                                                                  board given by UPPA

                    How many days before getting the purchased                    Less than one month
                    equipment?

Environmenta        Presence of rain                                              Sporadic
  l aspects
                    Presence of sun                                               Yes

                    min-max temperature                                           13-24°

Devices Safety      Presence of wind                                              Yes

                    Are the devices well enclosed and protected in the box?       Yes

                    Is the pilot site safe from steals and other unwanted (e.g.   Yes
                    animal) penetration?

                                                                                             Page 24 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                       WAZIUP D4.4

5. MVP URBAN WASTE
5.1. Devices deployment
LoRa parameters are set to LoRa Mode 1. In WOELAB, devices are deployed at around 200m away
from the gateway’s location. A clear visibility is present between the gateway and the devices. The
two startups (Scope and Miledoo) have deployed their connected bin using ultrasonic sensors. They
are sending their data to the gateway every hour.

5.2. Technical Feasibility
5.2.1. Integration of devices

The integration process is achieved by relying on the releases from WP2, with the requirements of
building low power and low-cost IoT devices. Following the provided resources, the integration of
hardware materials led to the following functional devices. Figure 8 shows some pictures of the bin
after integration.

                            Figure 8: Bin detector with ultrasonic sensors

5.2.2. Energy consumption efficiency

The board of the bin incorporates four AA batteries. Batteries can be replaced once depleted. The
duration of the network is around 30 days from the point where all batteries are full. According to
the survey about connectivity, the connectivity between the device and the gateway is quite
stable, with a packet reception rate of 90%. Sensors have been calibrated before the
deployment. Data are easily exploitable.

5.3. Technical Integration
5.3.1. Integration of gateway data to the platform

The data sent by the smart bins are collected by the gateway and uploaded to the WAZIUP platform
using the post-processing script within the gateway. As we are still performing the tests with the old

                                                                                         Page 25 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                         WAZIUP D4.4

gateway that is not responding correctly, a new one is needed to have a stable link between the
sensors and the gateway.

5.3.2. Waziup APIs & Analytics

We are still learning how to use the Waziup provided API to extract our data and analyze them. Soon
we will make applications that will handle our data on the WAZIUP platform and for example load a
map on which are geotagged our smart bins with a coloring that indicates their state.

5.4. Deployment and maintenance efforts
5.4.1. Access to Pilot Sites

Physical access to our bins is easy as it is located around WOELAB. The deployment takes almost four
hour. Access to the devices is easy.

5.5. Environment and device safety
Device safety is the ability of devices to stay in their deployed location despite the conditions of the
area of interest. For example, Miledoo bins are supposed to collect organic waste and sensor may be
exposed to organic gas and we don’t know how it will affect the sensor lifecycle. We will appreciate
this effect over the time. The sensors are located inside the bins so they are unseen to the users,
reducing the risk of robbery.

                                                                                           Page 26 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                           WAZIUP D4.4

6. SCALABILITY
6.1. Fish farming
Buoy devices have been deployed in almost all the pilot sites. The next step will be to identify
potential other sites that are interested by the use of buoys in their fisheries system.

6.2. Cattle rustling
Following the deployment in UGB, more collars are currently being built for other deployments. As
stated in the D4.3 official release, two collars have been deployed for validating the last step of the
tests.
Another aspect of the scalability is the identification of other potential sites that could deal with that
MVP. Though large enough to measure distances from the cows to the gateway, CIMEL center still
remains a private state proprietary, enclosed with properly delimited fences. Therefore, we need to
deploy collars in other pilot sites with more independency in the motions of cows. In this way, we
could rely on more metrics to validate the prototype. At the same time, it will be possible to apply
advanced analytics to huge set of data collected from different pilot sites.

6.3. Urban Waste
It is planned to spread around WOELAB more smart bins. So, more sensor nodes are needed in this
MVP. Following that, it is expected to have more data so that analytics can be applied.
In Senegal, interest has been shown in deploying sensors for waste management in the town city of
Saint-Louis. Recently, authorities have manifested their compatibility to the fact of integrating IT
tools in building sustainable environment regarding waste management. UGB is planning in their
future activities the deployment of IoT devices and build a network of connected bins, with
centralized information. Extracted data can be combined to WOELAB data to target advanced
analytics in the next months.

6.4. Soil moisture deployment
Important points about scalability are as follows: interference in farm activities, willingness to have
more devices, adaptability to other pilot sites. Today, users from the different pilot sites are
requesting more devices for next deployments. This motivation helps to identify the scalability
aspect as a very important feature in Waziup, in the next few months. Several devices have to be
produced and care must be given to the analytics part. Based on this, it is expected to better gain in
large scale feedbacks, and derive from these a recommendation system, that targets different users.
An example of this is that the deployment of the buoy in UGB fish farming site, has attracted a lot of
farmers who expose several problems, related to the lack of data, that might ease decision making.

                                                                                            Page 27 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                        WAZIUP D4.4

7. ABOUT LOGISTICS
Logistics is an important part in Waziup. Since most of times, required materials like hardware pieces
are imported from foreign countries to Africa, it is a matter of big concern to address issues of
shipping duration. Shipping duration ranges from 10 days to more than one month, according to the
online vendor, the chosen option for delivery. According to the efforts already spent in acquiring
hardware pieces, these are usually purchased from Alibaba, Lextronic, Amazon, Aliexpress…The
duration time before correct delivery depends on the provider and the chosen options. Table 15
presents a summary of the different providers used in Waziup, and the mean time duration to get
these materials delivered in Africa.
Table 15: Providers and estimated time duration before delivery in Africa

Providers                        Estimated time to deliver

Alibaba                                   3 weeks

Lextronic                                 3 weeks

Amazon                               1 week - 10 days

Aliexpress                                2 weeks

For some applications like in fish farming, logistics shall not be a big issue since required materials
are provided by a project partner (EGM). However, it is worth mentioning logistics issues concerning
hardware pieces used in the Raspberry PI. To ensure stability of the dedicated gateway deployed in
the center, we also use an adaptor, that will adapt the power input from the sector, and deliver the
required amount of power, in case of electric starvation.

                                                                                          Page 28 of 29
Project Nº 687607                                                                          WAZIUP D4.4

8. CONCLUSION
This document reports works about MVP deployment and validation cases. For each MVP, a set of
use cases have been identified. Based on a survey carried out with different users, validation cases
have been selected for each application. The level of complexity of some use cases lead to the
selection of a subset of aspects that will be considered in the application.
In each section dedicated for one MVP, the initial aspects concerning use cases and validation cases
are related first. Then validation parameters are split into technical or non-technical points. The first
one refers to the integration and deployment processes, passing by LoRa infrastructure and data
integration in the platform. Then, other non-technical aspects are given. These concern the efforts
given for deployment, maintenance, and metrics such as the scalability, questions about logistic
issues, environment and device safety. In each ending section, a summary is given represented with
tables.
Analytics is still at its early stage in Waziup, according to the survey. However, issues about
producing more data are raised in this report. This report is a first version about validation cases.
More tasks are planned in preparation of the next version.

                                                                                           Page 29 of 29
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